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1901 jijj; S.A 

\ T 


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States in and for the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 

Copyright, 1885, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY. 

Copyright, 1901, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY 





Herve, (AiME MARIE. EDOUARD,) a French jour- 
nalist, born in the island of Reunion in 1835. He 
engaged in editorial labour, in 1867 founded the 
" Journal de Paris," an opponent of the Napoleonic 
regime, and in 1873 the" Soleil," alow-priced political 
newspaper. He wrote several historical works, and 
was made a member of the Academy in 1886. Died 
January 4, 1899. 

Herv*-Fierabraa, eR'vi' fe'eh-ri'bRl', a French 
physician, born at Rouen, lived about 1550. He pub- 
lished an able treatise on Surgery, (1550.) 

Hervet, //ea'vi', (GENTIAN,) a learned French theo- 
logian, born near Orleans in 1499, distinguished himself 
at the Council of Trent, (1545,) and wrote against Cal- 
vinism. He translated some works of the Greek Fathers 
into Latin. Died in 1584. 

See NlrfRON, " Memoires ;" DsTHOU. " filogeV'wilh addition, 

Her'vey, (AUGUSTUS JOHN,) third Earl of Bristol, 
son of Lord John, noticed below, was born in 1724. He 
became a post-captain in 1747, and displayed courage in 
geveral battles in the Mediterranean and in the West 
Indies. In 1771 he was appointed one of the lords of 
the admiralty, and in 1775, by the death of an elder 
brother, became Earl of Bristol. Soon after this he was 
created an admiral. He died in 1779, and his title was 
inherited by his brother Frederick, Bishop of Derry. 

Hervey, (ELEONORA LOUISA,) an authoress, whose 
maiden name was MONTAGUE, born at Liverpool in 1811. 
She began to write graceful verses for the periodicals at 
n early age, and published in 1839 "The Landgrave," 
a dramatic poem. In 1843 she was married to Thomas 
K. Hervey, noticed below. Among her works are tales 
In prose, entitled " Margaret Russell," (1849,) and "The 
Pathway of the Fawn," (1851.) 

Hervey, (FREDERICK,) fourth Earl of Bristol, born in 
1730, was a brother of Augustus John, noticed above. 
He became Bishop of Derry in 1768, and succeeded to 
the earldom on the death of his brother, in 1779. He 
was eccentric in habits, and was a liberal patron of the 
fine arts. Died at Albano, Italy, in 1803. 

Hervey, (JAMES,) an English divine and author, born 
at Hardingstone, near Northampton, in 1714, was edu- 
cated at Oxford University, and was a good classical 
scholar. Having taken orders, he became curate of 
Dummer in 1736, and of Bideford in 1738. From 1743 
until 1750 he was curate of Weston Favell, of which his 
father was rector, and at the death of the latter, in 1752, 
the son obtained that living. He was noted for piety and 
benevolence. His " Meditations and Contemplations," 
published in 1746, were extensively popular, notwith- 
standing his faulty style, which is too flowery and subli- 
mated to please the most correct taste. It is or was 
generally found on the shelves of English cottages by 
the side of the Bible and " Pilgrim's Progress." 
Hervey also wrote " Theron and Aspasia, a Series of 
' Dialogues and Letters," and a few minor works. 
i Died in 1758. 

Hervey, (Lord JOHN,) an English writer, born in 
1696, was the eldest son of the first Earl of Bristol. He 
obtained a seat in Parliament soon after the accession 
of George I., and in 1730 became a privy councillor. In 
1733 he was raised to the peerage, as Baron Hervey of 
Ickworth, and in 1740 was appointed lord privy seal in 
the cabinet of Walpole. He wrote able political pam- 
phlets, verses, and an " Epistle from a Nobleman to a 
Doctor of Divinity," the last of which was an answer to 
Pope, who satirized him, in the character of Sporus, as 
"the mere white curd of asses' milk." He also wrote 
interesting "Memoirs of the Court of George II." Died 
in 1743. 

Hervey, (THOMAS KIBBLE,) an English poet and 
editor, born in Manchester in 1804. He studied at Cam- 
bridge and Oxford. In 1824 he published "Australia, 
aiid other Poems," which was received with favour. His 
"Poetical Sketch-Book" appeared in 1829. He after- 
wards produced "Illustrations of Modern Sculpture," 
(1832,) a work of merit, and "The Book of Christmas," 
. (1836.) From 1846 to 1854 he was chief editor of the 
"Athenaeum." Died in February, 1859. 

Herwarth von Bittenfeld, heVwaRt fon bit'ten. 
Sit', (KARL EBERHARD,) a Prussian general, born at 
jrosswerther, September 4, 1796, commanded a corps 
of the army which under the crown-prince contributed 
to the victory of Sadowa, and later became field-marshal- 
-jeneral. Died September 2, 1884. 

His brothers, HANS (1800-81) and FRIEDRICH ADRIAN, 
1802-84,) were prominent as general officers. 

Herwart von Hohenburg, heVwaRt fon ho'en- 
bcJoRG', (JoHANN GEORG,) a German scholar, born at 
Augsburg in 1554 ; died in 1622. 

See ERSCH und GRUBHR, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Herwegh, hjR'wJo, (GEORG,) a popular German lyric 
poet, born at Stuttgart in 1817. He published at Zurich, 
in 1841, a volume of republican or liberal poems, enti- 
tled " Gedichte eines Lebendigen," (" Poems of a Living 
Man,") which had great success. He became a citizen 
of Bale, and about 1845 joined the radicals of Paris. In 
the spring of 1848 he raised a legion and invaded Baden 
with a design to revolutionize it ; but he failed, and took 
refuge in Switzerland. Died April 7, 1875. 

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" F. LIPP, "G. 
Herwegh's viertagige Irr- und Wanderfanrt mit der Pariser Deutsch- 
demokratischen Legion," etc., 1850; " Foreign Quarterly Review" 
for April, 1843. 

Hery, de, d?h Aa're', (THIERRY,) a skilful French 
surgeon, born in Paris about 1505. Having practised 
with success in Paris, he was employed by F'rancis I. in 
the army of Italy, and acquired a great reputation by 
the cure of syphilis, on which he wrote an original and 
able treatise, the first ever written in French on that 
subject. Died in 1599. 

See E*LOI. " Dictionnaire de la Me"decine." 

Herz, hSRts, (HEINRICH,) a celebrated pianist and 
composer, born at Vienna in 1806. He met with bril- 
liant success in London, Edinburgh, and Paris, and 
afterwards resided several years in America. As a 
performer he was very popular, and his pieces for the 
piano were at one time general favourites. D. in 1888. 

Herz, (HENRIETTA,) a German lady, distinguished for 
her wit and beauty, born in Berlin in 1764. She married 
Marcus Herz in 1 779. Her house in Berlin was frequented 
by many eminent men. Died in 1847. 

Herz, (MARCUS,) a German physician, born at Berlin 
in 1747; died in 1803. 

Herzberg or Hertzberg, von, fon heRts'bcRG, 
(EwALD FRIEDRICH,) a celebrated Prussian statesman, 
born near Neustettin in 1725. He filled several impoi- 
tant posts under Frederick the Great, and, after nego- 
tiating a treaty of peace with Russia and Sweden in 1762, 
was appointed second minister of state. He was made 
a count by Frederick's successor, and also curator of the 
Academy at Berlin. Died in 1795. He was a zealous 
patron of learning, particularly of German literature. 

See POSSBLT, " Ewald Friedrich Graf von Heruberg," 1793 : 
WRDDIGBN, " Fragrnente aus dem Leben dea Grafen von Hertzberg," 
1796; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," 

Herzen. See HERTZEN. 

Herzog, heVtsSG, (JoHANN JAKOB,) a German divine. 
born at Basel, Switzerland, September 12, 1805. He 
studied at Basel and Berlin, (1823-29,) was a professor 
of theology at Lausanne, (1835-45,) and at Erlangcn, 
(1854-77.) Among his works are "De Origine Valden- 
sium," (1848,) "Die romanischen Waldenser," (1853,) 
"Outline of General Church History," (3 vols., 1876-82.) 
and a "Real-Encyklopadie fur protestantische Theologie," 
(22 vols., 1854-68 ; revised edition, 1877-84, unfinished.) 
Died at Erlangen, September 30, 1882. 

Heaeklel, ha-za'ke-Sl, (GEORG LUDWIG,) a German 
novelist, poet, and editor, born at Halle, August 12, 
1818, was educated at Halle, Jena, and Berlin, and be- 
came editor of the "Neue preussische Zeitung." He 
published several volumes of popular and patriotic songs, 
a number of novels, and the well-known " Buch vom 
Fursten Bismarck." Died at Berlin, February 26, 1874. 

Heselrige. See HAZLERIG. 

Hesham, (Hescham,) hJsh-im', or Hiaham, hish- 
im', (or, more fully, Hesham-Ibn-Abd-el-Malek, 
hesh-lm' Ib'n abd-el mSl'ek, i.e. " Hesham the son of 
Abd-el-Malek,") the tenth caliph of the house of Omey- 
yah, succeeded his cousin, Omar II., in 724 A.D. During 

eas/t, y ass; gharj; gas i; G, H, H,guttural; N, nasal; v.,trilled; sast." thasin/Au. (B^'See Explanations, p. 23.) 




the reign of Heshdm, Abd-er-Rahman, one of his gen- 
erals, invaded France, where he was defeated and slain 
by Charles Martel, October 25, 732. Hesham died in 
743, leaving the reputation of an eminently just and 
virtuous sovereign. 

See WBIL, "Gescbichte der Chalifen," vol. i. chap. xiv. 

HeshSm (or Hisham) L, (or, more fully, Hesham 
Abool (-Aboul or -Abtil) -Waleed, (-Walid,) 
1'bool wa-leed',) second Emir or King of Cdrdova of the 
Omeyyah dynasty, succeeded his father, Abd-er-Rahman, 
in 788 A.D. He waged a successful war against the 
Christians of Galicia, Astorga, etc., founded schools, 
and promoted the arts. Died in 796. 

Hesham (or Hisham) H, (El- (or A1-, al) Muyyed- 
Billah, el moo'e-yed bil'lah,) sometimes corrupted into 
ISSAM or ISSEM by the Spanish historians, was born in 
965, and succeeded his father, Hakem II., on the throne 
of C6rdova, in 976 A.D. In his minority the kingdom 
enjoyed prosperity under the ministry of the famous Al- 
Mansoor, who gained victories over the Kings of Leon 
and Navarre. After the death of Al-Mansoor the reign 
was disturbed by rebellions and anarchy, and the feeble 
king became a prisoner of Soleimsln, and died, or was 
killed, about 1012. 

See AL-MAKKARI, " History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in 

Hesham (or Hisham) m, (El-Mo'tad-Bil'lah, 
or Al-Mutadd- (al moo'tad) Billah,) became King 
of C6rdova in 1026, and was the last of the Omeyyah 
dynasty. Several nobles having refused allegiance to 
him, he attempted, without success, to subdue them by 
arms. In 1031 a sedition in the capital forced him to 
abdicate. Died in 1036. 

Heshxisius, hJs-hoo'ze-us, (TlLLEMANNUS,) a Ger- 
man Lutheran divine, born at Wesel in 1526, was an 
opponent of Calvinism. Died in 1588. 

Hesiod, hee'she-od, [Gr. 'HoioiJof ; LaL HK'SIODUS; 
Fr. HESIODE, i'ze'od'; Ger. HESIOD, ha'ze-ot; It. Esi- 
ODO, a-see'o-do,] an eminent Greek poet, bom at Ascra, 
in Bceotia, at the foot of Mount Helicon, lived probably 
about 800 B.C. According to most modern critics, his 
period was posterior to that of Homer, with whom some 
writers have conjectured that he was contemporary. 
From his own writings the fact is derived that he was a 
competitor in a poetical contest at Chalcis on the occa- 
sion of the funeral of Amphidamas, and that he gained 
the prize. It appears that he was employed in pastoral 
and rural pursuits, his knowledge of which is evinced 
by his most famous poem, entitled "Epya nal 'H/itpai, 
(" Works and Days.") This work contains reflections 
and precepts on farming and rural economy, interspersed 
with maxims of morality and mythical fables. Aristotle, 
Plato, and Cicero eulogize this poem, and Virgil derived 
from it the idea of his " Georgics," in which he has 
surpassed his model. According to Pausanias, the Boeo- 
tians regarded this as the only genuine work of Hesiod. 
The other poems commonly ascribed to the Ascrjean 
bard are entitled "Theogony" and "The Shield of 
Hercules." The former purports to be an account of 
the origin of the world and the birth of the gods, and is 
the most ancient composition we have on the subject of 
Greek mythology. It is characterized by a rude sim- 
plicity which sometimes rises into sublimity, and by that 
speculative tendency which was afterwards so largely 
developed in the Hellenic philosophy. "The Shield 
of Hercules" is a fragment or collection of fragments, 
supposed to be written by different authors. Quintilian 
says, apparently in reference to the " Works and Days," 
" He is distinguished by useful sentences of morality and 
a sweetness of expression, and he deserves the palm in 
the middle style of writing." According to Plutarch, 
Hesiod was murdered at Locris, in revenge for a crime 
of which he was erroneously suspected. 

See PAUSANIAS, ix. and x. ; LUCIAN, "Dialogue on Hesiod;" 
CRBUZBK und HERMANN, " Briefe iiber Homer und Hesiod," 1817 ; 
HRYNB, " De Theogonia ab Hesiodo Condita," 1779; HERMANN, 
" De Hesiodi Theogoniz Forma antiquis?ima," 1844 ; ERSCH und 
GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie : GIOVANNI LAMI, " Saggio 
delle delizie del dotti e degh eruditi, risguardante le Vite e gli Scntti 
dei due primi grandi Uomini dell' Antichita, Esiodo ed Omero," 
i?75 "Quarterly Review" for March, 1833. 

He-sl'o-ne, [Gr. 'Haiovji,] a daughter of Laomedon, 

King of Troy. The poets feigned that Hercules deliv- 
ered her from a sea-monster aftej hei father had promised 
to give him the horses he had received from Jupiter ; 
but Laomedon failed to keep his word. She became 
the wife of Telamon and mother of Teucer. 

Hesiri, the old Egyptian name of OSIRIS. 

Hesnault or Heuault /a'n5', QEAN,) a French poet, 
born in Paris, was educated by Gassendi. He appears 
to have been an Epicurean or materialist In 1670 he 
published a volume of sonnets, letters, etc. He trans- 
lated a large part of Lucretius. Died in 1682. 

See BAYLB, " Historical and Critical Dictionary." 

Hesperiden. See HESPERIDES. 

Hes-per1-de, [Gr. 'EairepWef ; Fr. HBsriRlDES, Ss'. 
pa'red'; Ger. HESPERIDEN, hSs-pa-ree'den,] the "chil- 
dren of Hesperus," (or "of the evening,") the name of 
three or four celebrated nymphs of classic mythology, 
who guarded the golden apples growing in an enchanted 
garden in the western part of the world. According to 
some authors, they were the daughters of Atlas, and 
hence were called ATLAN'TIDES. A large dragon as- 
sisted them to guard the golden apples which were the 
subject of one of the twelve labours of Hercules. 

Hes-pe'rl-us, a Roman civil officer, was a son of the 
poet Ausonius. He was proconsul of Africa about 376 
A.D., and afterwards praetorian prefect of Rome. 

Hes'pe-rus, IGr. 'Eorrrpof ; Fr. HESPER, es'paiR', or 
HESP ROS, eVpi ros',] a personage of classic mythology, 
said to be a son or brother of Atlas. According to one 
tradition, he ascended Mount Atlas to observe the stars, 
and disappeared. He received divine honours, and was 
identified with the evening star. One account says he came 
to Italy, which received from him the name of Hesperia. 

H6ss, (JOHANN JAKOB,) one of the most eminent of 
the Swiss Protestant theologians, was born in Zurich in 
1741. He wrote, in German, "The Three Last Years of 
the Life of Jesus," (6 vols., 1768-73 ; 8th edition, 1828,) 
"On the Kingdom of God," (1774,) a "History of the 
Israelites before Jesus," (12 vols., 1776-88,) and other 
works. He became first minister of Zurich in 1795. 
Died in 1828. 

See GBORG GESSNER, " J. J. Hess, voorgesteld in eenege Om- 
trekken van rijn Leven en Werkzamheid," 1830 ; ERSCH and GRUBER, 
"AUgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" H. ESCHBR, "J. J. Hess, Skizx* 
Mines Lebens," etc., 1837. 

Hess, (KARL ADOLF HEINRICH,) a German artist, 
born at Dresden in 1769, acquired a high reputation 
as a painter of horses. Among his master-pieces we 
may cite " The March of the Cossacks through Bohemia 
in 1799." Died in 1849. 

Hess, (KARL ERNST CHRISTOPH,) a German en- 
graver, born at Darmstadt in 1755. He was appointed 
in 1782 professor in the Academy of Arts at Dusseldorfi 
where he was afterwards employed to engrave the pic- 
tures of the gallery. Among his best works are " The 
Ascension of Mary," after Guido, and a " Holy Family," 
after Raphael. About 1806 he settled at Munich, where 
he died in 1828. 

See FmtssLi. "Schweizer Kiinstler." 

Hess, (LUDWIG,) an excellent Swiss landscape-painter, 
born at Zurich in 1760. He painted many pictures of 
Alpine scenery. " His works," says the " Biographic 
Universelle," " surpass all that we know in their kind 
for correctness of design, for the taste displayed in the 
composition, for truth of colouring, and for the trans- 
parency of the water." He engraved some of his own 
designs. Died in 1800. 

Hess, (PETER,) a brother of the painter Heinrich von 
Hess, noticed below, was born at Dusseldorf in 1792. 
In 1839 he was invited to Russia, where he painted eight 
large pictures representing the battles of 1812. He is 
regarded as one of the first battle-painters of recent 
times. Died April 4, 1871. 

See NAGLBR, " Neues Allgemeines Kiinstler-Leiikon." 

Hess, von, fon hess, (HEINRICH,) BARON, an Austrian 
general, born in Vienna in 1788. He fought at Wagram, 
(1809,) and became colonel in 1829. In 1842 he was 
made a lieutenant field-marshal. As quartermaster- 
general, he rendered important services in Italy in 1848. 
The chief merit of this campaign is ascribed to him. He 
was appointed chief of the staff of the Austrian army, 

i, e, I, 5, 0, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, fl, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; 1118 1; i)6t; eood: moon; 




(Chef dts Gtneralstabs,) and master of the ordnance, 
I Feldzeugmeistfr ,) in 1849. He succeeded Gyulai soon 
after the battle of Magenta, formed the plan of the battle 
of Solferino, July, 1859, and, after the emperor left the 
army, was the commander-in-chief. Died April 13, 1870. 

Hess, von, (HEINRICH,) a distinguished historical 
painter, a son of the engraver Karl Ernst Hess, noticed 
above, was born at Dusseldorf in 1798. He became pro- 
fessor in the Academy of Munich in 1826. The frescos 
in the Basilica of St. Boniface and in the church of Ali 
Saints in Munich are among his best. Died in 1863. 

Hesse, hgs'seh, (ADOLPH FRIEDRICH,) a German 
organist and composer, born at Breslau, August 30, 1809; 
died August 5, 1863. His " Practical Organist," contain- 
ing twenty-nine pieces, was published posthumously. 

Hesse, /5Sss, (JEAN BAPTISTE ALEXANDRA) a French 
painter, a nephew of the following, was born in Paris m 
1806. Among his best works is "The Funeral Honours 
rendered to Titian," (1833.) Died August 7, 1879. 

Hesse, (NICOLAS AUGUSTE,) a French painter of his- 
tory, born in Paris in 1795, won a medal of the first class 
in 1838. Died June 14, 1869. 


Hesse, (WILHELM IV.,) LANDGRAVE OF, surnamed 
THE WISE, a son of Philip, (1504-67,) was born at Cassel 
about 1545. He reigned in peace, and was distinguished 
as a patron of sciences, especially astronomy, which he 
cultivated himself with diligence. He founded an obser- 
vatory at Cassel in 1561, and made observations for many 
years. The results of these labours were published by 
W. Snellius, (1628.) Died in 1597. 

Hesselink, heVseh-link, sometimes written Hesse- 
ling, (GERARD,) a Dutch writer and Anabaptist preacher, 
born at Groningen in 1755. He published a "Herme- 
iv. utical Dictionary of the New Testament," and several 
other works. Died in 1811. 

See KOOPMANS, " Hulde aan G. Hesselink," 1812. 

Hes-seTI-us, [Sw. pron. hes-sn'le-us,] (ANDERS,) a 
poet of Swedish extraction, born in North America, 
became a teacher of English at Upsal. He wrote 
"Eric IX.," (1739,) "The Twelve Charleses," (of Swe- 
den,) ("De Tolf Caroler," 1748,) and other works. He 
was living in 1755. 

Hesselius, hes-sa'le-us, (FRANS,) a Dutch philologist, 
born at Rotterdam in 1680 ; died in 1746. 

Hesselius, (JoHAN,) a Swedish savant, born at Fah- 
lun in 1687; died in 1752. 

Hessels, hes'sels, or Hesselius, (JEAN,) born at 
Louvain in 1522, was noted as a theologian. He was a 
member of the Council of Trent, and author of many 
theological works, among which are a "Catechism," and 
"Commentaries on Scripture." Died in 1566. 

Hessius. See EOBAN. 

He'sus, a deity of the ancient Gauls, corresponding 
to the Mars of the Romans. See MARS. 

He-sjrehl-us, (Gr. 'Hov^wf,] the author of a valuable 
Greek Lexicon, (first printed by Aldus in 1514,) which 
explains technical terms, unusual words found in the 
works of poets, orators, and physicians, terms used in 
sacrifices, divinations, and such as depart from ordinary 
usage. It is supposed that the existing text is an abridg- 
ment or imperfect copy of the original. The time in 
which Hesychius lived is not known ; but it was proba- 
bly since the Christian era, as numerous scriptural 
glosses or phrases are found in his work. 

sius,] sumamed THE ILLUSTRIOUS, lived in the sixth 
century. He wrote (in Greek) a universal history from 
Belus to his own times, (about 520 A.D.,) of which some 
fragments only are now extant. He left also an abridg- 
ment of the " Lives of the Philosophers," derived chiefly 
from Diogenes Laertius. This was published by J. C. 
Orelli, Leipsic, 1820. 

HSth, (HENRY,) an American soldier, was born in 
Virginia in 1825, and graduated from West Point in 
1847. He was a captain in the army at the outbreak 
of the civil war, when he resigned and joined the 
Confederate forces. He became a major-general in 
1863. In his later years he wrote a history of the 
campaigns in which he took part. Died in 1899. 

Hetherington, heth'e-ring-tgn, (WILLIAM MAX- 
WELL,) D. IX, a Scottish divine, born at Troqueer, neat 
Dumfries, June 4, 1803. He was educated at Edinburgh 
University, was ordained in 1836, and became professor 
of apologetics in the Free Church College, Glasgow, in 
1857. His principal works are a " History of the Church 
of Scotland," and a " History of the Westminster Assem- 
bly." Died May 23, 1865. 

Hetsch., hitsh, (GusTAV FRIEDRICH,) a German 
architect, born at Stuttgart in 1788, lived chiefly in Co- 
penhagen, where he died September 7, 1864. 

Hetsch, von, fon hStsh, (PHILIPP FRIEDRICH,) a 
painter, father of the preceding, was born at Stuttgart 
in 1758. Among his works are "Paris and Helen," and 
"Marius among the Ruins of Carthage." Died in 1838. 

Hettner, heVner, (HERMANN JULIUS THEODOR,) a 
German archaeologist, born in Silesia in 1821, wrote 
"The Plastic Arts among the Ancients," (1848,) and an 
able " History of Literature in the Eighteenth Century," 
(6 vols., 1856-70.) Died in Dresden, May 29, 1882. 

Hetzel or Hezel, hSt'sel, (JOHANN WILHELM,) a 
German Orientalist, born at Kbnigsberg, in Franconia, 
in 1754, published grammars of the Hebrew, Arabic, and 
Syriac languages, and " The Old and New Testament, 
with Notes," (10 vols., 1780-91.) Died in 1829. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgeraeine Encyklopaedie." 

Hetzel, /iSt'sel', (PIERRE JULES,) a French littfratrur, 
whose pseudonym is P. J. STAHL, born at Chartres in 
1814. He published " Scenes from Animal Life," "The 
Devil in Paris," " History of a Man with a Cold," " Beasts 
and People," and other attractive works. George Sand 
compared him to Sterne. He was even more successful 
33 a book-publisher than as an author. Died at Monte 
Carlo, March 16, 1886. 

Heuglin, von, fon hoic'leen, (THEODOR,) a Germar. 
traveller, born at Hirschlanden, Wiirtemberg, March 20, 
1824. He travelled in the northeast of Africa, 1851-65, 
in Nova Zembla and Spitsbergen, 1870-71, and again in 
the northeast of Africa in 1875 and 1876. Died at Stutt- 
gart, November 5, 1876. He published several volumes 
of travels, and works on the zoology and ornithology 
of the countries he visited, the latter of very high value. 

Heumann, hoi'min, (CHRISTOPH AUGUST,) a Ger- 
man writer on various subjects, born in Saxe-Weimar in 
1681. He became professor of theology at Gottingen 
in 1734. Among his works are "Acts of the Philoso- 
phers," (" Acta Philosophorum," 3 vols., 1715-27,) and 
an "Exposition of the New Testament," (1750-63.) 
Died in 1764. 

See HBYNK, " Memoria. Heumanni," 1764; CASSIUS, _ 

beschreibung Heumanns," 1768: ERSCH und GRDBER, "AUgememe 

Heumann von Teutschenbrunn, hoi'mSn fon 
toitsh'en-bR<5on', (JoHANN,) a German jurist and writer, 
born in Bavaria in 1711 ; died in 1760. 

Heun, hoin, (KARL GOTTLOB SAMUEL,) a German 
novelist, born in Lusatia in 1771. He wrote under the 
pseudonym of H. CLAUREN. Died in 1854. 

Heureauz, (ULYSSES,) President of San Domingo, 
| was born in Porto Plata, on that island, in 1846. He 
! engaged in the war against Spain, was elected presi- 
' dent in 1882, and was three times re-elected. Two 
! unsuccessful attempts were made to assassinate him, 
but a third attempt, on July 26, 1899, was success- 

Heures. See HORJE. 
Heurn.van. See HEURNIUS. 
Heurnius, hUR'ne-us, [in Dutch, VAN HEURN, vjn 
huRn,] (JAN,) an eminent physician, born at Utrecht in 
1543, was appointed in 1581 professor of medicine at 
Leyden, and physician to Maurice of Nassau. He wrote 
a good commentary on Hippocrates, (1609,) and othei 
medical works. Died in 1601. 

See ERSCH uod GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie," 
Heurteloup, /iURt'loo', (CHARLES Louis,) a French 
surgeon, born in Paris in 1793, made improvements 
; in lithotrity, which were generally adopted, and wrote 
I several treatises on that subject Died in 1864. 

Heurteloup, (NICOLAS,) an eminent French surgeon, 
| father of the preceding, born at Tours in 1750. About 

as k; 5 as s; | hard; g as/; G, H, is., guttural; N, nasal; R, tftilet; as t; th as in this. 


Explanations, p. 23.) 




1800 he was appointed nrst surgeon of the French armies, 
and received the title of baron. Died in 1812. 

Heus, hus or hos, or Heusch, van, vin hush, (WiL- 
LEM,) a Dutch landscape-painter, born at Utrecht about 
1630, was a pupil of John Both. His pictures of scenery 
on the Rhine are commended. Died at Utrecht about 
1700. His nephew and pupil, JACOB, born at Utrecht 
in 1657, was a good landscape-painter. " His land- 
scapes," says the " Nouvelle Biographic G^neVale," " are 
full of nature, his touch easy, and his colour true." Died 
in 1701. 

See DHSCAMPS, " Viesdes Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc 

Heusch, van, vin husK or hbsK, (ABRAHAM,) a Dutch 
painter of plants, insects, etc., was born at Utrecht in 
1650; died in 1712. 

HeuBChling, husK'ling or hush'laN', (firiENNE,) a 
Belgian philologist, born at Luxemburg in 1762, was 
professor of Hebrew at Louvain. Died in 1847. 

gian economist, a nephew of the preceding, born at 
Luxemburg in 1802, published an "Essay on Universal 
Ethnographic Statistics," (1847-49.) Died in 1883. 

Heusde, hus'deh, [Lat. HEUS'WUS,] (PHILIPPUS 
WILLEM,) an eminent Dutch writer, born at Rotterdam 
in 1778, became professor of eloquence and history at 
Utrecht, where he lectured with great success. He 
published several works on philosophy, history, and 
education, among which is "The Socratic School," ("De 
Socratische School," 4 vols., 1834-39.) Died in 1839. 

See KIST, " Memoria Heusdii," 1839; SrdcKpKLD, "Aodenken 
an den grossen Professor P. W. van Heusde," 1840 ; ROVERS, " Me- 
moria Heusdii," 1841; KOULKZ, "Notice biographique sur P. G. 
van Heusde," 1841. 

Heusdius. See HEUSDE. 

Heuainger, hoi'zing'er. (JAKOB FRIEDRICH,) a Ger- 
man philologist and scholar, born at Useborn in 1719, 
was rector of the College of Wolfenbiittel. His edition 
of Cicero's " De Officiis" (1783) is called a master-piece 
in respect to criticism. Died in 1778. 

Heuainger, (JoHANN MICHAEL,) an uncle of the pre- 
ceding, was born near Gotha in 1690, and was an able 
philologist He taught at Gotha and Eisenach, and 
published editions of Julian's " Emperors" and jEsop's 
"Fables," (1741.) Died in 1751. 

See ERSCH und GBUBSR, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" F. A. 
TOEPFBR, "Vita J. M. Heusingeri," 1751. 

Heusinger, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) a physician, born 
near Eisenach in 1792, published, besides other works, 
" Outlines of an Encyclopaedia and Methodology of Natu- 
ral and Medical Sciences," (1844-53.) Died in 1883. 

Heusser, hois'ser, (META,) a distinguished Swiss 
writer of songs and religious lyrics, was born at Hirzel, 
April 6, 1797. Her maiden name was SCHWEIZER. She 
is well known to English readers by her " Alpine Lyrics," 
(1875, translated from the German by Jane Borthwick.) 
Her songs are the fruit of a rare genius, and of deep and 
earnest devotion. 

Heuzet, /iuh'zj', QEAN,) a French classical scholar, 
born at Saint-Quentin about 1660 ; died in 1728. 

He-veTI-UB, [Ger. pron. hi-vale-us,] (Joannes 01 
John Hevel ha'vel, written also Hovel and He- 

welcke,) an eminent astronomer, born at Dantzic in 

1611, was a pupil of Kruger. His parents were noble 

and wealthy. After studying at Leyden and making the 

tour of Europe, he devoted his uninterrupted attention 

to astronomy for nearly fifty years. In 1641 he built an 

observatory at his own residence, which he furnished with 

telescopes and other instruments made by his own hands. 

In 1647 he published " Selenographia," a description of 

the moon, with plates, followed by letters on the " Libra- 

tion of the Moon," and on Eclipses, (1654.) His treatise 

on the phases of Saturn appeared in 1656, and his " Ob- 
servations on the Transit of Mercury" in 1661. He wrote, 

also, " Cometographia," a general description of comets, 

(1668.) Hevelius was chosen a Fellow of the Royal 

Society of London in 1664. He was repeatedly elected 

consul and judge by his fellow-citizens, by whom he was 

highly esteemed. In 1673 he published the first part 

of his "Machina Coelestis," a description of his obser- 
vatory, instruments, and modus opcrandi, the second 

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, li, y, short; a, e, \, q, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n&t; good; moon 

part of which appeared in 1679. In the latter year a 
fire consumed his observatory, library, and nearly all 
the copies of the book just named. After his death his 
widow published " Harbinger of Astronomy," (" Pro- 
dromus Astronomis,") and " Firmamentum Sobieska- 
num," dedicated to John Sobieski, King of Poland. 
In skill, accuracy, and diligence in observation, he wag 
an astronomer of a very high, if not of the first, order ; 
but his prejudice against the use of fine instruments in 
observing rendered many of his tables worthless. Died 
January 28, 1687. 

Hevin, (PRUDENT,) a French surgeon, born in Paris 
in 1715. Having distinguished himself as royal professor 
of therapeutics, he was employed by Louis XV. to attend 
the dauphiness. Some years later he became first sur- 
geon to the dauphin. In 1780 he published a "Course 
of Pathology and Therapeutics." Died in 1789. 

Hewelcke. See HEVELIUS. 

Hewes, huz, (JOSEPH,) an American patriot, born in 
New Jersey in 1730, settled at Edenton, North Carolina, 
about 1760. In 1774 he represented a district of North 
Carolina in Congress, and signed the Declaration of 
Independence in 1776. Having been re-elected to Con- 
gress, he died at his post, in Philadelphia, in 1779. 

Hew'ett, (WATERMAN THOMAS,) an American phi- 
lologist, born at Miami, Missouri, January 10, 1846. He 
graduated at Amherst College in 1869, and studied at 
Athens, (Greece,) Heidelberg, Leipsic, Jena, Leyden, elc. 
In 1870 he was made an assistant professor in Cornell 
University, and in 1883 he was appointed full professor 
of Germanic languages. His writings include "The 
Frisian Language and Literature" and " Homes of the 
German Poets " 

Hew'it, (AUGUSTINE FRANCIS,) D.D., an American 
clergyman, born at Fairfield, Connecticut, November 27, 
1820. His name was originally NATHANIEL AUGUSTUS 
HEWIT. He graduated at Amherst College in 1839, 
and studied Congregational theology at East Windsor 
Seminary. He became an Episcopalian clergyman, but 
in 1847 was ordained a Roman Catholic priest. He 
joined the order of Paulist Fathers, and became a pro- 
fessor in their seminary in New York. He published 

Reasons for Submitting to the Holy See," " Problems 
of the Age," "The King's Highway," "Light in Dark- 
ness," " Life of F. D. Baker," etc. Died July 3, 1897. 

Hew'itt, (MARY ELIZABETH,) originally Miss MOORE, 
an American poetess, born in Maiden, Massachusetts. 
In 1829 she removed to New York. Her principal works 
are "Songs of Our Land, and other Poems," (1845.) and 
'he " Heroines of History," (in prose, 1856.) She after- 
wards married a Mr. Stebbins. 

Hew'lett, (JOSEPH T.,) an English novelist, born 
about 1800. He was educated at Oxford, and became a 
clergyman. Among his writings are " Peter Priggins," 
"JEsop Illustrated," "The Parish Clerk," (1841.) "' 
lege Life," (1842,) "Parsons and Widows," (1844,) 
Died January 24, 1847. 

Hew'lett, (MAURICE HENRY,) an English author, 
born January 22, 1861. Among his works are "The 
Masque of Dead Florentines," (1895,) "Songs and 
Meditations," (1897,) and "The Forest Lovers," 
(1898,) a work of much merit, which was awarded an 
Academy prize in 1899. 

Hew'spn, (WILLIAM,) an English surgeon, born at 
Hexham in 1739. In 1759 he attended the lectures of 
John and William Hunter in London, with whom he was 
afterwards associated as a lecturer on anatomy. In 1771 
he was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society, which 
awarded him the Copley medal for his researches in the 
lymphatic system of birds and fishes. In 1772 he pub- 
lished " Experimental Inquiries into the Properties of 
the Blood." He was an eminent anatomist, and made 
valuable discoveries in the nature of blood. Died in 1774. 


Hey, ha, (JOHN,) a learned divine of the Anglican 
Church, born in England in 1734. From 1780 to 1795 
he was first Norrisian professor of divinity at Cambridge. 
He wrote an " Essay on Redemption," (a prize poem,) 
"Lectures on Divinity," and other esteemed works. 
Died in 1815. 





Hey, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S.,an English surgeon of Leeds, 
born in 1736; died in 1819. 

See his Life, by JOHN PEARSON. 

Heyden, van der, v3n der hi'den, or Heyde, hi'deh, 
an eminent Dutch painter, born at Gorcum about 1637. 
He exercised his talents with great success on architec- 
tural subjects and landscapes. He excelled in chiaro- 
scuro. His pictures of cities, temples, palaces, and ruins 
are admired for their general effect, mellow tints, and 
exquisite finish. The figures in some of his works are 
painted by A. van der Velde. Died at Amsterdam in 1712. 

See J. C. WHYERMAN, "De Schilderkonst der Nederlanders ;" 
DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hotlandais," etc. 

Heyden, von, fon hi'den, COUNT, born in 1772, en- 
tered the Russian service, and became a rear-admiral in 
1817. He commanded the Russian fleet at the battle of 
Navarino, in 1827. Died in 1850. 

Heyden, von, fon hi'den, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) a 
German poet, born near Heilsberg, in East Prussia, in 
1789. He was one of the governors of the prince-royal 
of Rrussia, and in 1826 became royal councillor at Breslau. 
Among his chief works are " Conradin," and other suc- 
cessful dramas; "Reginald," a poem, (1831,) which is 
admired ; and " The Shepherd of Ispahan," (" Der 
Schafer von Ispahan," 1850,) an excellent romantic 
poem. Died in 1851. 

See T. MUNDT, " Das Leben Heydens," 1852. 

Heydenreich, hi'den-rlK', (KARL HEINRICH,) an in- 
genious philosophic writer, born at Stolpen, in Saxony, 
in 1764, was a disciple of Kant. He became professor 
of philosophy at Leipsic in 1789. He wrote verses on 
" Solitude," and other short poems, of some merit, which 
were published in 2 vols., 1792. Among his prose works 
are "Letters on Atheism," (1796,) "Psychological De- 
velopment of Superstition," (1797,) and "Philosophy 
considered with Respect to the Sufferings of Humanity, 
(2 vols., 1798.) Died in 1801. 

See SCHELLB, " Characteristik C. H. Heydenreich *s," 1802, 
WOHLFAHRT, " Die letzten Lebensjahre C. H. Heidenreich's," 1802 ; 
EICHHORN, " Geschichte der Literatur," voL iv. 

Heydt, von der, fon dR hit, (AUGUST,) a Prussian 
statesman, born in Elberfeld in 1801. He was appointed 
minister of commerce, industry, and public works in 
December, 1848. Died at Berlin, June 13, 1874. 

Heyking.von, fon hT'king,(HEiNRicH KARL,) BARON, 
born in Koorland (Courland) in 1751, was appointed 
a senator by Paul I. of Russia. Died in 1809. 

Heylin, ha'lTn, ? (PETER,) an English writer, born al 
Burford in 1600. In 1621 he wrote his "Microcosmos." 
In 1629 he became chaplain to Charles I., and obtained 
several benefices, from which in the civil war he was 
ejected as a partisan of Laud and the High Church. 
He wrote a " Life of Bishop Laud," a " Defence of the 
Church of England," (1658,) besides theological and 
other works more than fifty in number. He was an honest 
man, but full of theological rancour. Died in 1662. 

See GEORGE VERNON, "Life of P. Heylin," 1681 ; Da. BARNAUL 
"Life of P. Heylin," 1682. 

Heym. See HEIM. 

Heyn, (PIETER.) See HEIN. 

Heyne, hi'neh, [Lat HEY'NIUS,] (CHRISTIAN GOTT- 
LOB,) an illustrious German scholar and critic, was born 
at Chemnitz, in Saxony, in 1729. Owing to the poverty 
of his family, he enjoyed few advantages of education ; 
but, having by nature an irrepressible desire for know- 
ledge, he improved to the utmost the opportunities which 
he possessed, so that in 1763 he succeeded Gesner as 
professor of eloquence at Gbttingen. He was soon 
after made chief librarian of the university. His lectures, 
illustrating the history and mythology of the ancients in 
the most attractive manner, gained him a high reputa- 
tion, which was increased by his numerous and excellent 
writings. Among the most important of these are editions 
of Tibullus, (1755,) Virgil, Epictetus, (1756,) Pindar, etc., 
with commentaries, and "Opuscula Academica," (6 vols., 
1785-1812.) Died at Gottingen in July, 1812. 

" Nothing," says Sir William Hamilton, " has contrib- 
uted so decisively to maintain and promote the study 
of classical literature, as the combination which Heyne 
has effected of philosophy with erudition, both in his 
commentaries on the ancient authors and in those works 

in which he has illustrated various points of antiquity." 
("Encyclopaedia Britannica.") 

See HEKREN, "C. G. Heyne, biographisch dargestellt," 1812; 
I) AC IKK, "filoge de Heyne;" VAN ASSEN, " Hulde aan C. G. 
Heyne," Amsterdam, 1816; BECKER, " Programma ad Memoriua 
C. G. Heynii," 1812; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge"nerale ;" "Edin- 
burgh Review" for July, 1803. 

Heyne, (CHRISTIAN LEBRECHT,) a German littira- 
tear, whose pseudonym was ANTON WALL, was bora 
near Meissen in 1751 ; died in 1821. 


Heyrick, ha'rlk, (ELIZABETH,) an English philan 
chropist, born about 1770, was originally named COLT- 
MAN. She became a member of the Society of Friends, 
and was eminent for her active benevolence. She 
published in 1824 a treatise entitled "Immediate, not 
Gradual, Emancipation," which principle she was the 
first to advocate. Died in 1831. 

Heyae, hi'zeh, (JoHANN CHRISTIAN AUGUST,) a Ger- 
man grammarian and writer, born at Nordhausen in 
1764 ; died in 1829. 

Heyse, (JoHANN LUDWIG PAUL,) an eminent German 
poet, novelist, and dramatist, born at Berlin, March 15, 
1830, a son of K. W. L. Heyse. He was educated at 
Berlin and Bonn and in Italy. Among his many plays 
are " Francesca von Rimini," (1850,) " Urika," (1852,) 
"Meleager," (1854,) "The Sabine Women," (1859,) etc. 
Among his best poems are "The Brothers," (1852,) 
"Thekla," (1858,) and "Novellen in Versen," (1863.) 
He published a " Buch der Freundschaft," (" Book of 
Friendship," in prose, 1883-84,) which includes some of 
his finest sketches. Of his tales " Die Kinder der Welt" 
("The Children of the World," 1873) is one of the best. 
He has also written on aesthetics, and on Spanish, French, 
Provencal, Italian, and Romance literature. 

Heyae, (KARL WILHELM LUDWIG,) an able German 
philologist, born at Oldenburg in 1797, was a son of J. 
C. A. Heyse. He was chosen professor at Berlin in 1829. 
He published, besides other works, an excellent "Dic- 
tionary of the German Language," (3 vols., 1833-49.) 
Died in 1855. 

Heyward, ha'ward, (THOMAS,) born at Saint Luke's, 
South Carolina, in 1746, studied in London, returned 
home and became a lawyer. In 1775 he was elected 
a member of Congress, and next year signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence. In 1 778 he was appointed a judge. 
He was taken prisoner at Charleston by the British in 
1780. He retired from the bench in 1798. Died in 1809. 

See GOODRICH, " Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Inde- 

Heywood, ha'wood, (ELIZA,) an English novelist, 
born in London about 1695. I^ er maiden name was 
FOWLER. She resorted to authorship to gain a sub- 
sistence for herself and her children, and wrote several 
novels, which procured her a place in Pope's "Dun- 
ciad." She offended less against decorum in her subse- 
quent works, viz., "The Female Spectator," " Husband 
and Wife," etc. Died in 1756. 

Heywood, (JASPER,) an English poet and Jesuit, 
bom in London in 1535, wrote "The Paradise of Dainty 
Devices," (1573.) Died in 1598. 

Heywood, (JoHN,) one of the earliest English drama- 
tists, lived in the reign of Henry VIII., at whose court 
he was received with favour as a jester. He was intimate 
with Sir Thomas More. He wrote numerous epigram* 
and indifferent plays or interludes. Died about 1565. 

See CAMPBELL, " Specimens of the British Poets." 

Heywood, (OLIVER,) an English nonconformist di- 
vine, born in Lancashire in 1629. His works, in 5 vols., 
were published in 1827. Died in 1702. 

See his Life, by FAWCKTT, 1708, and by JOSEPH HUNTER, 1841. 

Heywood, (THOMAS,) an English actor and dramatic 
author, who lived in the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., 
and Charles I. He produced numerous dramas, in verse 
and prose, which were once popular and are still ad- 
mired. " Heywood," says Charles Lamb, " is a sort of 
prose Shakspeare. His scenes are to the full as natural 
and affecting." Among his best dramas are " The Eng- 
lish Traveller," " A Woman Killed with Kindness," and 
" A Challenge for Beauty." The second of these is com- 
mended by Hallam. He also wrote a " General History 

cas/S; 9 as*; ghard; gas/'; G, K,TH, guttural; a, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasin//iu. iJ^="See Explanations, p. 33.) 




of Women," etc. 
not known. 

The dates of his birth and death are 

See his Life, by J. P. COLLIER, 1850; "Retrospective Review," 
irol. xi., 1825. 

Hez-e-ki'ah, [Heb. irrpm or rrpm ; Fr. EZECHIAS, 
i'za'ke'as',] King of Judah, a son of Ahaz, was born about 

rerely censured and denounced by many of those who 
were anxious to maintain unchanged the doctrines of the 
early Quakers. The result was a schism in the Society 
The elders of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting had taken 
a leading part in the opposition to Elias Hicks ; and it 
was in that Yearly Meeting (in April, 1827) that the first 

750 B.C., and began to reign in 726. He took prompt I separation took place, which was followed, in 1828, by 



Rochelle, New York, in 1811. 
works on theology. 
Hi9'e-tas [Gr. 'Ixeraf or 

had burnt incense." He rebelled against the King of Philadelphia and Ohio Yearly Meetings the two sections 

Assyria, to whom his father had paid tribute. In the ! were nearly equal ; but those called " Hicksites" were 

fourteenth year of his reign, Sennacherib, King of As- greatly in the majority in the Yearly Meetings of New 

syria, invaded Judah and besieged the capital. In this York and Baltimore, while in Indiana the "Orthodox" 

crisis the divine favour was invoked by the king and were numerically much superior to the other party. 

Isaiah, the latter of whom prophesied the safety of Zion It is proper to observe that among those who most 

and the defeat of her proud invader. (Isaiah, chap, admired the bold and stirring eloquence of Hicks there 

xxxvii.) The angel of the Lord smote the Assyrians, so were probably but few, comparatively speaking, who 

that 185,000 died in one night. Hezekiah died after a fully endorsed his extreme views ; yet, regarding him as 

reign of twenty-nine years. -he representative of liberal and progressive ideas, they 

HezeL See IIFT7FI warmly espoused his cause. On the other hand, many 

Hiaerne See HI^RNE. made common cause with what they considered the 

persecuted party, and contributed greatly to swell the 
number of his adherents. It may be proper to add that 
the anti-orthodox division of the Society do not acknow- 
ledge the name of " Hicksites." They claim, on the 
contrary, to be the followers of no man ; and although 
they accept the doctrine of the inward light, and many 
other of the views of the early Friends, it is not be- 
cause of the authority of Fox, Penn, or Barclay, but 
simply because those views commend themselves to 
that divinely given or intuitive perception of right 
which, as they maintain, has been bestowed in a 
measure upon every human being. Elias Hicks died 
February 27, 1830, having maintained through life an 
exemplary moral character. 

Hicks, (FRANCIS,) a Greek scholar, born in 
Worcestershire, England, in 1566. Died in 1630. 
His translation of Lucian was published in 1634. 

Hicks, (HENRY,) a British geologist, born at 
Carmarthen in 1837. He studied medicine, and be- 

He published several 


ancient Pythagorean philosopher, is noticed by Diogenes 
Laertius and Cicero. The latter informs us that he taught 
that the earth revolves on its axis, and that the heavenly 
bodies were stationary. 

Hickes, hiks, (GEORGE,) D.D., an eminent English 
divine and philologist, born at Newsham in 1642. He 
took orders in 1666, and became Dean of Worcester in 
1683. For refusing to take the oath to William III. he 
was deprived of his deanery in 1689, and in 1694 was 
consecrated Bishop of Thetford by the nonjuring San- 
croft. He was a profound scholar, and author of many 
polemical and other works, among which the following 
are now most prized, viz., "Treasure of Ancient North- 
ern languages," and " Institutes of Anglo-Saxon and 

Mocso-Gothic Grammar," (1689.) Died in 1715. I came active in geological research. He made extensive 

' LIAM ' ) a " l . < ? e . rg ??o a - n a ,". d explorations of Silurian and Cambrian strata, and 

rural economist, born in the county of Cork in 1787. He 
published, under the assumed name of MARTIN DOYLE, 
a valuable work called " Hints to Small Fanners," and 
other works on farming. Died in 1875. 
Hick'man, (HENRY,) an English nonconformist di- 

of glacial bone caves, and announced important dis- 
coveries. Among these was a rich fauna in the Monte 
Slates, which were supposed to be unfossiliferous. 
Died in 1899. 

*--*v-ik. JJ-au, l l ic-.i l\ I . l dii i^uuiiall IIUI1UU1L1UI III M UI- , , - ' _ _ x T L_ 

vine, born in Worcestershire ; died at Leyden in 1692. . Hlcks ' O HN BRAXTON,) a British anatomist, 
Hick'ok, (LAURENS PERSEUS,) D.D.; an American born at R y e ' Sussex ' m :82 3- He made numerous 
divine and metaphysician, born in Danbury, Connecticut, important anatomical researches, and published valu- 
in 1798. He graduated in 1820 at Union College, in able papers on his discoveries in the anatomy and 
which he accepted (1852) the professorship of mental physiology of animals and plants, 
and moral science. His principal works are " Rational Hicks, (THOMAS,) an American painter, born at 
Psychology," (1848,) "Empirical Psychology," (1854,) Newtown, Bucks county, Pennsylvania, in 1823. He 
and "Rational Cosmology," (1858.) Died in 1888. [went to Europe in 1845, and passed several years at 

public as a minister of the gospel in 1775. He was ' Hicks or Hickes, (WILLIAM,) was an English 
early convinced of the iniquity of slavery, and felt it to c;l p ta i n ; n the time of Charles I., and author of the 
be his duty to abstain, as far as practicable, from all partici- first T es t-Book in the English language, published at 
pation in the products of slave labour, a duty which he Oxford (1660 ) 

appears to have scrupulously observed throughout the 'Hicks-Beach, (Sir MICHAEL EDWARD,) a British 

statesman, was born at London in 1837, and educated 
at Eton and Oxford. He succeeded his father as 

member; but early in the present century he began to c , 

promulgate religious views widely different from those | baronet m :8 54- and , ent r ere , d Parliament in ' 86 4- 

held by a large majority of the Quakers. He advocated was chief-secretary for Ireland 1874-78 and 1886-8 

the most radical Unitarian doctrines, and asserted that i colonlal secretary 1878-80, and became chancellor oi 

Christ came as a Saviour to the Israelites only, his spe- 'he exchequer 1885-86, and again in 1895. 

rial mission being limited to that nation. He even went i Hidalgo, ( JOSE GARCIA.) See GARZIA. 

so far as to express the opinion that the Scriptures had ' Hiel, heel, (EMANUEL,) a Belgian lyric poet, born at 

been "the cause of fourfold more harm than good to Dendermonde, May 30, 1834. He ranks among the first 

Christendom since the apostles' days." In consequence in the new school of Flemish authors. Several of his 

of the expression of these and similar views, he was se- 1 nublished works are translations r rom the German. 

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon; 




Hi-emp'sal, a Numidian prince, a son of Micipsa, 
was murdered by Jugurtha, according to Sallust. 

Hien-Pung, he-Jn' fung, Emperor of China, born 
about 1830, was a younger son of Taoo-Kooang. He 
ascended the throne in 1850, and appointed ministers 
who wished to maintain an exclusive policy towards 
foreigners. In the same year began a great insurrection, 
raised and directed by Tien-Te or Tai-Ping-Wang. The 
insurgents were generally victorious, and captured Nan- 
kin in 1853. (See TAl-PiNG-WANG.) A war broke out 
between the Chinese and the British, who entered Pekin 
in triumph in 1860. Died in 1861. 

Hiero. See HIERON. 

Hi-6r'o-cle, [Gr. 'lepox).?/;,] an eminent Platonic phi- 
losopher, who was the head of a flourishing school in 
Alexandria in the fifth century. He is the author of 
a " Commentary on the Golden Verses of Pythagoras," 
which has been preserved entire, and of a "Treatise on 
Providence (or Foreknowledge) and Fate," of which 
some fragments remain. The former is written in Greek, 
and is admired for the beauty of the thoughts and of 
the style. 

See ANDRit DACIER, " Vie de HieVocles," 1706. 

Hierocles, the author of a work on veterinary medi- 
cine, addressed to Cassianus Bassus, lived in the third 
or fourth century of our era. 

Hierocles, a grammarian, who is supposed to have 
lived in the sixth century, wrote, in Greek, a " Hand- 
Book for Travellers, "(2wenfai[u>f,) which contains descrip- 
tions of the towns and provinces of the Eastern empire. 

There was also a Stoic philosopher named HIEROCLES, 
of whom we have little information. He is supposed to 
have lived in the second century. Another HIEROCLES 
compiled or wrote a collection of anecdotes and ridicu- 
lous sayings of pedants, students, etc., with the Latin 
title of " Facetiae Hieroclis." 

Hierocles OP ALABANDA, a Greek rhetorician, lived 
about 100 B.C. He composed orations in the style which 
Cicero calls the "Asiatic." 

Hierocles OF BITHYNIA was the principal author of 
the persecution of the Christians in the reign of Diocle- 
tian, (about 300 A.D.) He wrote two books against 
Christianity, entitled " Sincere Discourses to the Chris- 
tians," (\6yot <pdafci$tf t ) in which he maintains that 
the Scripture is full of contradictions. He was prefect 
of Bithynia and of Alexandria. 

Hi'e-rou or Hi'e-ro [Gr. 'Upuv] L, King of Syra- 
cuse, succeeded his brother Gelon in 478 B.C. The first 
part of his reign was tyrannical. He expelled the citi- 
zens of Naxos and Catana, and colonized those towns 
with his own subjects. He is applauded for his pa- 
tronage of literature and his appreciation of genius. His 
court was the resort of the most eminent poets and sages 
of his time, among whom were Pindar, ^schylus, Si- 
monides, and Epicharmus. Pindar wrote several odes 
on the occasion of Hieron's victories at the Olympic 
games, and Simonides enjoyed his friendship and bounty. 
Died in 467 B.C. 

See XENOPHON, " Hieron." 

Hieron (or Hiero) U., King of Syracuse, was the son 
of Hierocles, a private citizen. Having served in the 
army of Pyrrhus, who left Sicily in a state of anarchy, 
Hieron was chosen general by the soldiers in 275 B.C., 
and recognised as king about 270. At the beginning of 
the first Punic war he took side with the Carthaginians, 
and was defeated by the Romans about 264 B.C. He then 
made peace with the victors by the payment of tribute, 
and was ever after a faithful ally of Rome. Under his 
wise rule the kingdom for many years enjoyed peace 
and prosperity. Died in 216 B.C. Archimedes lived in 
Syracuse in this reign, and exercised his mechanical 
genius in constructing machines and ships of great size. 

See Livv, " History of Rome," books xxi.-xjciv. ; DJOOORUS 
SICULUS, books xjtii.-xxvi. ; DROYSBN, " Hellenismus," vol. iL 

ETJ'e-ron, (SAMUEL,) an English Puritan, born at 
Epping in 1572, was rector of Modbury, and published 
sermons and other works on theology. Died in 1617. 

Hieronyme. See HIERONYMUS. 

Hi-e-ron'jf-nius, [Gr. 'lepuw/jot; Fr. HIERONYME, 
e'a'ro'nem',] King of Syracuse, was the grandson of 
Hieron II., whom he succeeded in 216 B.C., at the age 

of fifteen. He broke the alliance with the Romans, who 
had recently been defeated at Cannae, and formed a 
league with the Carthaginians. He was on the point of 
taking an active part in the war, when he was killed by 
his own subjects about a year after his accession. He 
left no issue ; and the Syracusans thenceforth dispensed 
with royalty. 

Hieronymus was the Latin name of Saint Jerome, 
one of the Fathers of the Church. 

Hieronymus OF CARDIA, [Fr. HIERONYME, e'a'ro'- 
nem', (or JEROME, zha'rom',) DE CARDIE, den ktR'de',] 
a Greek historian, who flourished about 300 B.C. He 
entered the service of Eumenes, who employed him on 
a mission to Antipater in 320. He was afterwards an 
adherent of Demetrius, who appointed him Governor of 
Boeotia in 292 B.C. He wrote historical memoirs of the 
successors of Alexander the Great, a work which is often 
cited by the ancients, but has not come down to us. 

Hieronymus OF RHODES, a Greek philosopher, and 
disciple of Aristotle, lived about 300 B.C. 

HIT fer-nan, (PAUL,) bom in the county of Dublin, 
Ireland, in 1719, lived many years in London as a lite- 
rary hack, and wrote several mediocre dramas, etc. His 
habits were eccentric. Died in 1777. 

Hig'bee, (ELNATHAN ELISHA,) D.D., an American 
educator, born in Saint George, Vermont, March 27, 
1830. He graduated at the University of Vermont in 
1849. Having entered the ministry of the German Re- 
formed Church, he was in 1864 appointed professor in 
the theological seminary at Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. 
In 1871 he was made president of Mercersburg College, 
and in 1881 superintendent of public instruction for 
Pennsylvania. Died December 13, 1889. 

Hig'dqn, (RANULPH or RALPH.) an English monk, 
connected with a Benedictine monastery at Chester 
wrote " Polychronicon," a Latin chronicle. He died, at 
a great age, about 1370. 

Hig'gins, (GODFREY,) an English antiquary, born in 
Yorkshire in 1771, wrote " The Celtic Druids," and other 
works. Died in 1833. 

Higgins, (MATTHEW JAMES,) an English journalist, 
born about 1810, wrote under the assumed name of 
JACOB OMNIUM. He contributed many articles to the 
London " Times," the " Pall Mall Gazette," and other 
journals. His writings were mostly devoted to the ex- 
posure of abuses in the social and military systems of 
England. Died in 1868. 

Hig'giii-son, (FRANCIS,) a distinguished divine, born 
in England in 1588. He was educated at Cambridge 
University, and appointed rector of a church i Leices- 
ter, in which position he laboured with great zeal and 
success until removed for nonconformity. He came to 
Massachusetts in 1629, and the next month was ordained 
with Mr. Skelton, the first minister of Salem. Died in 
1630. He was the author of "New England's Planta- 
tion," (1630.) 

Higginson, (FRANCIS JOHN,) an American ad- 
miral, was born at Boston in 1843. He graduated at 
the Naval Academy in 1861, served through the civil 
war, was captain of the Massachusetts during the war 
with Spain, and was promoted commodore August IO, 
1898, and rear-admiral March 5, 1899. 

Higginson, (JoHN,) born in England in 1616, ac- 
companied his father Francis to Massachusetts in 1629. 
He was minister of the church at Salem from 1660 until 
his death in 1708, and published sermons and other 
theological works. He was regarded as the most able 
and eloquent American author of his time. Among 
his works is his " Attestation to Cotton Mather's Mag- 

Higginson, (THOMAS WENTWORTH,) an American 
writer, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 22, 
1823. He graduated at Harvard College in 1841, and 
at the Cambridge Divinity School, and was minister of 
Unitarian churches in Newburyport and Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts. He was a very active abolitionist. In 1856 
he went to Kansas and served against the pro-slavery 
forces, having the rank of a brigadier-general in the Free- 
State troops. He served in the civil war, 1862-64, at- 
taining the rank of colonel of coloured troops in South 

e as*; <;ass; gAard; g as ;'; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasin//<. (JJcj^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Carolina, and leaving the service only when disabled by 
a wound. He afterwards gave his time chiefly to litera- 
ture, and to educational and other reforms. Among his 
principal works are "Out-Door Papers," (1863,) "Mai- 
bone," a romance, (1869,) "Army Life in a Black Regi- 
ment," (1870,) "Atlantic Essays," (1871,) "Oldport 
Days," (1873,) " Young Folks' History of the United 
States," (1875,) "Memoir of Margaret Fuller Ossoli," 
(1884,) "Larger History of the United States," (1884,) 
"Hints on Writing and Speech-Making," (1887,) 
"Concerning All of Us," (1892,) " Tales of the En- 
chanted Islands," etc. He also edited Epictetus, etc. 

Hig'gons, (Sir THOMAS,) was born in Shropshire, 
England, in 1624. He married the notorious Countess 
of Essex, (see CARR, ROBERT,) at whose funeral in 1656 
he pronounced an oration, which was printed. He was 
sent as ambassador to Vienna in 1673. Died in 1691. 
His son, BEVIL, born in 1670, wrote, besides several 
poems, a "Short View of English History," (1723.) He 
was a zealous Jacobite, and went into exile with James 
II. Died in France in 1735. 

Hlgh'more, (JOSEPH,) an English portrait-painter, 
born in London in 1692, was a pupil of Kneller. He 
executed portraits of the Knights of the Bath, and was 
employed by George I. to paint some members of the 
royal family. In 1742 he painted the portraits of the 
Prince and Princess of Wales. He wrote a treatise on 
Perspective. Died in 1780. 

Highmore, (NATHANIEL,) an eminent English phy- 
sician, born at Fordingbridge in 1613, practised with 
success at Sherborne. He wrote able treatises on anat- 
omy. Died in 1684. 


Hilaire. See HILARY. 

Hi-la'rl-on, SAINT, a noted ascetic or hermit of Pales- 
tine, and pioneer of monastic life, was born at Tabatha, 
near Gaza, about 292 A.D. At an early age he went to 
Alexandria as a student, and was converted to Chris- 
tianity. Returning to Palestine, he retired from the 
world, passed many years in the desert, and gained a 
wide reputation by his austerities. Many monasteries 
were founded by him or by the influence of his example. 
Died about 372. 

See SAINT JEROME, "Vita Hilarioni :" BAILLET, "Vies des 

Hilarins. See HILARY. 

Hi-la'rl-us, surnamed DIAC/ONUS, a native of Sar- 
dinia, lived about 350 A.D., and became a deacon of the 
church in Rome. He was an adversary of Arianism. 

Hil'a-ry. [Lat, HILA'RIUS; Fr. HILAIRE, e'laV,] a 
native of Sardinia, was chosen Bishop or Pope of Rome in 
461 A.D., as successor to Leo I. In 449 he had officiated 
as legate at the Council of Ephesus, where he zealously 
opposed the Eutychians. The events of his pontificate 
were unimportant. It appears that he claimed the pre- 
eminence of the see of Rome. He died in 467, and was 
succeeded by Simplicius. 

Hilary or Hilarius, [Fr. HILAIRE, e'ISR', | SAINT, 
an orthodox theologian, was born at Poitiers, (Pictavi,) 
in Gaul, of which place he became bishop about 350 A.D. 
He took a prominent part in defence of Athanasius 
against the Arians, for which he was banished to Phrygia 
in 356. In 359, at the Council of Seleucia, he defended 
the doctrine of the Trinity, and afterwards published a 
violent invective against the Arian emperor Constantius, 
whom he denounced as Antichrist. Having returned 
to Italy and Gaul, he laboured zealously to purge the 
churches of heresy. He wrote a "Treatise on Synods," 
a " Commentary on Saint Matthew," and a few other 
works. Died in 367 A.D. 

See CAVK, " Scriptores Ecclesiastic! :" TILLEMONT, " Memoires." 

Hilary or Hilarius, SAINT, was born about 400 
A.D., probably in Gaul or Belgium, lie became Bishop 
of Aries in 429, and was highly esteemed for piety and 
learning. His contest with Leo, Bishop of Rome, forms 
an important epoch in the history of the Gallic Church. 
Celidonius, a bishop, having been deposed by a council 
at which Hilarius presided, appealed to Leo, who rein- 
stated him, and, supported by an edict of the emperor 
Valentinian III., deprived Hilarius of his bishopric 
because the latter refused to own the supremacy of 

Rome. This was one of the first efforts made to build 
up the papal power. Died in 449. His "Eulogy on 
Honoratus" is much admired. 

See BELLARMIN, "De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis ;" TILLEMOXT, 
"Memoires;" "Gallia Christiana." 

Hn'da, SAINT, a grand-niece of Edwin, King of North- 
umbria, was converted to Christianity in her childhood, 
became abbess of the convent of Heorthen (afterwards 
Whitby) about 660, and died in 680 A.D. 

HlKde-baia, [Lat HILDEBAL'DUS,] King of the 
Ostrogoths in Lombardy. After Belisarius had con 
quered the Ostrogoths, they proclaimed Hildebald their 
king at Pavia in 540 A.D. The next year he gained a 
victory over the Romans, soon after which he was assas- 
sinated by one of his guards. 

See JORNANDES, "De Regnorum Successione ;" GIBBON, "His- 
tory of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

Hn'de-bert, [Lat. HILDEBER'TUS,] a French prelate 
and poet, born at Lavardin in 1057, became Archbishop 
of Tours in 1125. He was eminent for his piety and 
learning, and was one of the best writers of his time. 
His works are written in Latin, and consist of epistles, 
sermons, and poems. Died in 1134. 

See " Gallia Christiana ;" "Vita Hildeberti," prefixed to hit Works, 
published by BKAUGBNDRB in 1708. 

Hildebertua. See HILDEBERT. 

Hildebrand. See GREGORY VII. 

Hildebrand, hil'de-brand, (BROR EMIL,) a Swedish 
antiquarian and numismatologist, born at Flerahopp, 
February 22, 1806. He was educated at Lund, and pub- 
lished several standard treatises. Died at Stockholm, 
August 30, 1884. 

Hildebrand, (HANS OLOP HILDKBRAND,) a son of 
Bror Emil Hildebrand, was born at Stockholm, April 5, 
1842. Among his many works are a " History of Sweden" 
and " Sweden in the Middle Ages." Died in 1890. 

Hildebrandt, hll'deh-bRant', (EDUARD,) a German 
painter, born at Dantzic in 1817, studied in Berlin and 
Paris, and travelled in almost all parts of the world. He 
painted a vast number of pictures, of which the best are 
often remarkable for their masterly display of coloration. 
Died at Berlin, October 2S, 1868. 

Hildebrandt, hil'dgh-bRint', (FERDINAND THEO- 
DOR,) a German historical painter, and one of the most 
eminent masters of the Dusseldorf school, was born at 
Stettin in 1804. He studied under W. Schadow at Ber- 
lin, and settled at Dusseldorf. Among his works are 
"King Lear and Cordelia," (1826,) "Tancred and Clo- 
rinda," (1828,) and "Othello relating his Adventures 
to Desdemona," (1848.) Died September 29, 1874. 

Hildebrandt, (GEORG FRIEDRICH,) a German phy- 
sician and naturalist, born at Hanover in 1764, wrote, 
besides other works, a "Manual of Human Anatomy," 
(4vols., 1789-92.) Died in 1816. 

HD'de-gard' or Hildegarde, SAINT, a German nun, 
born in 1098, became abbess of Saint Rupert's Mount, 
near Bingen, on the Rhine. Died in 1180. 

See J. C. DAHL, "Die heilige Hildegardis; historische Abhand- 
lung," 1832. 

Hildenbrand, von, fon Ml'den-bRant', (VALENTIN 
JOHANN,) a German medical writer, born in Vienna in 
1763 ; died in 1818. 

HU'ders-ham, (ARTHUR,) an English Puritan divine, 
born in Cambridgeshire in 1563. He held the living of 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch from 1593 until his death. He was 
a grand-nephew of Cardinal Pole, and was related to 
the royal family. He wrote various theological works, 
and was esteemed a shining light among the Puritans. 
Died in 1631. 

Hn'del-ley, (MARK,) an English theologian, born in 
Kent in 1698. He became Bishop of Sodor and Man 
in 1755, and caused the Bible to be translated into the 
Manx language. Died in 1772. 

See WEEDON BUTLER, " Memoirs of M. Hildesley." 1799. 

HQ'dreth, (RICHARD,) an American journalist and 
historian, was born in Deerlield, Massachusetts, June 
28, 1807. He graduated at Harvard in 1826, and, while 
studying law, contributed numerous articles to magazines. 
Admitted to the bar in Boston in 1830, he abandoned 
the legal profession at the expiration of two years, to 
accept the position of associate editor of the " Boston 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, d, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mil; not; good; moon: 




Atlaa," which soon became one of the ablest Whig jour- 
nals in New England His health having failed, he spent 
the year 1835 in Florida, and while there wrote "Archy 
Moore," an anti-slavery novel. It was republished and 
favourably reviewed in England, and an enlarged edition, 
under the title of "The White Slave," was issued in the 
United States in 1852. In 1837 he furnished to the 
columns of the "Atlas" a series of articles which con- 
tributed powerfully towards defeating schemes then on 
foot for the annexation of Texas. He took a conspicuous 
part in the Presidential canvass which resulted in the 
nomination and election of General Harrison. He also 
gave to the public during this period his " Despotism 
in America," an able review of the social, political, and 
economical aspects of slavery in the United States, to 
which he added in 1854 a chapter on the " Legal Basis of 
Slavery." His health having again failed, he embarked 
in 1840 for British Guiana, and, during a residence of 
three years at Georgetown, the capital, wrote his " Theory 
of Morals," published in 1844, and "Theory of Politics, 
or an Inquiry into the Foundation of Governments and 
the Causes and Progress of Political Revolutions," issued 
in 1853. Mr. Hildreth is best known, however, by his 
" History of the United States of America," from the 
discovery of the continent to the close of the Sixteenth 
Congress in 1820, (6 vols. 8vo, 1849-52.) It was pro- 
jected while the author was a student at Harvard. The 
work has been variously criticised ; ">ut all agree in 
classing it among the standard histories of our country. 
Died at Florence in July, 1865. 

See DUYCKINCK, "Cyclopaedia of American Literature," vol. ii. ; 
CLEVELAND, "Compendium of American Literature." 

Hildreth, (SAMUEL PRESCOTT,) M.D., an American 
physician, born in Massachusetts in 1783. He settled 
in Ohio in 1806. His principal works are a " Pioneer 
History of the Ohio Valley," (1848,) and " Biographical 
and Historical Memoirs of the Early Settlers of Ohio," 
(1852.) Died at Marietta, Ohio, in 1863. 

Hilferding, hil'feR-ding', (ALEXANDER FEODORO- 
VITCH,) a Russian author, of German descent, born at 
Moscow in 1831. Among his numerous works are a 
" History of the Serbs and Bulgarians," " History of 
the Baltic Slavs," and " Travels in Bosnia, Herzegovina, 
and Old Servia." He also wrote much on Slavic phi- 
lology. Died July 2, 1872. 

HU'gard, (EUGENE WOLDEMAR,) Ph.D., a German- 
American scientist, a brother of J. E. Hilgard, was born 
at Zweibriicken, January 5, 1833. In 1835 he went with his 
father to Belleville, Illinois. He was educated at Freiberg, 
Zurich, and Heidelberg, where he graduated in 1853, 
was State geologist of Mississippi, 1857-73, professor 
of chemistry in the University of Mississippi, 1866-73, 
professor of geology in the University of Michigan, 
1873-75, and in 1875 became professor of agriculture in 
the University of California. He has published many 
valuable reports and scienti6c papers. 

Hilgard, (Junus ERASMUS,) a distinguished scientist, 
born at Zweibriicken, in Germany, January 7, 1825. He 
removed to the United States with his parents in 1835. 
In 1845 ne entered the coast survey, of which in 1881 he 
was appointed superintendent. Died May 8, 1891. 

Hilgenfeld, hil'cen-fSlt', (ADOLF BERNHARD CHRIS- 
TOPH CHRISTIAN,) a German Biblical critic of the "Tu- 
bingen school," was born at Stappenbeck, June 2. 1823. 
He became a professor of theology at Jena. He has 
written much on New Testament criticism and the Greek 
Apocryphal writings, has edited a " Novum Testamentum 
extra Canonem Receptum," and published a " History 
of the Heresies of Early Christianity," (1884.) He ranks 
as a conservative of the rationalistic school. 

Hill, (AARON,) an English writer, born in London in 
1685. About the age of sixteen he went to Constanti- 
nople, and by the aid of his kinsman, Lord Paget, visited 
several countries of the East. In 1709 he published a 
" History of the Ottoman Empire." Soon after he became 
manager of Drury Lane Theatre, and wrote " Elfrida," 
a tragedy, which was followed by several other dramas. 
The most successful of these are "Alzira" and "Zara," 
adapted from Voltaire. He wrote a satire on Pope, who 
had noticed him in the "Dunciad" in terms which some 
think rather complimentary. Died in 1750. 

Hill, (ALFRED JAMES,) archaeologist, was born at 
London in 1833. He removed to America, where he 
entered upon an extensive survey of the archaeology 
of the Northwest, platting nearly twelve thousand 
Indian mounds north of the Ohio and west of the 
Great Lakes. He died in 1895, leaving the manu- 
script of several extensive works uncompleted. 

Hill, (AMBROSE POWELL,) an American general, 
born in Culpeper county, Virginia, about 1825, 
graduated at West Point in 1847. He joined the 
Confederate army in 1861, became a major-general in 
1862, and in 1863 was promoted lieutenant-general. 
He commanded a corps at Gettysburg and in the later 
Virginia campaigns, and was killed in battle neat 
Petersburg, April 2, 1865. 

Hill, (BENJAMIN HARVEY,) an American Senator, 
born in Jasper county, Georgia, September 14, 1823. 
He graduated at the Georgia University in 1844, became 
a lawyer, was a Confederate Senator, 1861-65, and was 
elected to the United States Senate in 1873 and l8 77- 
He was an able and eloquent speaker and a brilliant 
lawyer. Died August 16, 1882. 

Trill, (DANIEL H.,) an American general, born in South 
Carolina in 1821, graduated at West Point in 1842, and 
served in the Mexican war. He commanded a Con- 
federate division at the battles of Mechanicsville and 
Malvern Hill, July I, 1862, and South Mountain, Sep- 
tember, 1862. He served as lieutenant-general under 
General Bragg in 1863, and commanded at Augusta, 
Georgia, in :865- Died September 24, 1889. 

Hill, (DAVID BENNETT,) an American Senator, 
was born at Havana, New York, in 1844. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1864, was in the New York 
Assembly 1869-71, mayor of Elmira 1882, lieutenant- 
governor of New York 1882-85, ano ^ governor 1885- 
91. He was in the United States Senate 1891-97, 
and was advocated as the Democratic candidate for 
President in 1892, but failed of nomination. 

Hill, (DAVID J.,) LL.D., an American educator, 
born at Plainfield, New Jersey, June 10, 1850. He 
graduated at the university at Lewisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1874, was professor of rhetoric there 1877- 
79, and president 1879-88. He was president of the 
University of Rochester 1888-96. His principal 
works are " Science of Rhetoric," (1877,) " Elements 
of Rhetoric," (1878,) "Life of Bryant," (1879,) 
"Life of Irving," (1879,) "Genetic Philosophy," 
" International Justice," " A Primer of Finance," etc. 

Hill, (DAVID OCTAVIUS,) a Scottish landscape- 
painter, born at Perth in 1802, and for many years 
secretary to the Royal Scottish Academy. Died in 

Hill, (GEORGE,) D.D., a Scottish divine, born at 
Saint Andrew's in 1750. He was principal of Saint 
Mary's College, in his native town, and succeeded 
Dr. Robertson as leader of the General Assembly. 
He published, besides other works, "Lectures on 
Divinity." Died in 1819. 

Hill, (GEORGE,) an American poet, born at Guil- 
ford, near New Haven, Connecticut, in 1796. Among 
his principal poems are "The Ruins of Athens" and 
"Titania." Died in New York, December 15, 1871. 

Hill, (HEADON,) nom-de-flume of F. Grainger, an 
English novelist, born in Suffolk in 1857. Since 1890 
he has published numerous novels, including "The 
Rajah's Second Wife," (1894,) " The Zone of Fire," 
(.1897,) "Spectre Gold," (1898,) etc. 

TTill, (ISAAC,) a journalist, born in Ashburnham, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1788. He was for many years editor of 
the " New Hampshire Patriot," a Democratic journal, 
was elected a United States Senator for New Hampshire 
in 1830, and Governor of that State in 1836. Died in 1851. 
TTill, (Sir JOHN,) an English writer and literary quack, 
born at Spalding in 1716. He obtained skill as a botanist, 
made and sold quack medicines, and edited "The In- 
spector," a journal which owed its success to the scandal 
it contained. He was refused admission to the Royal 

; 9 as*; gAard; g as/'; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; H, trilled; sasz; th as in (to. (fl^'See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Society on account of his doubtful character, and sought 
revenge by writing a review of their works. His " Vege- 
table System," in 26 vols., with splendid plates, sold 
at one hundred and sixty guineas per copy. He was 
knighted by the King of Sweden, to whom he had pre- 
ented a copy of the last-named work. Died in 1775. 

Garrick has defined his merits in the following epigram: 
" For iiliysic and farces, his rival there scarce is ; 
His farces are physic, his physic a farce is." 

See DISRAHLI, " Quarrels of Authors." 

Hill, (JOSEPH,) an English scholar, born near Leeds 
in 1625, became minister of an English church at Mid- 
delburg, Holland. He published an improved edition 
of Schrevelius's "Greek Lexicon," (1676.) Died in 1707. 
Hill, (MATTHEW DAVENPORT,) a brother of Sir 
Rowland, noticed below, born in Birmingham about 
1792, became a barrister. He was a member of the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and 
laboured with zeal and success to procure amendments 
of the laws. He was one of the chief promoters of 
"juvenile reformatories." Died June 7, 1872. 

Hill, (NATHANIEL P.,) an American Senator, born in 
Montgomery, New York, February 18, 1832. He gradu- 
ated in 1857 at Brown University, where he was professor 
of applied chemistry, 1860-64. He studied metallurgy 
in Europe, 1865-66, and in 1867 removed to Denver, 
Colorado, as manager of a smelting company. From 1879 
to 1885 he was United States Senator fiom Colorado. 

Hill, (OCTAVIA,) an English reformer, born about 
1838. She worked earnestly among the London poor, 
and in 1864 began an important work of improving 
the homes of workingmen in the London slums. 
She wrote "Homes of the London Poor," (1875,) 
"Our Common Land," (1878,) etc. 

Hill, (Sir RICHARD,) born in 1733, a brother of Row- 
land, was member of Parliament for Salop, and some- 
times preached in the Calvinistic Methodist chapels. He 
wrote a few religious works. Died in 1808. 

Hill, (ROBERT,) a self-taught English linguist, born a; 
Miswell in 1699, was a tailor by trade. He was master 
of several ancient languages, and wrote " Criticisms on 
Job," and a few other works. Died in 1777. 

Hill, (Rev. ROWLAND,) a popular preacher and dis- 
ciple of Whitefield, was born at Hawkstone, England, 
in 1744. He was the son of a baronet, and uncle of 
General Lord Hill. After leaving college he was 
ordained a deacon of the Anglican Church, but soon 
became a zealous and eloquent preacher among the Cal- 
inistic Methodists. Addressing the people in the streets, 
the open air, or wherever he could gain audience, he 
made many converts in various parts of the kingdom. 
In 1783 he built Surrey Chapel, London, in which he 
preached about fifty winters. He was the author of " Vil- 
lage Dialogues," and other works. Southey, in refer- 
ence to a particular occasion, says, " His manner was 
animated and striking, sometimes dignified and impress- 
ive. The purport of his sermon was good, nothing 
fanatical, nothing enthusiastic." Died in 1833. 

Hill. (ROWLAND,) VISCOUNT, an English general, born 
at Frees, Shropshire, in 1772, was the second son of Sir 
John Hill, and nephew of the Rev. Rowland Hill. He 
entered the army as ensign in 1790, and obtained the 
rank of colonel in 1800. In 1806 he was made a major- 
(reneral and appointed on the staff. In 1808 he served 
n Portugal, under Sir Arthur Wellesley and Sir John 
Moore, until the battle of Corunna. Promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant-general in 1809, he was employed 
several years in the Peninsular war, and gained a high 
reputation in his profession. In 1814 he was raised to 
the peerage, as Baron of Almarez and Hawkstone. He 
took part in the battle of Waterloo in 1815, and after- 
wards was second in command of the army of occupation 
in France. Lord Hill was commander-in-chief of the 
army from 1828 until 1842, when he resigned and was 
created a viscount He died in 1842, and left the title to 
his nephew, Sir Rowland Hill. 

Hill, (Sir ROWLAND,) an Englishman, known as the 
author of the cheap postage system, was born at Kid- 
derminster in 1795. In 1837 he wrote a pamphlet on 
" Post-Office Reform, its Importance and Practicability." 
Through his persistent efforts, a bill pn^-r d in the 

session of 1839-40 to reduce the rate of postage and 
render it uniform. The postage has since been further 
reduced, and letters are now carried for one penny each 
to any part of the United Kingdom. The people ex- 
pressed their gratitude for this benefit by a present of 
13,000 raised by subscription. He was appointed 
secretary to the postmaster-general in 1846, and sole 
secretary to the post-office in 1854. In 1864, his health 
having failed, he retired from office, but the treasury 
awarded him for life his salary of 2000 per annum, and 
Parliament a grant of 20,000. Died August 27, 1879. 

Hill, (THOMAS,) a mathematician and Unitarian min- 
ister, born at New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1818 
graduated at Harvard in 1843. He published, besides 
other works, "Geometry and Faith," and contributed 
many articles to the " North American Review" and the 
"Atlantic Monthly." In 1859 he succeeded Horace 
Mann as president of Antioch College, Ohio. He was 
president of Harvard University from 1862 to 1868. 
Died November 21, 1891. 

Hill, (THOMAS,) an Anglo-American painter, born in 
England in 1829. When he was twelve years old he was 
brought to the United States. He became a decorator, 
first in Boston and then in Philadelphia, but in 1861 
removed to San Francisco. Among his best pictures 
are " White Mountain Notch," "The Yosemite Valley," 
"The Great Cafion," etc. 

Hill, (THOMAS FORD,) an English antiquary and philol- 
ogist, published "Ancient Erse Poems." Died in 1795. 

Hill, (WILLIAM,) D.D., an American divine, born in 
Cumberland county, Virginia, in 1769. He graduated 
at Hampden-Sidney College in 1788. From 1800 to 
1834 he was pastor of the Presbyterian church in Win 
Chester, where he died in 1852. 

Hil'lard, (GEORGE STILLMAN,) an eminent American 
writer, lawyer, and orator, born in Machias, Maine, in 
1808. While pursuing his collegiate course at Harvard, 
(where he graduated in 1828,) he is said to have been 
especially distinguished in declamation and English 
composition. He was afterwards for some time asso- 
ciated with George Bancroft in his Round Hill Seminary 
at Northampton, Massachusetts, and in 1833 was ad- 
mitted to the bar in Boston. Besides attending to 
an extensive professional business, he afterwards twice 
visited Europe, and was a member of both branches of 
the Massachusetts legislature. He was author of a great 
number of orations, lectures before the Lowell Institute, 
and contributions to the "Christian Examiner," "North 
American Review," etc. In 1852 he was selected by the 
authorities of Boston to deliver the eulogy on the char- 
acter of Daniel Webster. The next year appeared his 
"Six Months in Italy," (in 2 vols. I2tno,) which had 
reached the fifth edition in 1855. "Mr. Hillard's work," 
says a critic in the "Quarterly Review" for April, 1858, 
"is that of a scholar and a gentleman, a man of sense 
as well as of taste and feeling. His style is pointed and 
lull of happy expressions and striking images." Among 
other literary labours, Mr. Hillard edited the Poetical 
Works of Spenser, (in 5 vols. 8vo.) He was for some 
time associate editor of the "Jurist," and was for several 
years one of the principal editors of the " Boston Courier." 
He contributed several important articles to the "New 
American Cyclopaedia," including those on Alexander 
and Edward Everett and Rufus Choate. He died in 

Hillebrand, hil'Ieh-bRanr/, (JOSEPH,) a German phi- 
losophical writer, born near Hildesheim in 1788. He 
Eublished, among other works, "The Philosophy of the 
pint," (2 vols., 1835,) and "The German National 
Literature since the Beginning of the Eighteenth Cen- 
ury," (2 vols., 1845.) Died January 25, 1871. 

Hillebrand, (KARL,) a distinguished German histo 
rian, a son of the preceding, was born at Giessen, Sep- 
tember 17, 1829. Banished from Germany for political 
causes, he became in 1863 a professor at Douai. His 
"History of France since 1830," "France and the 
French, "and a treatise on educational reform, were pub- 
lished before his removal, in 1870, to Florence, where 
he became the founder and librarian of the Circolo Fi- 
lologico. He also published a volume on " England 
and the English," and .n " History of German Thought." 

a. e, 1,0 ft. y. long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, \\, ^,sAor(:a.,e,\.<),of>sfHrt; fir, fall, fat; m?t; n At; pond; moon; 




Most of his writings are in German. Died at Florence, 
October 18, 1884. 

Hillel, a famous Jewish rabbi, born at Babylon about 
IIO B.C., was descended from King David. He went 
to Jerusalem at the age of forty, acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the law, and was chosen president of the 
Sanhedrim about 30 B.C. The origin of the Talmud or 
Mishna is asciibed to Hillel, who was the leader of a 
numerous school or party. He died at the age of one 
hundred and twenty years. 

Hillel, a noted rabbi, supposed to have lived about 
300 A.D., was a descendant of the preceding. He re- 
formed the Jewish calendar by means of a cycle of nine- 
teen years. 

Hitler, hil'ler, (FERDINAND,) a celebrated German 
composer, born of Jewish parents at Frankfort, October 
24, 181 1. He published an oratorio of the " Destruction 
of Jerusalem," (1840,) "The Musical Life of our Times," 
(1868,) and Lives of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. Died 
at Cologne, May n, 1885. 

Hil'ler, (JOHANN ADAM,) whose real name was 
HULLER, a Prussian musician and composer, born at 

Hiller, (MATTHAUS,) a German Orientalist, born at 
Stuttgart in 1646, was professor of Oriental languages 
and theology at Tubingen. He wrote a " Latin Hebrew 
Lexicon," (1685.) Died in 1725. 

Hiller, (PHILIPP FRIEDRICH,) one of the best of the 
South-German religious poets, was born at Miihlhausen, 
in Wurtemberg, January 6, 1699. He became a Prot- 
estant pastor, and died at Steinheim, April 24, 1769. 

Hiller, von, fon hil'ler, (JoHANN,) BARON, an Aus- 
trian general, born at Neustadt, near Vienna, in 1754. 
In 1809 he obtained command of the sixth corps of the 
army of the archduke Charles. Although he was de- 
feated by Napoleon at Landshut in April, he contributed 
greatly to the success of the Austrians at Aspern in the 
next month. Died in 1819. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Hillern, von, fon hil'lern, (WILHELMINE,) a German 
novelist, a daughter of Charlotte Birch- Pfeiffer, was 
born March n, 1836. Among her stories are "Double 
Life," "A Physician of the Soul," "The Geier-Wally," 

Hillerup, hil'leh-rup', (FREDERIK CHRISTIAN,) a 
Danish poet, born at Vedelsborg in 1793, published a 
work called " Italica," (1829,) and "New Poems," ("Nye 
Digte,") in 1854. Died May 5, 1861. 

Hill'house, (JAMES,) an American lawyer, born in 
Connecticut in 1754. He was a Senator of the United 
States from 1794 to 1810. Died in 1832. 

Hiilhouse, (JAMES A.,) an American poet, son of the 
preceding, born at New Haven in 1789. He removed 
to New York City, and married Cornelia Lawrence in 
1824. His first poem, "The Judgment, a Vision," ap- 
peared in 1812. He also wrote the following admired 
dramas : " Percy's Masque," " Hadad," and " Demetria " 
Died in 1841. 

See GRISWOLD, "Poets and Poetry of America;" DUYCKINCK, 
" Cyclopedia ot" American Literature," vol. ii. ; CLEVELAND, "Com- 
pendium of American Literature ;" " North American Review" for 
January, 1840. 

Billiard, (HENRY WASHINGTON,) LL.D., an Ameri- 
can clergyman and statesman, born in Cumberland 
county, North Carolina, August 8, 1808. He graduated 
at South Carolina College in 1826, became a lawyer of 
Athens, Georgia, in 1829, and was a professor in the 
University of Alabama, 1831-34. In 1842 he went to 
Belgium as United States minister, was several times 
elected to Congress as a Whig, and served as a brigadier- 
general in the Confederate service. After the war he prac- 
tised law in Georgia, and was also a Methodist preacher. 
In 1877 he was appointed United States minister to 
Brazil. He published a volume of speeches, (1855,) and 
" De Vane," a novel. Died in Atlanta, Dec. 17, 1892. 

Billiard, hll'yard, (NICHOLAS,) an English painter, 
born at Exeter in 1547, learned the trade of a jeweller, 
and afterwards became eminent as a miniature-painter. 
He executed an admired portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, 

as /t; 9 as i; g hard; g asj; G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as *; th as in j 

and was patronized by Queen Elizabeth and James I. 
Died in 1619. 

Hil'precht, (HERMAN VOLRATTES,) an ar- 
chaeologist, born at Hohenerxleben, Germany, in 
1859. He studied in various German universities, 
emigrated to the United States, and in 1886 became 
professor of Assyrian and Semitic philology at the 
University of Pennsylvania. He became curator of 
the Semitic section of the museum, and was director 
of the excavations at Nippur, Babylonia, 1888-99, 
which added greatly to our knowledge of the antiquity 
of Babylonian civilization. He is the leading au- 
thority on cuneiform palaeography. 

Hilton, (WALTER,) an English monk of the fifteenth 
century, lived at Sheen, and wrote " The Ladder of Per- 

Hilton, (WILLIAM,) a successful English historical 
painter, born at Lincoln in 1786. About 1800 he became 
a student in the Royal Academy, and in 1804 exhibited 
his " Hector reinspired by Apollo." In 1819 or 1820 
he was elected a member of the Academy, and in 1825 
succeeded Fuseli as keeper of that institution. He at- 
tained a high rank among the English artists of his time. 
Among his best works are "Nature blowing Bubbles," 
and "The Graces teaching Cupid to play on the Lyre." 
Died in 1839. 

Hi-me'rI-us, ['1,0/piof,] an eminent Greek sophist ot 
Prusa, Bithynia. He became master of a celebrated school 
in Athens, and afterwards secretary of the emperor Julian 
at Antioch about 362 A.D. He composed many orations, 
of which about twenty are extant His style is rather 
bombastic. Among his pupils were Gregory Nazianzen 
and Saint Basil. He was always a pagan, but moderate 
or friendly to the Christians. 

Hl-mil'co or Hi-mil'cpn, a Carthaginian navigator, 
the date of whose adventures is unknown. Pliny states 
that he sailed northward from Gades on a voyage of dis- 
covery about the time that Hanno explored the western 
coast of Africa. R. Festus Avienus quotes him as his 
authority for an account of the islands of the Hiberni 
and Albioni. 

Himilco or Himilcon, an able Carthaginian general, 
who was joined with Hannibal in the command ofa large 
army in the war against Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse. 
He took Agrigentum after a long siege, during which 
the death of Hannibal left him sole commander, (406 
B.C.) He defeated Dionysius about 405, soon after which 
peace was concluded. The war having been renewed in 
397 B.C., Himilco raised an army of 100,000 men, with 
which he marched victoriously to the gates of Syra- 
cuse. While he was besieging this city, his army was 
wasted by pestilence and defeated by the Syracusans. 
He escaped to Carthage and killed himself. 
See DIODORUS SICULUS, books xiiL, xiv.. and xx. 
Himilco or Himilcon was commander of the fleet 
of Carthage, on the coast of Sicily, in 214 B.C., while 
Marcellus commanded the Romans in that island. He 
landed an army in 213, gained some advantages, and, 
having failed in an attempt to relieve Syracuse, died of 
pestilence in 212 B.C. 

Himly, him'lee, (KARL GUSTAV,) aGerman physician, 
born at Brunswick in 1772, was professor of medicine at 
Gottingen. He was distinguished for his skilful treat 
ment of diseases of the eyes, on which he published a 
valuable work. Died in 1837. 

Himmel, him'mel, (FRIEDRICH HEINRICH,) a Ger- 
man composer, born in the duchy of Brandenburg in 
1765, was appointed chapel-master at Berlin about 1796. 
Among his best works are the operas of " Fanchon" and 
"The Sylphs." Died in 1814. 

See FiTis, "Biographic Universelle des Musiciens." 
Hinch'cliffe, (JOHN,) an English divine and orator, 
born at Westminster in 1731. He became head-master 
of Westminster School in 1764, and Bishop of Peter- 
borough in 1769. Died in 1794. 

Hinckeldey, hink'kel-dl, (KARL LUDWIG FRIED- 
RICH,) a Prussian administrator, born near Meiningen 
in 1803. He became minister or prefect of police in 
Berlin in 1848. He was killed in a duel in 1856. 

Explanations, p. 23. ' 




Hinckelmanu, hink'kel-man', (ABRAHAM,) a Ger- 
man Orientalist, born at Dobeln in 1652, published an 
edition of the Koran, (1694,) said to be the first ever 
printed in Arabic. Died in 1695. 

Hinck'ley, (JoHN,) an English clergyman, bom 11 
1617, was rector of Drayton. Died in 1695. 

Hincmar, hink'mar, a learned French prelate, bom 
in 806 A.D., entered the Abbey of Saint-Dems in child- 
hood He acquired much influence, and became a fa- 
vourite at the court of Charles the Bald. In 845 he was 
elected Archbishop of Rheims. He distinguished him- 
self by his firmness in defending the Church against 
encroachments of the papal and royal power. He wrote, 
besides other works, two treatises on Predestination, in 

of Booddha, was born about 602 A.D. He travelled 
in Hindostan and other countries, of which he wrote dt- 
scriptions. He translated into the Chinese many Hindr-o 


works on the religion of Booddha. 
See "Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale." 
Hip-par'ehus, [Gr. 

Died in 664 A.D. 


e'pSRk',] son of Pisistratus, an Athenian, who, in part- 
nership with his brother Hippias, obtained the chief 
power in the state in 527 B.C. He was assassinated by 
Harmodius and Aristogiton in 514. Hippias survived; 
but, having rendered himself unpopular by cruelty and 
suspicious habits, (although it is said he was previously 
mild and affable,) he was expelled from Athens in 511. 
He afterwards passed many years at the court of the 

one of which he attempts to refute the famous Erigena. | Persian king Darius, served as guide to the Persian 
He is censured for his severity to Godeschalcus, who army which invaded Greece, and was at the battle of 
was confined in a dungeon for his heretical opinions on Marathon, where, according to some writers, he was 

the question of predestination. Died in 882 A.D. 

See " Gallia Christiana ;" W. F. GESS, " Merkwurdigkeiten am 
dem Leben und den Schriften Hincmar's," 1806; "Nouvelle Bio- 
graphic Generate. " 

Hiiicks, (Rev. EDWARD,) distinguished for his know- 
ledge of Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions, was bora in 
Cork, Ireland, in 1791. Died December 3, 1866. 

Hind, (JOHN RUSSELL,) an eminent English astron- 
omer, born at Nottingham in 1823. He obtained in 
1840 a situation in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. 
In 1845 he removed to another observatory in Regent's 
Park, London, where he has had remarkable success as 

killed, 490 B.C. 

See HERODOTUS, books ii., v., vi., and viL ; THIRLWAU, " HU- 
tory of Greece." 

Hipparchus, [Gr. IOTTO^-DC; Fr. HIPPARQUE; It. 
IPPARCO, 4p-paR'ko,] the founder of the science of as- 
tronomy, and the greatest astronomer of antiquity, was a 
native of Nicza, in Bithynia. He was of Greek extrac- 
tion, and flourished about 150 B.C. Many of his obser- 
vations were made at Rhodes. His writings are all lost, 
except a " Commentary on Aratus," which is the least 
important ; but the knowledge of his discoveries has been 
preserved by Ptolemy in his " Syntaxis." The first who 

1 * . . i y ._ c_ . _ _i ti__ *; _ i ,.,u.. 

an observer. He discovered, besides several comets, ten ma( j e systematic observations, he was also the first who 
telescopic planets, namely, Iris, (1847,) Flora, (1847,) discovered that fundamental fact in astronomy, the 
Victoria, (1850,) Irene, (1851,) Melpomene, Fortuna, pre cession of the equinoxes. A discovery so important 
Calliope, and Thalia, (all in 1852,) Euterpe, (1853,) and wou |d have sufficed to immortalize him ; but he also 
Urania, (1854.) He wrote several works, among which ' g rea tly enriched the science of mathematics, and was 

The Solar System : a Descriptive Treatise on the 
Sun, Moon, and Planets," (1852.) Died Dec. 23, 1895. 

Hmd'mau, (THOMAS C.,) an American general, born 
in Tennessee about 1818. He lived in Arkansas before 
the civil war, and was a member of Congress. He com- 
manded the rebel forces at Prairie Grove, Arkansas, in 
December, 1862, and served as major-general at the 
battle of Chickamauga. Died September 27, 1868. 

Hinds, (SAMUEL,) D.D., a British author, born in 
Barbadoes in 1793. He graduated at Queen's College, 
Oxford, in 1815, and in 1849 was consecrated Bishop of 
Norwich. He published a " History of Christianity,^ 
(1849, often reprinted,) "Sonnets and Sacred Poems," 
and various theological works. Died February 7, 1872. 

Hinojosa y Carbajal, e-no-Ho'sa e kaR-Bi-Hll', 
(ALVARO DE.) a Spanish poet, who lived about 1620. 

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe." 

Hinrichs, hln'riKs, (HERMANN FRIEDRICH Wn.- 
HELM,) a German philosopher, born in Oldenburg in 
1794, published "The Genesis of Science," ("Genesis 
des Wissens," 1835,) and other works. Died in 1861. 

Hina'dale, (BuRKE AARON,) an American educator, 
born at Wadsworth, Ohio, March 31, 1837. He was 
educated at Hiram College, of which he was president, 
1870-83. In 1883 he was appointed superintendent of 
public schools in Cleveland, Ohio. His principal books 
are "President Garfield and Education," (1881,) 
" Schools and Studies," (1884,) etc. He edited General 
Garfield's " Works," (1883,) etc. 

Hin'ton, (JAMES,) a noted English surgeon, a son of 
J. II. Hiiiton, was born at Reading in 1822. Among his 
works are " Man and his Dwelling- Place," (1858,) " Life 
in Nature," " Thoughts on Health," (1871,) "Atlas of 
Diseases of the Membrana Tympani," "Questions of 
Aural Surgery," " The Mystery of Man," and " The Place 
of the Physician." He was the most skilful aural sur- 
geon of his day, and a very suggestive writer on ethical 
subjects. Died December 16, 1875. 

Hin'ton, (JOHN HOWARD,) an English writer on his- 
tory and theology, was born March 24, 1791. He became 
minister of a Baptist congregation in Devonshire Square, 
London. He published, besides other works, "The 
History and Topography of the United States of North 
America," (2 vols., 1832.) Died December 17, 1873. 
Hiob, the German of JOB, which see. 
Hiooen- or Hiouen-Thsang or Vouen-Thsang, 
yoo'en-tsang, a celebrated Chinese traveller and priest 

the first who understood trigonometry, both plane and 
spherical. He invented the planisphere and the stereo- 
graphic projection, and gave rules for the calculation of 
eclipses, by means of which he determined the longitude. 
According to Pliny, who calls him the confidant and 
interpreter of nature, Hipparchus, having perceived a 
new star that suddenly appeared in his time, was stimu- 
lated by it to form his Catalogue of one thousand and 
eighty stars, which is preserved in the "Almagest" of 
Ptolemy. In this operation he used the astrolabe, which 
was probably invented by him. He originated a more 
complete system of geography, and the mode of de- 
termining the position of towns by circles drawn on 
the earth corresponding to those of the celestial sphere. 
Among his lost works were "On the Magnitudes and 
Distances of the Sun and Moon," " The Movement of 
the Moon in Latitude," and " On the Retrogradation of 
the Equinoctial and Solstitial Points." 

See PLIKV, "Natural History;" MONTUCLA, "Histoire de 
Maih^matiques ;" DELAMBRE, " Histoire de |'Astronomie ancienne ;" 
DR. HOEFKR'S article in the "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale ;' J 
A. SCHMIDT. "Dissertatio de Hipparcho." etc., 1689. 

Hipparchus, an Athenian comic poet, who lived 
probably about 300 B.C. 

Hipparque. See HIPPARCHUS. 

Hip'pa-sus, [Gr. '\mtaao(,\ a Pythagorean philoso- 
pher, born at Metapontum, held, it is said, the doctrine 
that fire was the origin of all things. 

Hippeau, e'po', (CiLESTiN,) a French IMrattur, 
born at Niort in 1803, published a " History of Ancient 
and Modern Philosophy," (1833,) etc. Died in 1883. 

Hippel, von, fon hip'pei, (THEODOR GOTTLIEB,) a 
German humorist and original thinker, born at Gerdauen, 
in Prussia, in 1741. He studied law, and became in 1780 
burgomaster of Konigsberg. He claimed for women 
admission to civil offices and a greater social equality. 
Among his works are a " Treatise on Marriage," (" Ueber 
die Ehe," 1774,) " Designs after Nature," (1790,) an Au- 
tobiography, (1800,) and "The Education of Women," 
(1801.) His character was eccentric. Died in 1796. 

See GERVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen Dichtung," fourth edi- 
tion, vol. v. ; W. G. KEBER, " Nachrichten und Bemerkungen dey 
Eheimen Kriegsrath von Hippel betrefifend," 1802; " Biographic T 
von Hippel's zum Theil von ihm sclbst vertasst," 1800. 


Hip'pl-as, I'lmrioc,] a Greek sophist, born at Elis, 
was a contemporary of Socrates. His character is ex- 
hibiteH by Plato in his dialogue called " Hippias Major." 

i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y,s&ort; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fall, lit; met; not; good ; moon. 




was elected president in 1890. 

held that moisture, or water, is the principle of all things, 
and derived much of his system from Thales. 

Hippocrate. See HIPPOCRATES. 

Hip-poc'ra-tes, [Gr. 'ImroxpuTjif ; Fr. HIPFOCRATE, 


SUNT, a Christian bishop and ecclesiastical writer, 
who has recently attracted great attention on the 
part of scholars and theologians. He was dissident 

..... Bishop of Portus, (the harbour of Rome,) and the 

e'po'kRa-t'; It. IPPOCRATE, ep-pok Ra-ti,] the most emi- aut h O r of numerous learned works, highly extolled by 
nent physician of antiquity, justly styled the " Father of EusebiuS; T er ome, and other Christian Fathers. After 
Medicine," was born in the island of Cos in 460 B.C., occ ing the see of Portus eighteen years or more, 
and was contemporary with Socrates and Plato. He was he ba |j died in exile in Sardinia about 2^8 A.D. 
the son of Heraclides, a descendant of Esculapius, from jfrypafa^ [n ^ 6 ArTOf,] a son of Theseus and Hip- 
whom he derived, his first lessons ,n medicine His , t F or y Anti ' o l e . T he poets relate that his step- 
family the Asclepiad* .for many generations had prac- mot y he ' r Phsdra ade to him amorou. overtures which 
tised the same art Ihematenals for writing his per- she thfin fc , jnduced Theseus 

sonal history are deficient. He is said to have studied . '_ u: _ 1 iU _. _, J 

medicine at Athens under I 

philosophy of Gorgias of 

tised and taught in Cos also in Thessaly, and at the court Hip-pom'e-don, ftao^dui/,1 a Spartan 

of Perdiccas, King , of Macedonia, etc. Soranus relates * f A u | an( f a co ' usin </ Ki A ^ s Iv ; 

that he acquired fame by checking the ravages of the ted | is in ' his efforts to reform & | partan 

plague m Athens, and was rewarded with the freedom institu [ ns . He * vas ]ivi in 22O B . c . 

? f '_ ha '. a ^l^ n l^ L'^^ h n U ^^I h !^ ! r L t ^' Hip-po'na, the name of g a goddess v 


of Theseus, Nep- 

warrior , 

he refused the invitation and magnificent offers of Ar 
taxerxes, is by some discredited. 

His superior talents, his rare sagacity, his signal suc- 
cess, and his devoted humanity, inspired universal con- 
fidence and respect. He had a great number of pupils, 
from whom he exacted an oath that they would never 
abuse their trust by criminal piactice, nor divulge pro- 
fessional secrets. He held that the body is composed 
of four primary elements, fire, air, earth, and 

Hip-po'na, the name of a goddess who presided over 
horses. Her statues were placed in stables. 

Greek poet, who lived 
Ephesus. Having been 
expelled from that city by its tyrants, he removed to 
Clazomene. He wrote satires, of which only a few frag- 

Hi'ram, King of Tyre, began to reign about 1025 B.C. 


bile, ana black bile, rie knew Dut little ot anatomy. ,. . .. . tr . f , , 

H . d f dth f b b h's s " len dly relations. He was a wise and successful ruler. 

in substituting experiment and observation for specula- See ' Krags * and I- chronlcles Hv - 

rive theories. He paid more attention than his prede- Hiranyakasipu. See NARASINGHA. 

cessors to diet and changes of weather. Among the Hire, de la. See LA HIRE. 

most remarkable of his discoveries is that of critical days Hirnheim, hdeRn'him, or Hernhaym, heRn'hlm, 

in fevers. Of the numerous (Greek) works ascribed to (HlHRONYMUS,) a German monk and writer, born at 

him, it is probable that some were composed by other Troppau in 1635 ; died in 1679. 

writers, as there were several noted physicians of the Hirsch, hSSRsh, ( JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German 

same name. He died at Larissa, at an age which is | economist and^numismatist^born^m 1698^; diedjn 1780. 

variously stated between eighty-five and one hundred 

and nine years. 

As an inventor he is unrivalled by 

any physician of ancient or modern times. Among his 
chief works are " Prognostics," " Epidemics," " On Regi- 

Hirsch, (MAX,) a German (Hebrew) author and 
liberal politician, born at Halberstadt, December 30, 
1832. Besides books of travel, etc., he has written much 
on social and labour questions, politics, etc., and has 

men," and "On Air, Water, and Locality." Of the taken a prominent place in the German Reichstag, 
eighty-seven extant treatises ascribed to him, only a few Hirsch, (SAMUEL,) Ph.D., an eminent Jewish rabbi, 
are undoubtedly genuine. i born at Thalfingen, Rhenish Prussia, June 8, 1815. He 

S SORANUS, "Vita Hippocratis," in FABK.CIUS, " Bibliotheca ' was educated at Metz, Bonn, Berlin, and Leipsic, where 

jiedes Hippocrates und seiner Grundsitze," = vols., 1789^ movement among Amejican Jews. 
P. GESNHR, "De Divino Hippocrate," 1739: KARL F. MAR- works 


1838 ; A. OBTTINGKR, 

Among his chief 

orks are "Religious Philosophy of the Jews,""Hu- 
anity as Religion," " Messiah-Lore of the Jews," 


" Apolo] 

9*: C.I 

cus, " Dissertatio de Vita 

" Hippocratis Vita," 1836. 

Hippocrates, a Syracusan, shared with his brother 
Epicvdes the command of the army which defender 1 , 
Syracuse against Marcellus, 213 B.C. ^Died in 212 B.C. Austnan &ncier, born at Munich in 1831. 

Hippocrates OF CHIOS, a noted Greek geometer, 

Hirsch de Gerenth, (MAURICE DE,) BARON, an 

Left a 

large fortune by his father, and marrying a woman 

who lived in the fifth century before Christ He studied v/ith a dowry of $20,000,000 he engaged in ex- 
at Athens, where he opened a celebrated school. He tensive business operations, and gained a fortune of 
first discovered the quadrature of the lune. $200,000,000. With this he entered upon large b 

Hip-po-da-mi'a[Gr. 'Imroia/ieia] or Hip-pod'a-me, ne.-olent schemes for the benefit of his fellow- Jews, 
A daughter of O2NOMAUS, which see. his gifts aggregating $50,000,000, while those of his 

Hip-pod'a-mus ['Imroda/tof] OF MILETUS, an emi- wife were proportionately liberal. He died Decem- 
nent Greek architect, lived about 440 B.C. He built ber 10, 1896, and his wife April I, 1899. 
the Pirzus of Athens, under the order of Pericles, and Hirscher, heSRsh'er, (JoHANN BAPTIST,) a Swiss 
planned the city of Rhodes, about 408 B.C. Catholic theologian, born near Altorf in 1788. His prin- 

Hippolyte. See HIPPOLYTUS. cipal work is "Christian Morality," ("Christliche Mo- 

Hip-pol'y-te, ['Imro^wn;,! the Queen ol the Amazons, Ia \," 3 vols., 5th edition, 1851.) Died September 4, 1865. 
was called a daughter of Mars. The poets feigned that Hirsching, he^Rsh'ing, (FRIEDRICH KARL GOTTLOB,) 
she had a girdle coveted by Eurystheus, who ordered , a German antiquary, born at Uffenheim in 1762, became 
Hercules to bring it to him. She was killed by Hercules. p ro fessor of philosophy at Erlangen in 1792. He pub- 

Hippolyte, (Louis MODESTIN FLORVIL,) a 
president of Hayti, was born at Cape Haytien in 1827. 
He was educated in France, joined the Haytian army, 
and distinguished himself. In 1889 he headed the in- 
surrection that overthrew President Legitime, and seized 

lished several useful works, among which are a "De- 
scription of the Best Libraries of Germany," (4 vols., 
1790,) and a "Historical and Literary Manual of Emi- 
nent Persons who died in the Eighteenth Century," 
I" Historisch-literarisches Handbuch beriihmter Perso- 

j; g hard; g as>; G, H,K,guttural; y,najat; f.,trilled; sasz; thasinMu. (2^="See Explanations, p. 23.) 




nen," etc., 1794-1815, 17 vols.) 

Ihis were edited by J. H. M. Ernesti. 

The last 12 volumes of "Reports on the Geology of Massachusetts," (1833-41.) 
; Died in 1800. Among his numerous works are "The Geology of the 

Hirschvogel, hetRsh'fo'fel, (AUGUSTIN,) a German Connecticut Valley," (1823,) "The Religion of Geology 
' rn at Nuremberg in 1506 ; died , an d its Connected Sciences," (1851,) and " Illustrations 

painter\ engraver, born 
in 1560. 

Hirst, (.IENRY B.,) an American poet, born in Phila- 
delphia in 1813. He studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1843. His first poems appeared in " Graham's 
Magazine." He afterwards published " The Coming of 

of Surface-Geology," (1857.) By'his exposition of the 
fossil footprints of the Connecticut valley he originated 
a new branch of science, called Ichnology. He published 
in 1848 " Fossil Footprints in the United States." He 
was the chief founder and first president of the American 

the Mammoth, the Funeral o'f Time, and other Poems," Geological Association. Died in 1864. 
(1845, )and "Endymion, a Tale of Greece, in four cantos," See " Silhman's Journal," oL ili.; "North British Review" foi 
'1848.) Died March 30, 1874. 

Hirt orHirth, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German Orien- Hitchcock, (ETHAN ALLEN,) an American writer and 
talist and writer, born at Apolda in 1719, was professor military officer, a grandson of Ethan Allen, was born in 
of theology at Jena. Died in 1784. i Vergennes, Vermont, in 1798. He graduated at West 

HirtiuB.hir'she-us, (AULUS,) a Roman consul and gen- Point in 1817, and served in the Seminole war in Florida, 
eral, was a patricilnby birth. Cicero, who was his inti- > I" tne war witn Mexico he was attached to the staff of 
mate friend, speaks highly of his talents. He served General Scott, and in 1847 promoted to the rank of 
under Czsar in the Gallic war, and supported his party brigadier-general. He was subsequently sent to Cali- 
in the civil war. After the death of Caesar, Hirtius f rr >ia, as commandant of the Pacific division, but he 
joined Brutus against Antony, and was elected consul returned in 1854, and the next year resigned his com- 
with C. Vibius Pansa. In 43 B.C. these consuls gained mission. lie wrote "Swedenborg a Hermetic Philo- 
a victory over Antony at Mutina, (M6dena;) but Hirtius sopher," (1858.) Died in 1870. 

was killed in the action. He is supposed to be the i Hitchcock, (PETER,) an American jurist, born in 
author of the continuation of " Csesar's Commentaries" \ Cheshire, Connecticut, in 1780, graduated at Yale in 
which forms the eighth book of the "Gallic War," and | l8c "- He represented a district of Ohio in Congress 
also of two other treatises on the campaigns of Caesar, from 1817 to 1819, and was subsequently judge of the 
viz., the Alexandrian and the African. supreme court of the State for twenty-eight years, for 

Hirzel, hetRt'sel, (BERNHARD,) a Swiss Orientalist, ? ix J ears of which P eriod he was chlef J ustic e- 
born at Zurich in 1807, translated the "Sakuntala" of m i?53- 
Kalidasa from the Sanscrit into German. Died in 1847. 


Hitch'cock, (ROSWELL DWIGHT,) D.D., I.L.D., an 

Hirzel, (HANS CASPAR,) a Swiss physician and sen- I American clergyman, was born at East Machias, Maine, 

- * --<- iit_-.s-_ r. , August 15, 1817. He graduated at Amherst College in 

1836, and studied divinity at Andover Seminary, lie 
was a professor in Bowdoin College from 1852 to 1855, 

ator, born at Zurich in 1725, wrote a "1 realise on Rural 
Economy," and " The Rustic Socrates," (1761-74.) Died 

'"nisely, hez'le', (JEAN JOSEPH,) a Swiss historian, >; eca .me professor of church historyln Union Theological' 
born in 1800, wrote, in French, " Researches on William 3em i" ar y '" New York in 1855, and in iSSo was chosen 
Tell," (1843.) and other works on Swiss history. '5 s J ldent - _ Among his works are a " Lite of Edwaid 

Hisham. See HE-SHAM. 

Hisinger, hee'sing-er, or Hising, hee'sing, (WiL- 
HELM,) a Swedish mineralogist, born in 1766, published, 
besides other works, " Lethea Suecica, seu petrificata 
Sueciae," (1837-40.) Died in 1852. 

HiatiaeuB, his-te-ee'us, |Gr. '[muuof ; FT. HisriiE, 
is'te'a',] an able and crafty ruler of Miletus, to whom 

Darius intrusted the duty of guarding a bridge over the 
Danube during his invasion of Scythia, about 512 B.C. 
He refused to desert Darius at the instigation cf Mil- 

Robinson," (1863,) an " Analysis of the Bible." (Itioy,) 
and "Socialism," (1878.) Died June 16, 1887. 

Hit' tell, (JOHN SHERZER,) an American author, 
born at Jonestown, Pennsylvania, in 1825. He was 
for twenty-five years a journalist in San Francisco, 
and wrote " History of the Mental Growth of Man- 
kind in Ancient Times," "The Evidences against 

Christianity," "The Resources of California," etc. 

His brother, THEODORE HENRY HITTELL, bom in 
1830, went to California in 1855 and practised law 

tiades ; but he afterwards revolted, and was put to death there after 1862. He wrote " History of California," 
by the Persians about 494 B.C. i General Laws of California," etc. 

Hittorf, hit'toRf or ^e'toRr*, (JACQUES IGNACE,) an emi- 

Hita, de, dk ee'ti, (GiNES PEREZ,) a Spanish chrcmi- nen t architect and antiquary, born at Cologne in 1793, 
cler, born in Murcia, lived between 1550 and 1600. He j was a pupil of BeManger. He was appointed architect to 

wrote an interesting work, entitled "The Civil Wars of 

See TICKNOR, "History of Spanish Literature." 

the King of France in 1818, after which he visited Italy. 
He commenced about 1834 the church of Saint Vincent 
de Paul, (in the Italian style,) and designed the remark- 
Hitch'cock, (CHARLES HENRY,) Ph.D., an American able works of the Place de Concorde. Among his capital 
geologist, a son of Prof. Edward Hitchcock, was born 'works are the Grand Circus, (1840,) the Panorama, the 
at Amherst, Massachusetts, August 23, 1836. He grad- roof of which is supported by twelve iron cables, and 
aated at Amherst College in 1856. He studied divinity the Cirque-Napoleon, (1851.) M. Hittorf acquired a 
at New Haven, and science at the Royal School of European reput lion by these structures, and by his 
Mines. London. He was professor of geology at Lafay- writings on classical art, namely, " Polychromic Archi- 
ette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, 1866-70, and after- lecture of the Greeks," (1830,) "Modern Architecture 
wards was professor of the same science in Dartmouth of Sicily," (1837,) and "Ancient Architecture of Sicily." 
College. He publishedmanyscientific papers, andseveral He was a member of the Institute. Died in 1867. 
volumes of reports prepared in conneclion wilh various See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

State geological surveys. Hitzig, hit'sic, (JERDINAND,) a German biblical critic, 

Hitch'cock, (EDWARD,) an eminent American geol- : born in Baden in 1807. He became professor of theology 
ogist, born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, May 24, 1793. at Zurich in 1833. His principal works are a "Transla- 
He became pastor of the Congregational church in Con- lion and Exposition of Isaiah," (1833,) and commentaries 
way, Massachusetts, in 1821, and professor of chemistry on the other greater prophets, (1841-50.) Died in 1875. 
arid natural history in Amherst College in 1825. 1111840 Hitzig, (GEORG HEINRICH FRIEDRICH,) a distin- 
he published his "Elementaiy Geology," a valuable guished German architect, born in 1811 ; died in 1881. 
work, which passed through rwenty-five or more edi- Hjaerne or Hiaerne, he-eVneh, (URBAN,) a Swedish 
tions. From 1845 to '854 he was president of Amherst physician and naturalist, born in 1641, became first phy- 
College, the prosperity of which increased greatly under sician to the king Carl XI., and vice-president of tho 
his direction. He became about 1845 professor of natu Council of Mines. He wrote, besides other works, 

ral theology and geology in that institution. Having 
been appointed State geologist for Massachusetts, he 
made a geological survey of that State, ami 

"Acta et Tentamina chimica," (" Chemical Experiments," 
1712,) and " Oryctographia Suecana," (1716.) Died in 

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, s/iart; a, e, i, p, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mil; nfit; good; moon: 




Hjort, he-oRt' or hyoRt, (PEDER,) a Danish granv 
manan, born near Copenhagen in 1793. After an ex- 
tensive tour in France and Italy, he became professor 
of German at Sorbe. He wrote several successful works 
on grammar, among which are "Tydsk Grammatik for 
Dansktalende," ("German Grammar for the Use of 
Danes," 5th edition, i85l,)"Tydsk Lasebog for Dansk- 
talende," (" German Reader for the Use of Danes," 3d 
edition, 1843,) and "Den Danske Borneven," ("The 
Danish Child's Friend." Died November n, 1871. 

Hliii, hleen, Hlina, hlee'na, or Lyna, lee'na, [sup- 
posed to be derived from klyna t to " warm" or " become 
warm,"] in the Northern mythology, a goddess, whose 
office it is to watch over those whom Frigga wishes to 
guard from peril. As Frigga represents the earth's 
fertility, so Hlin typifies the mild warmth which protects 
the tender plants from the breath of the Frost-giants. 

Hlodyn, hlo'din, [in all probability the same as HLU- 
_DANA, the Latin name of a deity of the ancient Germans,] 
in the Norse mythology, the mother of Thor, and prob- 
ably another name for Fiorgyn or Fiorgvin, (also called 
the mother of Thor,) the goddess of the earth. Thorpe 
derives it from Hafta, (allied to the English "lade" and 
" load,") to " heap up," to " load." Fiorgynn (as a mas- 
culine noun) was said to be the father of Frigga. 

Hlubek, hloo'bek, (FRANZ XAVER WILHELM,) a Ger. 
man writer on rural economy, born in Silesia in 1802. His 
principal works are " The Nutrition of Plants and Statics 
of Agriculture," (1841,) and a "Complete Treatise on 
Rural Economy," (2 vols., 1846.) Died Feb. 10, 1880. 

Hoad'ley or Hoadly, (BENJAMIN,) an English divine, 
corn at Westerham in 1676, took orders about 1700. 
His zeal for religious liberty and opposition to the High- 
Church principles caused his promotion in 1715 to the see 
ofBangor. In 1717 he preached a sermon before the king, 
from which arose the great Bangorian controversy. This 
was maintained by Snape, Law, and other partisans of 
the High Church on one hand, and Hoadley on the other. 
He was made Bishop of Hereford in 1721, and of Win- 
chester in 1734. He wrote a "Life of Dr. Samuel 
Clarke," and a few other works. Died in 1761. 

See " Biographia Britannica," 

Hoadley, (BENJAMIN,) M.D., eldest son of the pre- 
ceding, was born in London in 1705, and graduated in 
1729. In 1742 he was appointed physician to the king's 
household, and in 1746 to that of the Prince of Wales. 
He wrote " The Suspicious Husband," a comedy, which 
was successful, and assisted Hogarth in the " Analysis 
of Beauty." Died in 1757. 

Hoar, (EBENEZER ROCKWOOD,) an able lawyer, the 
son of Samuel Hoar, noticed below, was born at Con- 
cord, Massachusetts, in 1816. His mother was a daugh- 
ter of the celebrated Roger Sherman. He graduated at 
Harvard in 1835, was admitted to the bar about 1840, 
and practised in Boston. In 1859 he was appointed a 
justice of the supreme court of Massachusetts, was 
attorney-general of the United States, 1869-70. and 
member of Congress, 1873-75. Died Jan. 31, 1895. 

Hoar, (GEORGE FRISBIE,) LL.D., an American Sen- 
ator, born in Concord, Massachusetts, August 29, 1826, a 
son of Samuel Hoar, noticed below. He graduated at 
Harvard College in 1846, and at the Dane Law School, 
served in Congress, 1868-76, and was sent to the United 
States Senate from Massachusetts in 1877, and suc- 
cessively re-elected. He served on the Tilden- 
Hayes Electoral Commission, and presided over the 
Republican National Convention of 1880. 

Hoar, (SAMUEL,) a lawyer, born at Lincom, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1778, was the father of the preceding. He 
was sent by the Governor of Massachusetts to South 
Carolina in 1844, to protect the rights of certain free 
negro sailors who had been imprisoned in Charleston ; 
but he was driven from that city by a mob before he 
could perform his mission. Died in 1856. 

Hoare, (PRINCE,) an English artist and dramatist, 
born at Bath in 1754, was the son of William Hoare, 
noticed below. He studied painting at Rome, and in 
1799 was chosen foreign secretary of the Royal Acad- 
emy. He is chiefly known as the author of dramas, as 
"No Song, No Supper," " Lock and Key," etc. Died 
in 1834. 

Hoare, (Sir RICHARD COLT,) a noted English anti- 
quary, born in 1758, married in 1783 the daughter of 
Lord Lyttleton, and inherited the title of baronet in 1787. 
He gained distinction as a topographer and antiquarian 
by his " Ancient and Modern History of Wiltshire," and 
wrote several other works. Died in 1838. 

Hoare, (WILLIAM,) R.A., an English historical and 
portrait painter, born at Bath about 1706 He was one 
of the original members of the Royal Academy. After 
studying many years at Rome, he returned to Bath, and 
worked with great success, especially in portraits. Died 
n 1792. 

Ho'bart, (AUGUSTUS CHARLES,) known as HOBART 
P \SIIA, a naval commander, born in England, April i, 
1822, a son of the Earl of Buckinghamshire. He entered 
the royal navy in 1836, commanded the Queen's yacht, 
1845-47, and served in the Crimean war. In 1861-65, 
being still an officer of the British navy, he commanded 
a blockade-runner on the coast of the United States. 
In 1867 he entered the Turkish navy, served against the 
Cretan insurgents, and was soon made an admiral and 
inspector-general of the navy. In 1881 he was made a 
marshal of the Turkish Empire. Died in 1886. 

Ho'bart, (GARRET AUGUSTUS,) "Vice-President of 

the United States, was born in Monmouth county, 

Xew Jersey, June 3, 1841. He was admitted to the in 1869, was a member of the New Jersey House 

1873-78, and of the Senate 1879-85, being president 

i if the Senate in 1881. He became very prominent 

; in Republican politics, and was elected Vice-President 

i for the term 1897-1901. He died November 21, 


Ho'bart, (JOHN HENRY,) D.D., born in Philadelphia 
111 '775. was ordained in 1798. He was successively 
pastor at New Brunswick, Hempstead, and Trinity 
Church, New York, and was chosen Bishop of New 
York in 1816. He published numerous theological 
works. Died in 1830. 

Hobbema or Hobbima, hob'be-ma, (MINDERHOUT j 
Ger. MEINDERT; Fr. MINARD,) an excellent Flemish 
landscape-painter, was born probably at Coevorden about 
1638. Little is known of his personal history. His 
favourite subjects were simple rural and sylvan scenes 
diversified by a winding stream, a ruined tower, or a dis- 
tant village. He excelled in perspective and colouring. 
His works are rare, and command very high prices. 
'Jver twenty thousand dollars has been paid for one. 
Died in December, 1709. 

Hobbes, hdbz, (THOMAS,) a famous English philos- 
opher, born at Malmesbury in 1588. As tutor in the 
family of the Earl of Devonshire, he travelled several 
times on the continent with his pupils, and became ac- 
quainted with Gassendi, Descartes, etc. In 1628 he pub- 
lished a Latin translation of Thucydides, and in 1642 
a treatise on government, "Elementa Philosophica o> 
Give." He was a royalist in the civil war, and an ad- 
vocate of unconditional obedience to the king. In 1647 
he was mathematical tutor to the Prince of Wales, 
(Charles II.,) then in Paris. His treatise on "Human 
Nature" (1650) was followed by the " Leviathan," (a 
complete system of his philosophy, including his politi- 
cal, moral, and theological views,) which made a great 
sensation, and gave offence to theologians, and though 
it was hostile to liberal principles even to the royalists. 
In 1666 this work and his "De Give" were censured by 
Parliament. Soon after the restoration, he received a 
pension of one hundred pounds. His paradoxical opin- 
ions were warmly controverted by Cudworth, Clarendon, 
and others. In 1675 he published a translation in verse 
of the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey," which drew from 
Pope the assertion that "his poetry is too mean for 
criticism." In his old age, which was passed a't the 
seat of his patron, the Earl of Devonshire, he publisher) 
a " History of the Civil War from 1640 to 1660," ana 
other works. " A permanent foundation of his fame," 
says Mackintosh, "consists in his admirable style, which 
seems to be the very perfection of didactic language. 
Short, clear, precise, pithy, his language never has more 
than one meaning, which never requires a second 
fhought to find. . . . His little tract on 'Human Na- 

as k; 5 as s; g &jn/,- g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, ara/; R, trilled; s as z; th as in //Sw. 

xplanations, p. 23.) 




ture' has scarcely an ambiguous or a needless word. . . . 
Perhaps no writer of any age or nation, on subjects so 
abstruse, has manifested an equal power of engraving 
his thoughts on the mind of his readers. . . . His style so 
stimulates attention that it never tires, and, to those who 
are acquainted with the subject, appears to have as much 
spirit as can be safely blended with reason." Died 1679. 
Hobbs, (ALFRED CHARLES,) an American lock 
expert, born at Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1812. 
He entered the lock and safe business, invented an 
unpickable lock, and became such an expert that he 
could open the best safe-locks in a remarkably brief 
time. His most famous exploit was in London, with 
a Brahma lock, for which an offer of two hundred 
guineas was made to any one who could open it 
without a key. Hobbs did so in fifty-one hours. He 
opened another combination-lock in a few minutes with 
his back to the door. His own lock resisted the efforts 
of pickers. He died November 6, 1891. 

Hob'hpuse, (Sir BENJAMIN,) M.P., an English states- 
man, born in 1757, was a prominent member of the House 
of Commons from 1797 to 1818, held several civil offices, 
and was attached to the party of Fox. He wrote a 
" Treatise on Heresy," and " Remarks on France and 
Italy." Died in 1831. 

Hobhouae, (JOHN CAM,) Lord Broughton, an Eng- 
lish statesman and writer, bom in 1786, was a son of the 
preceding. He became intimate at college with Lord 
Byron, in company with whom he visited Spain, Greece, 
and Turkey in 1809. He published in 1812 " A Journey 
through Albania, and other Provinces of Turkey, with 
Lord Byron," which was long the best account of that 
country, and, in 1816, " Letters on the Hundred Days, or 
Last Reign of Napoleon," (in 2 vols.) He was elected to 
Parliament by the Radicals or Liberals of Westminster 
in 1819, and obtained success as a speaker. In 1831 
he became secretary of war in the Whig ministry. He 
was appointed secretary of state for Ireland in 1833, and 
was president of the board of control from 1846 to 1851. 
Died in June, 1869. 

Hob'son, (JOHN ATKINSON,) an English reform 
writer, was born at Derby, July 6, 1858. He was a 
University Extension lecturer from 1887 to 1897, and 
published "The Physiology of Industry," (1889,) 
" Problems of Poverty," (1891,) "The Evolution of 
Modern Capitalism," (1894,) "The Problem of the 
Unemployed," (1896,) "John Ruskin, Social Re- 
former," (1898,) etc. 

Hob'son, (RICHARD PEARSON,) an American 
naval engineer, was born at Greensboro, Alabama, 
August 17, 1870. He graduated at the Naval Academy 
in 1889, became a naval constructor, and was on the 
cruiser New York during the blockade of Santiago, 
where he sunk the collier Merrimac in the harbour 
channel to prevent the escape of the Spanish fleet. 
He was taken prisoner, but was soon exchanged. He 
subsequently attempted to raise the wrecked Spanish 
ships, and succeeded with the Maria Teresa. 

Hoc'cleve or Oc'cleve, (THOMAS,) an early English 
poet and lawyer, is supposed to have been born about 
1370. He wrote "The Story of Jonathan," and other 
poems. " His poetry," says Hallam, " abounds with 
pedantry, and is destitute of all grace and spirit" 

Hoche, ^6sh or /;osh, (LAZARE,) a French general, who 
rose from a very humble rank in society, was born at 
Montreuil, near Paris, in 1768, and entered the French 
guards at the age of sixteen. He favoured the Revolu- 
tion of 1789, and was made a lieutenant in 1792. Hav- 
ing studied tactics, and served with credit at Thionville, 
Dunkirk, etc., he became in a short time successively 
general of brigade and general of division, and at the 
age of twenty-four commanded the army of the Moselle. 
In 1793 he defeated Wurmser and drove him out of Al- 
sace, soon after which he was arrested by the Jacobin 
leader Saint-Just an<f imprisoned at Paris. The fall of 
Robespierre in 1794 restored him to liberty and com- 
mand. Employed tc subdue the royalists of La Vendee, 
he effected much by his address and moderation, and in 
1795 defeated the enemy at Quiberon. In 1797, com- 

I manding the army of the Sambre and Meuse, he opened 
the campaign against the Austrians by a daring passage 
of the Rhine in their presence, and defeated them in 
, several actions. In the contest between the Director} 
ind the Legislative Councils, Hoche favoured the former, 
who invoked the aid of his army, but soon issued counter- 
oiders and employed another in the service. He died, 
of poison, (as was suspected,) in 1797. He was one of 
the noblest spirits and ablest generals that the Revo- 
lution produced, and, if he had lived, might have been a 
formidable rival of Bonaparte. 

Hochstetter, vou, ton hoK'stSt'ter, (FERDINAND,) 
a German geologist, born at Esslingen, April 30, 1829. 
He was naturalist to the Novara expedition around the 
world, 1857-59. He lived some years in New Zealand, 
and published "Geology of New Zealand," (1864,) and 
a much larger work on the same subject, in German, in 
1866. He later became a professor in the Vienna Poly- 
technic School. He published " Ueber den Ural," (1873,) 
and " Die Erde," a popular work. Died at Vienna, July 
17, 1884. 

Hocquincourt, A', do'kaN'kooR', (CHARLES DE 
MONCHY,) born in Picardy in 1 599, became marshal of 
France in 1651, and commanded the royal army which 
was defeated by the Prince of Condi in 1652. He de- 
serted to the Spaniards, and was killed at Dunkirk in 

Ho'dell, (FRAXS OSCAR LEONARD,) a Swedish 
dramatist, born in 1840. He published a comic paper, 
the " Sondags-Nisse," 1881-90, and wrote and 
adapted for the stage more than a hundred plays. 
The most popular of these was " Andersson, Peters- 
son, and Lundstrom." Died May 25, 1890. 

Ho'dfr, Ho'dur, (HotJr,) or Hod, written also 
Hoder, the blind god in the Norse mythology. Through 
the cunning malice of Loki, he became the slayer of his 
brother Balder, whose death 'Vali avenged by killing 
Hoder. (See BALDER, and VALI.) 

American theologian, a son of Dr. Charles Hodge, 
noticed below. He was born at Princeton, New Jersey, 
July 18, 1823, graduated at Princeton College in 1841, and 
at Princeton Theological Seminary in 1847, and became 
a Presbyterian clergyman. He became a professor 
at Princeton in 1877, and published a number of 
books on theological subjects. Died in 1886. 

Hodge, (CHARLES,) D.D., an eminent American 
theologian, born in Philadelphia in 1797. He graduated 
at Princeton in 1815, and studied divinity at the Princeton 
Theological Seminary, in which he became professor of 
Oriental and Biblical literature in 1822. In 1840 he suc- 
ceeded to the chair of didactic and exegetical theology, 
and in 1852 added to it the professorship of polemic 
theology. In 1825 Dr. Hodge established, and was for 
many years editor of, the " Biblical Repertory and Prince- 
ton Review," at that time the ablest theological quar- 
terly in America, and the chief organ of the Old-School 
division of the Presbyterian Church. Two volumes of 
his contributions to this "Review," entitled "Princeton 
Theological Essays," were published in 1846-47, and a 
third volume, "Reviews and Essays," in 1857. He died 
June 19, 1878. 

Hod' ge, (EDWARD,) Mus. Doc., an English musician 
and composer, born at Bristol, July 20, 1796. In 1838 
he left England for America, and next year was appointed 
organist of Saint John's Episcopal Chapel in New York 
He returned to England in 1863, and died in 1867. 

Hodges, hoj'ez, (NATHANIEL,) an English physician, 
who practised in London, and gained distinction by his 
faithful services during the great plague of 1665, when the 
most of the doctors fted from the danger. He wrote, in 
Latin, an account of this calamity, (1672.) He died in 
prison for debt in 1684. 

Hodges, (WILLIAM,) R.A., an English painter, born 
in London about 1744. He painted landscapes wit'i 
moderate success, and was employed as draughtsman 
in Captain Cook's second vovage, (1772.) He after- 
wards visited India and painted some Indian views. He 
published " Select Views in India," (2 vols., 1788,) and 
" Travels in India in 1780-85," (I793-) Died in 1797. 

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, $, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mt; not; good; moon; 


12 9S 


Hodg'kin, (THOMAS,) an English historian, born) 
at Tottenham in 1831. He published " Italy and Her 
Invaders," (7 vols., 1880-98,) etc. 

HSdg'kln-spn, (EATON,) born at Anderton, Cheshire, 
in 1789, is distinguished for his researches respecting the 
strength of iron pillars, rails, etc. He discovered thai 
an iron rail in the form ol an inverted letter T will sup- 
port a greater pressure thin any other. From numerous 
experiments he derived formulae for solid and hollow 
iron pillars, which are generally adopted. He co- 
operated with Mr. Stephenson in the construction of the 
tubular Britannia bridge about 1845. Died in 1 86 1. 

Hodg'son, (BRIAN HOUGHTON,) a British ethnolo- 
gist, born in 1800. While in the government service 
in Nepaul, and afterwards, he made a large collection 
of the northern Buddhistic literature, and wrote many 
valuable papers on the ethnology and zoology of Ne- 
paul and Thibet. He collected more than ten thou- 
sand birds. Died in 1894. 

Hodg'son, (FRANCIS,) an English poet, born in 
1781, was a friend of Lord Byron, and provost of 
Eton College. He produced a version of Juvenal, 
(1808,) "Sacred Lyrics," (1842,) and other poems. 
Died in 1852. 

Hodgson, (JOHN EVAN,) an English artist, born 
at London in 1831. His first picture was exhibited in 
1856. He painted historical subjects 1861-69, but 
afterwards mainly confined himself to scenes from 
Moorish life. He was elected to the Royal Academy 
in 1879. 

Hodierna, o-de-*R'na, or Adierna, a-de-eVnJ, (Gl- 
AMBATTISTA,) a Sicilian astronomer and priest, bom at 
Ragusa in 1597, verified the positions of the fixed stars, 
and discovered the motions of Jupiter's satellites. His 
"Medicseorum Ephemerides" (1656) is the first book, 
says Lalande, "in which we find observations on the 
eclipses of Jupiter's satellites." He wrote a treatise on 
the System of Saturn, (1657,) and other works. Died 
in 1660. 

Hodius. See HODY. 

Ho'djf, [Lat. HO'DIUS,] (HUMPHRY,) D.D., an Eng- 
lish divine and eminent scholar, born at Oldcombe in 
1659. About 1694 he became chaplain to Archbishop 
Tillotson. He was chosen professor of Greek at Oxford 
in 1698, and Archdeacon of Oxford in 1704. He pub 
lished an excellent work "On the Original Texts of the 
Bible, and the Greek and Latin Versions," ("De Bibli- 
Drum Textis Originalibus," etc., 1705,) also, "On the; 
Illustrious Greek Restorers of the Greek Language," 
(1742,) which is commended by Hallam. Died in 1706 

See DR. JBBB, "Notitia de Vita et Scriptis H. Hodii." 

Hoe, (RICHARD MARCH,) born in New York City in 
1812, is known as the inventor of Hoe's type-revolving 
printing-press, which makes the impression on both 
sides of the sheet at the same time. Died in 1886. 

Hoeck. See yEpmus and HOEK. 

Hoefer, ho'fer, [Fr. pron. ho'fair',] (JoHANN CHRIS- 
TIAN FERDINAND, a German writer, distinguished for 
his learning and versatility, was born at Doeschnitz, in 
Thuringia, in 1811. He became in 1834 secretary to 
Victor Cousin, whom he assisted in the translation of 
the works of Plato. He left Cousin in 1836, after which 
he studied medicine, and practised several years in Paris. 
In 1843 he was sent to Germany by M. Cousin to 
examine the German methods of medical instruction 
and practice. He published, besides other works, a 
" History of Chemistry from the Earliest Times to the 
Present," (2 vols., 1842.) In 1851 he was selected by 
MM. Didot to direct their great biographical dictionary, 
"Nouvelle Biographic Generale," for which he wrote 
able articles on Aristotle, Cesar, Columbus, Descartes, 
Erasmus, and others. Died in 1878. 

Hoefnaeghel, hooPna'gel or hoof'na'Hel, (GEORGE,, 
a Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in 1545, was painter 
to the Elector of Bavaria. He excelled in water-colour 
painting. Died at Vienna in 1600. 

Hoek or Hoeck, van, also written Honk, 
(JAN,) a Flemish painter of history, born at Antwerp 

about 1600, was one of the most skilful pupils of Rubens. 
He worked for a long time in Germany, and was patron- 
ized by the emperor Ferdinand II. He passed his latter 
years in Antwerp. His design and colouring are highly 
praised He was very successful in portraits. Among 
his master-pieces are " Samson and Delilah," and " Christ 
on the Cross," (at Bruges.) Died in 1650. 

See J. C. WKVKBMAN, "De Schilderkonst der Nederlander3." 

Hoek, (ROBERT,) a brother of the preceding, born 
in 1609, was a skilful painter. He painted miniatures 
which were admired for extreme fineness of touch and 
beauty of colour. His principal works are " The Twelve 
Apostles," an army, and a camp. Died in 1668. 

Hoelderlin. See HOLDERLIN. 

Hoelfken. See HOLFKEN. 

Hoelty. See HOLTY. 

Hoeltzlinus. See HOLTZLINUS. 

Hoenir or Hbnir, ho'nir, [etymology unknown,] in 
the Norse mythology, a god who, with Lodur, assisted 
Odin in creating mankind. He is supposed to have con- 
tributed as his portion sense or perception, while Odin 
gave breath and vitality, and Lodur animal warmth and 
'he flowing (or circulating) blood. (See ODIN.) 

Hoepfner. See HOPFNER. 

Hoepken. See HOPKEN. 

Hoerberg. See HORBERG. 

Hoeschel. See HOSCHEL. 

Hoest See HOST. 

Hoet, hoot, (GERARD,) an eminent Dutch historical 
painter, born at Bommel in 1648. He worked mostly at 
Utrecht and the Hague. Among his chief works are 
the " Rape of the Sabines," and the " Sacrifice of Dido." 
"The talent of Hoet," says Descamps, "is known 
throughout Europe. He composed with much genius, 
and his works display vast erudition." Died in 1733. 

See DESCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc 

Hoeven, van der, vSn der hoo'ven, (JAN,) an able 
Dutch naturalist, born at Rotterdam in 1801, became 
professor of zoology at Leyden in 1835. His principal 
work is an excellent " Manual of Zoology," (" Hand- 
boek der Dierkunde," 2 vols., 1827-33,) which has been 
translated into English, (London, 1854.) He died March 
10, 1868. His brother ABRAHAM (1798-1855) was pro- 
fessor of theology at Amsterdam and Utrecht, and was 
considered one of the most eloquent orators of Holland. 

Ho'ey, (FRANCES SARAH CASHEL,) an authoress, 
born at Bushy Park, near Dublin, Ireland, February 15, 
1830. Her maiden name was JOHNSTON. In 1846 she 
married a Mr. Stewart, and in 1858 Mr. J. Cashel Hoey. 
She published many novels, and translated the " Memoirs 
of Mine, de Remusat" from the French. 

Ho'ey, (JOSEPHINE SHAW, ) a favourite American 
actress, born at Liverpool, England, in 1824. She 
married in 1849 John Hoey, for many years manager 
and president of the Adams Express Company. She 
continued to act until 1865. Died in 1896. 

Hoeyer. See HOYER. 

Hofer. See HOEFER. 

Hofer, ho'fer, (ANDREAS,) a celebrated Tyrolese pa- 
triot, born in the valley of the Passeyr in 1767. On 
the breaking out of the insurrection against the French 
and the Bavarian government, to which the Tyrol had 
been lately transferred, he entered into secret negotiations 
with the archduke John for the deliverance of the coun- 
try. In April, 1809, with the assistance of an Austrian 
army, Hrefer, at the head of the Tyrolese peasantry, 
defeated the French and Bavarian troops at the Ster- 
zinger Moose. In the May following, the Austrians, 
under Genera! Chasteler, suffered a defeat from the 
superior numbers of the enemy near Worgl. Soon after 
this the Tyrolese were again victorious in an engagement 
near Mount Isel ; but, the Austrian army being with- 
drawn after the battle of Wagram, the country was once 
more invaded by Marshal Lefebvre. On the I3th of 
August, 1809, Hofer, with his army of Tyrolese peasants, 
signally defeated the French commander near Mount 
Isel, after a long and obstinate conflict ; but, overpowered 
at last by the reinforcements sent from France, he took 
refuge in the mountains. Being soon after betrayed bj 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, (rilled; s as z; th as in this. 

anations, p. 23.) 




a former friend, he was tried at Mantua, and was shot 
in February, 1810. 

See "Andreas Hofer und die Tyroler Insurrection," Munich, 
1811: HORMAVR, "Geschichte Andreas Hofer's Sandwirths," etc, 
1809 ; BECKER, " Andreas Hofer und der Freiheitskampf in Tyrol," 
jvols., 1842; "Memoirs of Andrew Hofer," translated from the 
German by C. H. HALL. 

Hofer, ho'fer, (EDMUND,) a distinguished German 
novelist, born at Greifswalde, October 19, 1819. He was 
educated at Greifswalde, Heidelberg, and Berlin. His 
very numerous novels were widely popular, and his de- 
scriptions of Pomeranian peasant -life are excellent. 
Among his stories are "Auf deutscher Erde," (1860,) 
"Land- und Seenovellen," (1871,) "Stille Geschichten," 
(1871,) etc. He also wrote a " History of German Lit- 
erature," (1876,) and "Wie das Volk spricht," (1876,) a 
collection of rustic sayings. Died May 23, 1882. 

Hoff, von, fon hoff, (KARL ERNST ADOLF,) a German 
geologist, born at Gotha in 1771, wrote a "History of 
the Natural Changes of the Surface of the Globe," (5 
vols., 1822-41.) and edited, from 1801 to 1816, "The 
Almanac of Gotha," a statistical publication of very 
high character. Died in 1837. 

Hoffbauer, hof'bow'er, (JoHANN CHRISTOPH,) a Ger- 
man writer, born at Bielefeld in 1766, published, besides 
other works, " Researches into the Diseases of the Soul," 
(3 vols., 1802-07.) Died in 1827. 

Hoffman, (CHARLES FENNO,) a popular American 
poet and novelist, born in New York in 1806, graduated 
at Columbia College. He studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar about 1828. In 1835 ne produced a successful 
descriptive work entitled " Winter in the West." He 
edited successively "The American Monthly Magazine" 
and "The New York Mirror." Among his works are 
"The Vigil of Faith, and other Poems," and a number 
of songs. " No American," says R. W. Griswold, " is 
comparable to him as a song-writer." He published in 
1840 "Greyslaer," a novel. In 1849 he was attacked 
with a mental derangement. Died at Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania, June 7, 1884. 

See GBISTTOLD, " Poets and Poetry of America," and " Prose 
Writers of America;" DUYCKINCK, "Cyclopzdia of American Lite- 
rature," vol. ii. 

Hoffman, (DAVID,) an eminent American lawyer, 
born in Baltimore in 1784, was professor of law in the 
University of Maryland from 1817 to 1836. He after- 
wards resided in Philadelphia. He published a "Course 
of Legal Study," which has been highly commended. 
According to Judge Story, " it contains by far the most 
perfect system for the study of the law that has ever 
been offered to the public." He also wrote or compiled 
"Chronicles selected from the Originals of Cartaphilus 
the Wandering Jew," (2 vols., 1855.) Died in 1854. 

See " North American Review" for January, 1830. 

Hoffman, //ofmoN', (FRANCOIS BENotr,) an able 
French critic and dramatic poet, born at Nancy in 1760. 
He produced many successful operas and dramas, among 
which are "Phaedra," (1786,) "Adrien," (1792,) and 
" Stratonice," a comedy, (1792.) He wrote literary cri- 
tiques for the "Journal de 1 Empire" and the "Journal 
des Debats" for many years. " He had," says Sainte- 
Beuve, " many qualities of a true critic, conscience and 
independence. . . . He was learned with variety and 
without pedantry." Died in 1828. 

See SAINTE-BEUVE, " Causeriesdu Lundi" for February 25, 1850; 
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale." 

Hoffman, (MURRAY,) an American judge, born in 
New York, September 29, 1791. He graduated at Co- 
lumbia College in 1809. In 1839 he was appointed 
assistant vice-chancellor of New York, and was a judge 
of the superior court of New York, 1853-61. He pub- 
lished various law-books, chiefly on chancery subjects, 
besides several works on ecclesiastical law. Died May 

7, 1878- 

Hoffmann, hof man, (ANDREAS GOTTLIEB,) a German 
theologian, born in the county of Mansfeld in 1796, be- 
came professor of theology at Jena in 1822. He pub- 
lished a "Treatise on Hebrew Antiquities," (1832,) and 
wrote many articles for the " Encyclopaedia" of Ersch 
and Gruber. Died March 16, 1864. 

Hoffmann, (AUGUST HEINRICH,) an eminent lyric 
jioet and philologist, called also Hoffmann von Pal- 
lersleben, (fll'lers-li'ben,) was born at Fallersleben, in 
Hanover, in 1798. He studied at Gottingen and Bonn, 
and became in 1835 professor of the German language 
and literature at Breslau. He published " German Social 
Songs of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," 
and " Mines for the History of the German Language 
and Literature ;" also ballads, songs for children, war 
lyrics, and other poems, which are greatly admired for 
their simplicity, fervour, and pathos. Died in 1874. 

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe , ' " Leven- 
schets van A. H. Hoffmann von Fallersleben. " 

Hoffmann, (CASPAR,) a German physician, born at 
Gotha in 1572, published numerous works on medicine. 
I lied at Altdorf in 1648. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 
Hoffmann, hofmln, (CHARLES ALEXANDER,) a 
Polish writer, born in Masovia in 1798, produced in 1827 
a Polish translation of the works of Dr. Franklin. 
Having been identified with the insurrection of 1830, he 
was driven into exile in 1832. He was the husband of 
Clementina Hoffmanowa. Died July 6, 1875. 

Hoffmann, (CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED,) a German juris- 
consult, born at Lauban, in Lusatia, in 1692, became 
professor of law at Leipsic in 1718, and afterwards at 
Frankfort-on-the-Oder. He acquired a high reputation 
by his writings, (in Latin,) among which are a " History 
of the Roman Law of Justinian," (1720-24,) and "Li- 
brary of German Public Law," (" Bibliotheca Juris pub- 
lici Germanici," etc., 1734.) Died in 1735. 

See ERSCH und I.RLTBKR, "AMsemeine Encyklopaedie ;" HlR- 
SCHING. " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch." 

Hoffmann, (CHRISTOPH LUDWIG,) an eminent medi- 
cal writer, born at Rheda, in Westphalia, in 1721, was 
physician to the Electors of Cologne and Mentz. Among 
his principal works are treatises " On the Small-Pox," 
(2 vols., 1778,) and "On the Sensibility and Irritability 
of the Diseased Parts," (1779.) Died in 1807. 

Hoffmann or Hoffmanowa, hof-mi-no'vi, (CLE- 
MENTINA,) a popular Polish authoress, whose maiden 
name was TANSKA, was born at Warsaw in 1798, and 
liberally educated. She produced about 1820, in Polish, 
her " Memorial of a Good Mother," which had a great 
popularity. She was married to Charles A. Hoffmann, 
with whom she removed to Paris about 1832. Among 
her works, which were published collectively in 1833, (in 
10 vols^,) are letters, historical tales, essays, and biog- 
raphies of eminent Poles. Died in 1845. 

Hoffmann, (DANIEL,) a German Lutheran divine, 
born at Halle about 1538, was professor of theology at 
Helmstedt, He was censured for teaching that the 
truths of philosophy conflict with the truths of religion. 
Died in 1611. 

Hoffmann, (ERNST THEODOR WOLFGANG; after- 
wards called ERNST THEODOR AMADEUS,) one of the 
most remarkable and original of German story-tellers, 
(End/tier,) viis born at Konigsbergin 1776. He studied 
law, and subsequently received several minor appoint- 
ments under the government. In 1816 he became coun- 
sellor of the royal court of judicature at Berlin. Died 
in 1822, his health having been previously undermined 
by dissipation. His gifted and versatile mind led him 
to the cultivation of music, poetry, and art But he " is 
celebrated chiefly," says Dr. Hedge, " for his successful 
use of the magic and demoniac element in fiction. He 
does not seek to make the flesh creep and the hair bris- 
tle, but aims rather at the diaphragm. He views all 
these infrrnalia on the humorous side ; and if any one 
trait is particularly prominent in his writings, it is irony." 
Menzel, after alluding to the strange combination which 
his mind exhibited of manliness, humour, poetry, and 
morbid sensibility, remarks, " From the dev:! do^n to a 
wry-faced child's doll, from the dissonance of life which 
rends the soul down to a dissonance in music which only 
rends the ear, the immeasurable kingdom of the ugly, 
the repulsive, the annoying, was gathered around him, 
and his descriptions paint alternately these tormenting 
objects, and the torments which they prepare for a beau- 
tiful soul, with inimitable vividness and truth." Again, 
he says, " Hoffmann's innermost being was music ; and 

i, e 1, 6, u, y, long: a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, q, obicure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; m5on; 




the prayer of Saint Anthony is never wanting to his Hof'land, (BARBARA,) a popular English writer, born 
hellish caricatures, nor the Christmas bell to the witches' at Sheffield in 1770, was the daughter of Robert Wreaks, 
sabbath." Among his principal works are "Phantasie- She became the wife of Thomas Hofland, the painter, in 
stiicke in Callot's Manier," (4 vols., 1814,) and "Sera- 1808. She wrote numerous novels and moral tales, which 
pions Briider," (4 vols., 1819-21.) His various other had a wide circulation. The " Son of a Genius 
tales, etc. would fill several volumes. I ('813) is probably her most successful work. Died 

Hoffmann, (FRANZ,) a German theistic philosopher, i in 1844. 

born at Aschaffenburg, January 19, 1804. In 1835 he Hofland, (THOMAS CHRISTOPHER,) an eminent Eng- 
was made professor of philosophy at Wurzburg, where lish landscape-painter, born at Worksop, in Nottingham- 
he died, October 22, 1882. He was a follower of Baader, i shire, in 1777. He married Mrs. Hoole, who, under the 
whose works he edited. Besides works on logic, etc., name of Hofland, became well known as a novelist, and 
Hoffmann published eight volumes of philosophical resided mostly in or near London. His subjects were 
writings. ! chosen from the river and lake scenery of the British 

Hoffmann, [Lat HOFFMAN'NUS,] (FRIEDRICH,) an Islands. He published a richly illustrated volume called 
illustrious German physician, was born at Halle in 1660. "The British Angler's Manual," (1839.) Died in 1843. 
He studied at Jena, and, after travelling in England and Hofler, hof'ler, (KARL ADOLPH KONSTANTIN,) a 
Holland, settled as a physician at Halberstadt in 1688. German historian, born at Memmmgen, in Bavaria, 
On the establishment of the university at Halle he was March 26, 1811. He was educated at Munich and Got- 
appointed in 1693 its first professor of medicine by tingen, and in Italy. He was (1838-47) a professor of 

the Elector Frederick III. of Brandenburg. On the 
invitation of Frederick I. of Prussia, he removed in 
1708 to Berlin, where he was made royal physician, but 
still retained his professorship. He returned in 1712 
to Halle, where he died in 1742. Hoffmann rendered 
most important services to practical medicine by his ex- 
periments with various remedies : his " Elixirium Vis- 
cerale" and " Liquor Anodynus Mineralis," commonly 
called " Hoffmann's Anodyne," are still popular, and he 
was one of the first to bring mineral waters into more 
general use. He wrote, in Latin and German, numerous 
medical works, among which is " Medicina Rationaiis 
systematica," (9 vols., 1718-40.) His complete works 
were published in 6 vols. quarto, (1740.) 

See SCHULZE, "Vita F. HoffmannL" prefixed to his Works, 1730; 
BALDINGER. "Programmade F. Hoffmann! et H. Boerl^ 
in Medicinam practicam," 1772; LOVKN, " Dissertatio 
manno ejusque Medicina Rational! systematical' 1846. 

Hoffmann, (HEINRICH,) a German humourist, 
bom at Frankfort in 1809. He became a medical 
specialist, and while treating children drew comical 
pictures to amuse them. These, with humourous 

havii Mentis 
de F. Hoff- 

history in Munich, and after 1851 at Prague. Among 
his works are " The German Popes," (1839,) " Collection 
of Materials for Prankish History," (1849-52,) " Frank 
ish Studies," (1852-53,) "Text-Book of Universal His- 
tory," (1850-56,) etc. 

Hofmann, hof man, (AUGUST WILHELM,) a German 
chemist, born at Giessen, April 8, 1818. He held pro- 
fessorships in London, 1845-63, and in the University of 
Bonn, 1863-65, and went to Berlin University as pro- 
fessor in 1865. Hofmann's is one of the great names 
in the history of organic chemistry. He wrote many im- 
portant scientific papers. He published "Einleitung in 
die moderne Chemie," (1865,) etc. Died May 5, 1892. 

Hofmann, (ERNST,) a Russian mineralogist, of Ger- 
man descent, born at Overlack, in Livonia, January 20, 
1801. He was educated at Dorpat and Heidelberg, and 
held professorships in the universities of Kiev and Saint 
Petersburg. Died at Dorpat, June 5, 1871. His writings 
illustrate Russian geography, geology, and minerals. 

Hofmann, von, fon hof man, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN 
KONRAD,) a German theologian, founder of the so-called 

, ' Erlangen school" of Lutheran theology, was born at 

letter-press, were published in 1845 under the title I Nuremberg, December 21, 1810, and was professor of 

"Struwwelpeter," the book being widely translated, theology at Rostock and Erlangen. Died December 20, 

and running through more than one hundred and 1877. 
forty editions. Died in 1894. Hofmannswaldau, von, fon hofmans-wil'dSw, 

Hoffmann, (JOHANN GOTTFRIED,) a German writer sometimes written Hofmandswaldau, ( CHRISTIAN 

on political economy, born at Breslau in 1765. He be- HOFMANN,) a German poet, born at Breslau in 1618. 

came councillor of state in Berlin in 1808, and attended He published in 1673 a collection of poems, entitled 

the Congress of Vienna in 1814. Among his works is "Sinnreiche Heldenbriefe." Died in 1679. 
"The Science of Money," ("Die Lehre vom Gelde," See GBRVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen Nationalliteratur." 
1838.) Died in 1847. Hofrneister, hofmls-ter, (WILHELM,) an eminent 

Hoffmann, (JOHANN JAKOB,) a Swiss scholar, born German botanist, born at Leipsic, May 18, 1824. He 

at Bale in 1635, obtained in 1667 the chair of Greek in held professorships at Heidelberg and Tubingen. Died 

his native city. His principal work is a "Universal January 12, 1877. 

' il," etc., (in Hofs 

Lexicon, Historical, Geographical, Political,' 
Latin, 1667.) Died in 1706. 

Hofstede de Groot, hof'sta-deh deh gRot, (Prrrus,) 
a Dutch (Frisian) theologian, born at Leer, October 8, 

Hoffmann, (JOHANN JOSEPH,) a German scholar, !go2. In 1829 he became a professor of theology at 
born at Wurzburg, February 16, 1805. He studied in Groningen. He was the recognized head of the "Gro- 
the university of his native town, and affer 1830 devoted , ningen theology," and his party took the name of " Evan- 
himself to the study of Japanese, Chinese, and Malay. ] gelicals," in opposition to the "Moderns," (the so-called 
He became professor of Japanese at Leyden. Died ; Leyden school,) as well as to the strict "Orthodox" party. 
January 23, 1878. His chief work is a great " Japanese ; He published " Theologia Naturalis," " Institutiones His- 
Dictionary," which he left incomplete. toriae Ecclesiae," etc. His principal work is " Opvoeding 

Hoffmann, (MORITZ,) a German physician and bota- j der Menschheid," (the " Education of Mankind," 1847.) 
nist, bom at Fiirstenwalde in 1622, became professor of H o'gan, ( JAMES FRANCIS,) an Australian author, 
surgery at Altdorf, and published several medical and 
botanical works. Died in 1698. 

Hoffmann, hof man, (TYCHO,) a Danish writer, was 
keeper of the seals of Denmark. He wrote " Historical 
Portraits of Eminent Danes." Died in 1754. 

Hoffmannaegg, von, fon hof'man-seg', ( JOHANN London, ^" The Lost Explorer, (1890,) anc 
CENTURIUS,) COUNT, a German botanist, born at Dres- Convict King." 

den in 1766. Having explored the botanical riches of Ho'gan, (JOHN,) an Irish sculptor, born at Tallow, 
Portugal for several years, he returned to Germany in Waterford county, in 1800. He studied m Rome, 1823 
1804, and published with M. Link his magnificent " Por- -29, and settled in Dublin. Among his chief works is 
tuguese Flora," (in French, 22 parts, 1809-33.) Died in I "The Drunken Faun," for which he received a medal 
-g 4 o at the Exposition of Paris in 1851. Died about 1858. 

Honmannua. See HOFFMANN. Ho'gan, (JOHN JOSEPH,) D.D., a bishop, born a 

Hoffmeiater, hof mis-ter, (FRANZ ANTON,) a German Cahirguillamore, county of Limerick, Ireland, May 10, 
musician and composer, born at Roihenburg in 1754. 1829. He was educated in the Roman Catholic msti- 
Died at Vienn, February 10, 1812. I tutions of Saint Louis, Missouri, was ordained a pnest 

was born in Ireland in 1854, and was taken to Aus- 
tralia in infancy. He became a journalist, and in 
1887 went to London, where he published " The Irish 
in Australia." Later works we're " The Australian in 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as mt/us. 


Explanations, p. 23.) 




in 1852, became Bishop of Saint Joseph in 1868, and 
Bishop of Kansas City in 1880. 

Ho'garth, (DAVID GEORGE,) an English archae- 

ologist, born in Lincolnshire in 1862. After 1887 he 
was engaged in active explorations in Asia Minor, 
Cyprus, and Egypt, and was correspondent for the 
" Times" during the Turko-Greek war of 1897. He 
published various antiquarian works. 

Ho'garth, (GEORGE,) a Scottish writer on music, born 
in 1783, was the father-in-law of Charles Dickens, the 
novelist. He published " Musical History, Biography, 
and Criticism," (2 vols., 1836,) which is highly com- Dunse m 
mended, and "Memoirs of the Musical Drama," (2 vols., 
1838.) He became musical and dramatic critic for the 
London "Daily News" in 1846. Died in 1870. 

Hogarth, (WILLIAM,) a celebrated satirical painter, 

ing Tales," (1820,) "The Three Perils of Man," etc., 
and contributed to " Blackwood's Magazine." In 1820 
he married Margaret Phillips, and resided afterwards 

on a farm at Altrive. Hogg is one of the principal 
actors and interlocutors in Christopher North's famous 
" Noctes Ainbrosianae." Died in 1835. 
See WILSOH, ' 

of Hogg's Worl 

" Life of James Hogg," pr< 

siana;," New York, 1855. 

Hogg, (ROBERT,) LL.D., a Scottish botanist, born at 
1818. His works include " Hand-Book of 
Hardy Annuals," "Manual of Fruits," "British Pomol- 
ogy," "Gardener's Manual," etc. Died March 14, 1897. 

Hohenlohe, ho'en-lo'eh, a celebrated family of Ger- 
man princes. The Protestant line includes the houses 

born in London in 1697, was apprenticed to a silversmith, { , Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Hohenlohe-Oehnngen, and 
whom he left in 1718. He then earned a subsistence I Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. The Catholic line includes the 
for some time by engraving, and studied drawing in the ! houses of Hohenlohe-Bartenstem-Bartenstein, Hohen- 

academy of Sir James Thornhill, whose daughter he I uhe-Bartenstem-Jagstberg, and 

married in 1730. He acquired skill in portraits, but 1 bure-SdiillingMuriL 

soon exchanged that branch of art for one more suited Woh P nloho.Tnlfi n = n h~', 

to his original genius, the dramatic or satirical species, 
in which he is unrivalled. In 1733 he published a 
series of engravings called the " Harlot's Progress," 
which had a large sale, and was followed by the " Rake's 
Progress," " Marriage a la Mode," " Industry and Idle- 
ness," " Beer Lane," and " The Enraged Musician." His 
pictures abound in comic humour, and display great skill 
in caricature, as well as great originality and fertility of 
invention. His works have also the merit of conveying 
useful lessons of morality. In 1753 he published his 
"Analysis of Beauty," in which he maintains that a 

_______ _______ ^^... * .,^- 

of war uiideVk'ing Louis 


Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, ho'en-lo'eh ing'el-fing'en, 

(FRIEDRICH LUDWIG,) PRINCE, a Prussian general, born 
in 1746. He distinguished himself in the campaigns of 
i 792 and 1 793, and obtained command of an army in 1 795. 
He commanded the Prussian forces which were defeated 
by Napoleon at Jena on the I4th of October, 1806. On 
the i6th the king gave him command of all the troops 
that had escaped from Jena and Auerstadt. He was 
compelled to abandon Berlin to the enemy, and soon after 
was taken prisoner, with about 15,000 men, at Prentzlow. 
He retired to private life, and died in 1817 or 1818. 

Holu-iilohe-SchUlingafurst, von, fon ho'en-lo'eh- 
shil'lings-furst', (CHLpDwiG KARL VICTOR,) PRINCE, a 

He early 
Himself a 
was the 
In'^sii'he'b'ecame leader of ' he liberals in every anti-clerical movement in 

general of division and aide-de-camp to Napoleon whom Bavarla - Though he had always been a zealous anti- 

he followed in the Russian campaign. After the battle Prusslan . he was accused during the Austro-Prussian 

of Waterloo he went to Brazil, where he died in 1830 war ' favourln g Bismarck's designs, and subsequently 

Hogendorp, van, (GijSBERTKAREL,) COUNT, a Dutch alded m establishing the new empire. In 1874 he was 

statesman, brother of the preceding, born at Rotterdam sent as Gerrnan ambassador to Paris, and in 1885 he 

in 1762. He united with several others to form a pro- was a PP int ed governor of Alsace-Lorraine. In 1894 

visional government in 1813, and was president of the I 16 liecame chancellor of the German empire, succeed- 

commission which framed a new constitution. He was '"8 '" tnat office Count de Caprivi, who was the succes- 

minister of foreign affairs, aftd vice-president of the sor " f Prince Bismarck. He resigned in 1900. 

council, until he resigned in 1816. He wrote "Consider- Hohenlohe-SchillingBfurst, von (GusTAV 

ations on the Political Economy of the Low Countries,' 
(10 vols., 1818-23.) Died in 1834. 

ADOLF,) PRINCE, a German cardinal, a brother of the 
preceding, born at Rottenburg, February 26, 1823. He 

Hogg, (jABEZ,)an English surgeon and author, i studied law and divinity at Erfurt, Bonn Breslau, Munich, 

was born at Chatham in 1817. He practised as an an ^ Rome ' *** ortia 't d a P rl . est b ? J lu f IX " ln ' 8 49- 
__h,h i , i ar| d was made secret chamberlain and almoner to the 

f Ud J f : pope, and Bishop of Edessa. In ,866 he was made a 

Jtography, and issued a series of illustrated school- ^ r H di ' nal iest , ^ d in , 879 a card i n al-bishop and arch- 
books, some of which were highly successful. His i jes , of H Santa Maria Maggiore, holding the see of Al- 
work on the microscope (1854) reached its fifteenth ano . In , 8 g 4 he resjgr f e e d his bishopric and retired 
edition in 1898, and Is the accepted text-book on this temporarily to Germany. Died in Rome, Oct. 30, 1896. 
e published various medical works on Hohenlohe- Waldenburg-SchillingBfurst, ho'- 
ophthalmological subjects, and numerous other scien- en-lo'eh wil'den-booRG' shil'lings-fuRst', (ALEXANDER 
tific works. LEOPOLD FRANZ EMMERICH,) PRINCE OF, a Hungarian 

H6gg,(J AMES,)" the Ettrick Shepherd," born in Ettrick prelate, born at Kupferzelle in 1794. Died in 1849. 
Forest, in Scotland, in 1772, was the son of a shepherd, Hohenstaufen, ho'^n-stow'fen, [from hack, "high," 
and followed his father's employment until he was thirty and Staufen, "hill" or "eminence,"] in the singular, 
years of age. In 1803 a collection of his poems was pub- Hohenstaufe, ho'en-stow'feh, a celebrated family of 
lished, under the title of "The Mountain Bard," the German princes, who reigned from 1138 to 1254. The 
proceeds of which (about 300) enabled him to take a first of the line, FRIEDRICH VON BUREN, received the 
farm. He failed, however, in this enterprise. After many name on account of having removed his dwelling from 
struggles with adversity, he went to Edinburgh, to try i a valley auf 'den Staufen, ("up the hill" or "mountain.") 

LI,, f .1 L' _1 ^ _O TT 1 J J JL J 

his fortune in authorship, about 1810. Having issued a 
literary periodical called " The Spy," without success, he 
was encouraged by his friends to devote himself to poetry, 
and in 1813 gave to the public the "Queen's Wake," 
which procured him a high reputation as a poet. It is 
generally considered as his best work. His success stimu- 
lated him to the rapid production of many other poems, 
among which are "The Pilgrims of the Sun," (1815,) 
"Poetic Mirror," "Sacred Melodies," and "The Border 
Garland," (1819.) He wrote, in prose, "The Brownie 
of Bodsbeck, and other Tales," (1818,) "Winter Even- 

His son, FRIEDRICH VON STAUFEN, was rewarded by 
the emperor Henry IV. for his eminent services by the 
duchy of Suabia and the hand of his daughter Agnes. 
Henry also made him Regent of Germany while he fought 
against the pope in Italy. Friedrich died in 1 105, leaving 
two sons, Friedrich and Conrad, the latter of whom was 
crowned King of Germany, with the title of CONRAD 
III. His nephew, FRIEDRICH BARBAROSSA, the most 
celebrated of the line, was chosen emperor in 1 152. (Set 
FREDERICK I. of Germany, and KYFFHAUSER.) The 
Hohenstaufen line ended with CONRADIN in 1268. 

, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, \, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon; 




Hohenzollern, ho'en-tsorie'Rn, the name of an an- 
cient princely German family, from which the imperial 
house of Germany and the reigning families of Roumania 
and Bulgaria are descended. The name is derived from 
the castle of Zollern, in Suabia, which is said to have 
been built by Tassillon, or Thasilio, about 8<x/ A.D. 

Hoijer, ho'e-yer, (BENJAMIN CARL HENRIK,) an emi- 
nent Swedish philosopher, born in Dalecarlia in 1767. 
His promotion was hindered by the liberal political 
principles of his youth. He produced a treatise "On 
the Progress of Critical Philosophy," an " Outline of 
the History of the Fine Arts," and other works. In 1808 
he became professor of philosophy at Upsal, where he 
gained a high reputation as a lecturer. Died in 1812. 

Ho'kan-aon, (OLOF,) a Swedish orator, originally a 
peasant, born in the province of Bleking in 1695, was 
elected in 1726 to the Diet, in which he acquired great 
influence by his prudence and eloquence. Died in 1769. 

Holanda, de, da o-Un'da, (FRANCISCO,) a Portuguese 
'ainter, born in 1518, studied in Rome, and appears to 
,ave returned to Portugal. He painted portraits for 
Charles V. of Germany, and was skilful in miniature. 
Under the patronage of John III. he painted oil pictures 
for the palaces and churches of Lisbon. Died in 1584. 

Holbach, d', dol'baK or dol'bfk', (PAUL THIERRY or 
PAUL FRIEDRICH,) BARON, a skeptical philosopher, 
born at Heidelsheim (Palatinate) in 1723. He inherited 
a fortune, and passed all his life, except childhood, in 
Paris, where he was the patron and associate of the 
Encyclopaedists. Diderot, Helvetius, Grimm, Rousseau, 
and other authors often met at his table. He translated 
from the German several works on chemistry and mine- 
ralogy. His atheistic opinions were developed in his 
" System of Nature," (" Le Systeme de la Nature," 1 770,) 
under the pseudonym of MIRABAUD, the morality of 
which book Voltaire stigmatized as execrable. It was 
also refuted by Frederick the Great. Holbach was the 
reputed author of other works, among which were " The 
Social System," (1773,) and "La Morale universelle," 
(1776.) Died in 1789. 

See DIDEROT, " MemoireV'/ojriixr; ROUSSEAU, " Confessions;" 
DAMIRON, " NUmoire sur Thierry d'Holbach," 1851. 

Holbein VON HOLBEINSBERG, hol'bin fon hol'binz- 
b?RG', (FRANZ,) a popular German dramatist and actor, 
born near Vienna in 1779; died in 1855. 

Holbein, (HANS,) THE ELDER, a German painter of 
Augsburg, born about 1450. Among his master-pieces 
are the scenes from the life of Saint Paul in the church of 
Saint Paul at Augsburg. He died in 1526, leaving three 
sons, AMBROSE, BRUNO, and HANS, who were artists ; 
the last-named rose to great eminence. 

Holbein, (HANS,) THE YOUNGER, one of the most 
celebrated German painters, born at Griinstadt in 1497. 
At an early age he removed to BSle, where, after prac- 
tising his art for a time, he was recommended by Erasmus 
to the English chancellor, Sir Thomas More. After 
residing in his family about three years, Holbein was 
introduced to King Henry VIII., who gave him abundant 
employment and bestowed upon him a large pension. 
He devoted himself, while in England, chiefly to portrait- 
painting; and his numerous productions in this depart- 
ment are esteemed master-pieces. His drawings, upwards 
of eighty in number, representing the principal person- 
ages of Henry's court, are characterized by Walpole as 
" exceedingly fine, and possessing a strength and vivacity 
equal to the most perfect portraits." Holbein died in 
London, of the plague, in 1554, or, according to R. N. 
Wornum and others, in 1543. Among his greatest his- 
torical pictures are the celebrated " Dance of Death," 
the "Adoration of the Shepherds and Kings," and a 
" Last Supper." His portraits of Sir Thomas More and 
of Erasmus also deserve especial mention. " His works," 
observes Cunningham, " have sometimes an air of stiff- 
ness, but they have always the look of truth and life. 
He painted with g-reat rapidity and ease, wrought with 
his left hand, and dashed off a portrait at a few sittings." 
Holbein was also a skilful architect and wood-engraver. 

See HEGNHR, " Leben Hans Holbein's," Berlin, 1827; Das- 
CAUPS, " Vies des Peintres Fiamands, Allemands," etc. ; R. N. WOR- 
mjM, "Life of Holbein;" NAGLER, "Allgemeines ICiinstler-Lexi- 
'.on:" CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of Painters, Sculptors," etc. ; KARL 

FRIEDRICH VON RUMOHR, " H. Holbein der Jiingere in seinem Vet- 
haltniss zum Deutschen Formschnittwesen," 1830; "Edinburgh 
Review" for April, 1867. 

Holbein, (SIGISMUND,) a German painter and en- 
graver, is supposed to have been an uncle of the pre- 
ceding. Died after 1540. 

Holberg, von, fon hol'be'RG, (LuDwic,) BARON, an 
eminent Danish author and comic poet, born of pool 
parents, at Bergen, Norway, in 1684. In youth he was 
employed as a private tutor, and learned French, Italian, 
and English. He studied philosophy at Oxford, England, 
for about two years. Impelled by a love of travelling, 
he visited many countries of Europe, and was afterwards 
professor of eloquence at Copenhagen. About 1720 he 
published his heroic-comic poem " Peder Paars," which 
was immensely popular. His celebrity was increased 
by numerous comedies which appeared between 1723 
and 1746. One of his best comedies is " The Busy Idler ; 
or, The Man who never has Time." His fertile mind 
enriched nearly every department of literature, and raised 
him to affluence. His talent for satire is displayed in 
"Niels Klim's Subterranean Journey," in Latin, (1741,) 
the plan of which resembles "Gulliver's Travels." He 
also wrote a "History of Denmark," (1735,) and a 
" Universal History." Frederick V. created him a baron 
in 1747. He is the founder of the Danish theatre, and 
the first Danish author who excelled in humorous and 
satirical composition. Died in 1754. 

See his Autobiography, in Latin, 1727-44, (English translation, 
London, 1827;) and his Life, in German, by ROBERT PRUTZ, 1857; 
K. L. RAHBEK, "Om L. Hoiberg som Lystspildigter," etc, a vols., 
1815-16: P. T. WANDAL, " Levensbeschrijving van L, Holberg," 
1765; WBRLAUFF," HistoriskeAntegnelser til L. HolbergsLystspil," 
1838; HOWITT, "Literature and Romance of Northern Europe," 
chap. xxi. ; "Nouvelle Biographic Gtnrale;" C. L. BRIGHTWKLL, 
"Annals of Industry and Genius," London, 1863: "North British 
Review" for July, 1869. 

Hol'bpurne, (Sir ROBERT,) M.D., an eminent Eng- 
lish lawyer, was a member of Charles I.'s privy council 
during the civil war. He published several legal treat- 
ises. Died in 1647. 

Hol'brook, (JOHN EDWARDS,) M.D., a distinguished 
American naturalist, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, 
in 1795. He graduated at Brown University in 1815; 
and, having taken his medical diploma at Philadelphia, 
he prosecuted his professional studies for four years in 
Europe. He returned to the United States in 1822, and 
in 1 824 succeeded to the cljair of anatomy in the Medical 
College of South Carolina. In 1842 appeared his "Amer- 
ican Herpetology, or a Description of the Reptiles in- 
habiting the United States," (5 vols. 410,) which is said 
to have laid the foundation of that branch of science in 
this country. Died September 8, 1871. 

Holcombe, hol'kum, (WILLIAM H.,) an American 
homceopathist, born at Lynchburg, Virginia, in 1825. He 
became a resident of New Orleans. Besides several 
volumes of homoeopathic literature, he published " Our 
Children in Heaven," (1868,) " Poems," and other works, 
including several brochures setting forth New Church 
(Swedenborgian) views. Died November 28, 1893. 

Hoi' croft, (THOMAS,) an English dramatist and trans- 
lator, born in London in 1744. He was successively a 
groom, shoemaker, school-master, and actor. He wrote 
numerous dramas and several novels. His comedies 
"Duplicity," (1781,) and "The Road to Ruin," (1792,) 
were very successful. He made good translations of 
numerous French and German works, among which are 
Lavater's "Essays on Physiognomy," "The Posthumous 
Works of Frederick the Great," (1789,) and "Tales of 
the Castle." He was indicted for treason with Hardy 
and Horne Tooke in 1794, but was discharged without a 
trial. Died in 1809. 

See "Memoirs of his Life," by himself, 3 vols., 1815; "Edin- 
burgh Review" for April, 1804, and October, 1806. 

Holda, h61'da or hol'di, written also Holle, [probably 
from the German hold, "kind," "propitious," "lovely," 1 ! 
an ancient German goddess, corresponding in some re- 
spects to the Frigga of the Northmen. She presides over 
aerial phenomena, and imparts fertility to the earth. 

Hol'den, (EDWARD SINGLETON,) an American astron- 
omer, born at Saint Louis, Missouri, November 5, 1846. 
He graduated at Washington University in 1866, and at 
West Point in 1870. He served in the artillery and en- 

as/i,- jas j; gAard; gas/';G, H, K, guttural; a, nasal; R, trilled: sasz; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23 




gineer corps, United States army, was in 1873 ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics in the navy, became 
director of the Washburn Observatory in 1881, presi- 
dent of the University of California in 1883, and was 
director of the Lick Observatory 1888-98. He pub- 
lished " Astronomy," (1877,) and other works. 

Hol'den, (GEORGE,) an eminent English Hebraisf, 
born near Lancaster in 1793, became perpetual curate 
of Mayhull, at Liverpool. Among his principal works 
are "An Attempt towards an Improved Translation of 
the Proverbs of Solomon," (1819,) and "The Scripture 
Testimonies to the Divinity of our Lord," (1820.) 

Holden, (HENRY,) a learned Roman Catholic priest, 
born in Lancashire, England, in 1596, lived for many 
years in Paris. He wrote, in Latin, an " Analysis of 
Divine Faith," (1652,) which was commended by Dupin. 
and other works on theology. Died in 1662. 

Holden, (Sir ISAAC,) an English inventor, born at 
Hurlet in 1807. He discovered the principle of the 
lucifer match in 1829, (but had been anticipated,) 
and made important inventions in wool-combing 
machinery. He was made a baronet in 1893. Died 
in 1897. 

Hol'der, (CHARLES FREDERICK,) an American 
author, bom at Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1851. His 
works include "Life of Louis Agassiz," "Charles 
Darwin's Life and Work," and numerous works of 
popular natural history. 

HoI'der, (JOSEPH BASSETT,) M.D., an American zool- 
ogist, born at Lynn, Massachusetts, October 26, 1824. 
He graduated in medicine in 1850, served in the medical 
department of the United States army, and was one of 
the founders of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory in New York. His principal works are a " History 
ol the North American Fauna," (1878,) and "History 
of the Atlantic Right Whales," (1883.) Died in 1888. 

Hol'der, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an English writer, born 
In Nottinghamshire in 1614, published, besides other 
works, "Elements of Speech," (1669,) and "Treatise on 
the Natural Grounds and Principles of Harmony," (1694,) 
which, says M. Fetis, "is one of the best works on that 
subject." It is said that he taught a deaf-mute to speak. 
Died in 1697. 

Holderlin or Hoelderlin, hol'der-leen', QOHANN 
CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH,) a German poet, born at Lauffen 
in or about 1770. He wrote "Hyperion, or the Hermit 
in Greece," (2 vols., 1799,) a romance, which has some 
beautiful passages, and "Lyric Poems," (1826,) which 
are admired for fervour of fancy and depth of thought. 
Died in 1843. 

Holds'wprth, (EDWARD,) an English scholar, born in 
1688, was educated at Oxford. He wrote a Latin poem, 
called " Muscipula," ("Mouse-trap.") Died in 1747. 

Holdaworth, written also Holsworth, Olds-worth, 
and Oldisworth, (RICHARD,) an English divine, born 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1590. He became professor 
of divinity at Gresham College in 1629, and master of 
Emanuel College in 1637. He left, besides other works, 
"Valley of Vision," in twenty-one sermons, (1651.) 
Died in 1649. 

Hole, (MATTHEW,) an English religious writer, born 
about 1640, was vicar of Stoke Courcy, in Somersetshire. 
He wrote " Discourses on the Liturgy of the Church of 
England," (6 vols., 1714-16,) and other works. Died 
about 1730. 

Hole, (RICHARD,) an English poet, born at Exeter. 
He produced a poetical version of Homer's "Hymn to 
Ceres," (1781,) "Arthur," a poetical romance, (1789,) 
and a few other works. He became rector of Farring- 
don in 1792. Died in 1803. 

Holfken or Hoelfken, liolf ken, (GusTAV,) a German 
writer on national economy, born at Hattingen, in Prus- 
sia, in iSn. He published, besides other works, "The 
Condition, Policy, and Development of the Power of 
England," (2 vols., 1846.) 

Holger (hol'ger) the Dane, a half-mythical national 
hero of Denmark, whose legend in its present form was 
worked up by Saxo Grammaticus. It is believed, how- 
ever, that the French or Walloon form of the name 

I (OciER THE DANE) is older than the other, and that the 
1 word " Dane," as here used, at first signified not an inhabi- 
tant of Denmark, but a dweller in theaSrwor forest-region 
now called Ardennes. The Danish legend represents 
Holger as sleeping for ages in a vault under the castle 
of Kronborg. with his beard grown through a table of 
stone. At some future time he will awake, break the 
table, and rescue his country from her enemies. 

Hol'inS-hed or HolTngS-hed, (RAPHAEL,) an Eng- 
lish annalist, the date and place of whose birth are 
unknown. He published valuable chronicles of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, (1577.) Modern historians have 
borrowed largely from him. Died about 1580. 

Hol'kar, (Jeswunt Rao, jSs'wunt rl'o,) a son of 
fuckagee, noticed below, was an able warrior, and 3 
formidable enemy of the British. He defeated Scindia 
in 1802, and raised a large army. In the spring of 1804 
war broke out between him and the British. Holkar 
defeated Colonel Monson's division of 12,000 men in 
July, near the Chumbul and Bannas Rivers. In Novem- 
ber of 1804 he was surprised and routed by Lord Lake 
at Furruckabad. He made a treaty of peace in January, 
1806. Died in i8tl. 

Holkar, (MulTiar Ra'p or Row,) a Mahratta chie 
born at Hoi, in the Deccan, in 1693. Having distinguished 
himself in war, be became ruler of a large part of Malwa. 
He died in 1766. 

A daughter-in-law of the preceding, named AHALYA 
BAEE, (a-ha'le-J bl'ee,) or ALYA BHYE, (then a widow,) 
succeeded to the government on the death of Mulhar 
Rao Holkar, and during an administration of more than 
thirty years displayed extraordinary virtues both as a 
woman and a ruler. She was equally distinguished for 
her wisdom, her humanity and benevolence, and her 
moderation and sense of justice. Died in 1795. 

Fora very interesting account of her character and administration, 
see SIR JOHN MALCOLM'S " History of Central India." 

Holkar, (Tuckagee,) supposed to be a nephew of 
Mulhar Rao Holkar, obtained possession of his do- 
minions in 1767. He was the ally of Scindia against 
the Rajpoots. Died in 1797. 

Holl, hoi, (EL1AS,) an eminent German architect, born 
at Augsburg in 1573, studied his art in Venice His 
capital work is the Rathhaus, or Town Hall, of Augs- 
burg, (i6i8,)one of the finest structures for that purpose 
in Germany. He built also the arsenal, the church 
called " Mariahilf," and other public edifices of Aups- 
burg. Died in 1636. 

H611, (FRANCIS,) an English engraver, born in Camden 
Town, March 23, 1815. His brother, WILLIAM HOLL, 
(1807-71,) was also distinguished as an engraver. Francis 
died at Godalming, January 14, 1884. 

Holl, (FRANK,) an English painter, a son of Francis 
Holl, was born at Kentish Town, London. July 4, 1845, 
and was educated at University College, London. Hi' 
reputation for history, life-pictures, portraits, etc., \s very 
great. In 1878 he was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy, and a Royal Academician in 1883. Died 
July 21, 1888. 

Holland, (EDWIN CLIFFORD,) an American poet and 
journalist, born in Charleston, South Carolina, about 
1794. He edited for some time the " Charleston Times,' 
and became noted as a satirist and controversialist. In 
1814 he published a volume of "Odes, Naval Songs, 
and other Poems," originally contributed to Dennie's 
"Port-Folio." Died HI 1824. 

Hol'land, (HENRY,) an eminent English architect, 
born about 1746. He was patronized by the Prince of 
Wales, (afterwards George IV.,) for whom he designed 
the Pavilion at Brighton, and Carlton House, the portico 
of which was much admired. He was architect of the 
old Drury Lane Theatre, begun about 1790, and after- 
wards burned. Died in 1806. 

Holland, (Sir HENRY,) M.D., F.R.S., an eminent 
English physician, born at Knutsford, in Cheshire, in 
October, 1788. Having graduated at Edinburgh in 1811, 
he made the tour of Europe, and published, on his re- 
turn, " Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, and Greece," 
(1815.) He settled in London, and gradually rose to 
ereat distinction in his profession. He became phy- 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mSt; n6t; good; moon; 




sician-in-ordinary to Prince Albert in 1840, and to Queen 
Victoria in 1852. In 1853 ne was created a baronet 
His principal work is " Medical Notes and Reflections," 
(1836.) Died in 1873. He married in 1834 Saba, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. Sydney Smith. She wrote a "Me- 
moir" of her father. She died in 1867. 

in English peer, born in Wiltshire in 1773, was the only 
son of Stephen Fox, second Lord Holland, and Mary 
Fitzpatrick. By the death of his father he succeeded to 
the peerage in 1774, at the age of one year. He inher- 
ited a large share of the talents and noble dispositions 
of the family of Fox. He was educated at Oxford, and 
married Lady Webster in 1797. In the House of Lords 
he spoke frequently against the administration, and sup- 
ported the measures of his uncle, the famous orator 
Charles James Fox. His powers as a speaker were of 
a very high order. In 1802 he visited Paris, in company 
with his uncle and Lady Holland. He held the office 
of privy seal a few months in :8o6. Throughout his 
career he was constant to the Whig party ; and when 
they came into power in 1830 he was appointed chan- 
cellor of the duchy of Lancaster. He published an 

Bells," (1859,) "Rubbing the Gilt Off," (1860,) "Odd 
Journeys," (1860,) "Ways of Life," (1861,) "Ragged 
London," (1861,) "Underground London," "Rough 
Diamonds," "To-Day," (1864,) "Miscellanea," (3 vols., 
1874,) "The Story of Liecester Square," (1892,) etc. 

Hol'lins, (GEORGE N.,) an American naval officer, 
born at Baltimore about I Soo. H e became a commander 
in 1841, and bombarded Greytown, in Nicaragua, in 1851. 
He took arms against the Union in 1861, and commander', 
the naval forces which were defeated by Captain Farragut 
below New Orleans in April, 1863. Died January iS, 

Hollina, (JOHN,) an English painter of genre and 
portraits, born at Birmingham in 1798; died in 1855. 

Hol'lis or Hol'les, (DENZIL,) LORD, an English poli- 
tician, second son of the Earl of Clare, and orother-in- 
law of the Earl of Strafford, was born at Haughton in 
1597. In the reign of Charles I. he was one of the 
leaders of the opposition in Parliament, and in 1629 was 
condemned to imprisonment during the king's pleasure. 
He was one of the five members whom the king rashly 
attempted to arrest in the House of Commons on a 
charge of treason, (1642.) After the division between 

excellent "Life of Lope de Vega," (1817,) and "Three ; the Presbyterians and Independents occurred, Hollis 
Comedies from the Spanish," which are rendered with was the leader of the former. He was expelled from Par- 
great poetical felicity. His " Foreign Reminiscences" liament at the time of Pride's Purge, and fled to France, 
appeared after his death, which occurred in 1840. In " 
his time Holland House was the favourite resort, as 
Macaulay says, "of wits and beauties, of painters and 
poets, o/ scholars, philosophers, and statesmen." 

Holland, (JosiAH GILBERT,) M.D., (TIMOTHY TIT- 
COMB,) a popular American author, born at Belchertown, 
Massachusetts, in 1819. In 1847 ne became associate 
editor of the " Springfield Republican." He published a 
" History of Western Massachusetts," (1855,) "The Bay 
Path, "a novel, (1857,) "Titcomb's Letters to Young Peo- 
ple," (1858,) " Gold Foil," (1859,) " Miss Gilbert's Career," 
(1860,) "Bitter-Sweet, a Dramatic Poem," (1867,) 
"Sevenoaks," (1876,) and "Nicholas Minturn," 
(1877.) In 1870 he became editor of " Scribner's 
Magazine." Died October 12, 1881. 

Holland, LORD. See Fox, (HENRY.) 

Holland, (NATHANIEL.) See DANCE. 

Holland, (THOMAS ERSKINE,) a British legal 
author, was born at Brighton in 1835. He became 
professor of English, and afterwards of international, 
law at Oxford. Of his works on legal subjects the 
best known is his " Elements of Jurisprudence," which 
has become a text-book in most of the law schools of 
England and America. 

Hollanda. See HOLANDA. 

Hollar, hol'laR, (WENZEL or WENCESLAUS,) a cele- 
brated Bohemian engraver and designer, born at Prague 
in 1607. Having met with the Earl of Arundel in Co- 
logne, he accompanied him on his return to London, 

He favoured the restoration, was created a peer by 
Charles II. in 1660, and was sent as ambassador to 
France in 1663. Died in 1680. 

See "Memoirs of Denzil Holies," 1699; HUME, "History of 
England;" " Biographia Britannica;" GUIZOT, "Monk's Contem- 
poraries," London, 1865. 

Hollis, (THOMAS,) a munificent benefactor of Har- 
vard College, born in England in 1659. He was for 
many years a successful merchant in London, where he 
died in 1731. He founded two professorships in Harvard, 
the Hollis divinity professorship and the professorship 
of mathematics. Besides books and philosophical ap- 
paratus, his bequests to the college in money amounted 
to about ,5000, probably equal to more than five times 
as much as these figures would represent at the present 

HoLUs, (THOMAS,) F.R.S., an English gentleman and 
republican, born in London in 1720, was an ardent friend 
of civil and religious liberty, and noted for his public 
spirit. He possessed a large fortune, which he used 
liberally for charitable purposes and in the publication 
of books. He published good editions of Toland's " Life 
of Milton," (1761,) and Algernon Sidney's Works. Died 
in 1774. 


Hollmann, hol'man, (SAMUEL CHRISTIAN,) a Gei- 
man philosopher, born at Stettin about 1696, was pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Gottingen for about fifty years. 
He wrote, in Latin, several works on philosophy, meta- 

and was employed to engrave some of the pictures of his physics, and logic. Died in 1787. 
gallery. In 1639 he brought out his "Ornatus Mulie- ! Hollo-way, (THOMAS,) a skilful English engraver, 
bris Anglicanus," an admirable work, illustrating the j born in London in 1748. He engraved the plates for 
dress of Englishwomen of all classes at that time. Lavater's " Physiognomy," and the Cartoons of Raphael 

Owing to the troubled state of the country, he was, not- 
withstanding his genius and industry, soon reduced to 
great poverty. Many of his works are etchings. Died 
in London in 1677. 

Hollerius. See HOULLIER. 

Holies. See HOLLIS. 

Hol'ley, (HORACE,) D.D., born at Salisbury, Con- 
necticut, in 1781, graduated at Yale College in 1803. 
He became minister of the Hollis Street Unitarian 
Church, Boston, in 1809, and president of Transylvania 
University, Kentucky, in 1818. He published a volume 
of sermons. Died in 1827. 

See a " Memoir of Dr. Holley," by his widow. 

Holley, (MARIETTA,) an American author, born 
in Jefferson county, New York, in 1844. Her works 
are of a humourous character, and include " My Opin- 
ions and Betsy Bobbett's," " Samantha at Saratoga," 
"Sweet Cicely," etc. 

Hol'lingi-head, (JOHN,) an English author, born 
at London, September 9, 1827. He became a journalist 
and theatrical manager. He published " Under Bow 

at Windsor. He spent several years on the latter, and had 
the title of engraver of history to the king. Died in 1827. 

Holly, (JAMES THEODORE,) D.D., an American- 
Haytian bishop, born of coloured parents, at Washing- 
ton, D.C., in 1829. Though bred a Roman Catholic, he 
in 1856 became a presbyter in the Episcopal Church. 
In 1 86 1 he founded an American colony of coloured per- 
sons in Hayti, where he became a missionary. In 1874 
he was consecrated Bishop of Hayti. 

Hol'man, (JAMES,) an Englishman, distinguished at 
" the Blind Traveller," was born about 1788. He served 
for some years in the royal navy, until he became blind, 
(about 1812.) He performed a journey through several 
countries of Europe, (1819-21,) of which he published 
a narrative in 1822. After that date he visited the other 
continents, and published "Travels through Russia, 
Siberia," etc., (1825,) and a " Voyage round the World," 
(4 vols., 1840.) He was arrested as a spy by the Rus- 
sians. Died in 1857. 

Holman, (JOSEPH GEORGE,) an actor and dramatist, 
born in London. After performing in London and Dub- 

as k; 9 as i; g hard; g asj; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( JJ^"See Explanations, p. 23. ) 




lin, he emigrated to the United States in 1800, and was 
manager of the Charleston Theatre. He wrote a few 
comic operas. Died in 1817. 

Holmes, homz, (AuiEL,) D.D., an American divine, 
born at Woodstock, Connecticut, in 1763, graduated at 
Yale in 1783. He was pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional Church, Cambridge, Massachusetts, from 1792 to 
1832. In 1805 he published "American Annals," the 
result of great industry and research. " We consider 
it," says Professor Sparks, "among the most valuable 
productions of the American press." He was the father 
of Dr. O. W. Holmes, noticed below. Died in 1837. 

Holmes, homz, (ALFRED,) an English violinist and 
composer, born in London in 1837. His opera " Inez de 
Castro," and his symphonies " The Youth of Shak- 
speare," " Robin Hood," and " The Siege of Paris," were 
performed with considerable success. Died at Paris, 
March 4, 1876. 

Holmes, homz, (GEORGE,) an English antiquary, born 
in Yorkshire in 1662, was clerk to the keepers of the 
records in the Tower. Died in 1749. 

Holmes, (GEORGE FREDERICK,) LL.D., an American 
educator, born at Georgetown, British Guiana, August 
2, 1820. He was educated in the University of Durham, 
England, was admitted to the bar in South Carolina in 
1842, and held professorships in Richmond College, Wil- 
liam and Mary College, the University of Mississippi, 
(of which he was president, 1848-49,) and the University 
of Virginia. He published English grammars, two His- 
tories of the United States, and other works, besides 
many review articles, etc. Died November 4, 1897. 

Holmes, (ISAAC EDWARD,) a political leader in South 
Carolina, born in Charleston in 1796, rose to eminence 
at the bar, took a conspicuous part in the nullification 
movement of South Carolina in 1832-33, and from 1839 
to 1851 was a member of Congress. Died Feb. 24, 1867. 

Holmes, (MARY JANE,) an American novelist, 
born at Brookfield, Massachusetts. Her works include 
"Tempest and Sunshine," (1854,) "Lena Rivers," 
"Edith Lyle," "Gretchen," (1887,) etc. 

Holmes, (NATHANIEL.) See HOMES. 

Holmes, (OLIVER WENDELL,) M.D., a distinguished 
American author, wit, and poet, was born in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, August 29, 1809. He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1829, and commenced the study of law, but soon 
abandoned it for medicine. Early in 1833 he visited 
Europe, where for nearly three years he pursued his 
medical studies, attending the hospitals of Paris and 
other large cities. He returned to his native country 
in 1835, and took the degree of doctor of medicine at 
Harvard in 1836. In 1838 he was elected professor of 
anatomy and physiology in Dartmouth College. About 
two years afterwards he resigned this position, and in 
1847 was chosen to fill the same chair at Harvard Uni- 
versity, as successor to Dr. Warren. Holmes had dis- 
tinguished himself as a poet even before he left college. 
In 1836 he read before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at 
Cambridge, " Poetry, a Metrical Essay," which was soon 
after published in a small volume, with a number of his 
other poems. In 1857-8 he contributed to the " Atlantic 
Monthly" a series of papers entitled "The Autocrat of 
the Breakfast-Table," which were followed in 1859 by 
another series, called "The Professor at the Breakfast- 
Table," and in 1872 by "The Poet at the Breakfast- 
Table." These contributions abound in humour and wit, 
and exhibit a shrewd insight into human character. His 
other principal productions are "Elsie Venner," (1861,) 
and "The Guardian Angel," (1868,) besides numerous 
minor works, among which are " Mechanism in Thought 
and Morals," (1870,) "Songs of Many Seasons," a col- 
lection of poems, (1874,) "John L. Motley, a Memoir," 
(1878,) "The Iron Gate, and Other Poems," (1880,) and 
a biography of Emerson, (1885.) As a poet, Dr. Holmes 
was especially distinguished for wit and humour joined 
with a remarkable felicity of expression. As a song- 
writer he had few, if any, superiors in America ; but 
he particularly excelled in the playful vein. Among 
his effusions of this class we could not, perhaps, select 
an example which better exhibits his playful fancy or his 
wonderful facility and fertility of resources as a versifier, 

than his lines addressed to Agassiz when setting out on 

his scientific tour in South America. Died Oct. 7, 1894. 

See DUYCKINCK, "Cyclopaedia of American Literature," vol. iL : 

Marcli 1849, (by WHITTIER ;) " Saturday Review," Oct. 13, 1 

Holmes, (ROBERT,) D.D., an English divine, born in 
Hampshire in 1749. In 1790 he was chosen professor 
of poetry at Oxford, and in 1804 Dean of Winchester. 
He wrote odes, tracts, and sermons, and commenced an 
edition of the Septuagint, which was finished by Parsons. 
Died in 1805. 

Holmes, (THEOPHILUS H.,) an American general, 
born in North Carolina, graduated at West Point in 
1829. He became a general in the Confederate army 
in r86i, and commanded in Arkansas in 1862-63. Died 
June 21, 1880. 

Holmskiold, holm'ske-old', (THEODOR,) a Danish 
physician and naturalist, born in 1732. He published a 
fine work on the Fungi in 1790. Died in 1793. 

Holmstrom or Holmstrcem, holm'stRbm, (ISRAEL,) 
a popular Swedish poet, born at Stockholm, followed 
Charles XII. in his campaigns, with the title of councillor 
of war. Died in 1708. 

Hol-o-fer'nes, an Assyrian general, who lived at an 
uncertain epoch, and was killed by Judith, a patriotic 

See the Apocryphal Book of Judith. 

Hol'royd, (JOHN BAKER,) Earl of Sheffield, an English 
political writer and military officer, bom in Yorkshire in 
1741. He edited some posthumous works of Gibbon. 
Died in 1821. 

Hoist, hoist, (HANS PETER,) a Danish poet, born at 
Copenhagen in i8n. He published "National Ro- 
mances," (1832,) " Poems," (" Digte," 1840,) and other 
works, written in an elegant style. His poem called 
"Adieu" ("Farvel," 1840) has been translated into 
many languages. Died in 1893. 

See P. L. MOLLER, notice in the " Dansk Pantheon." 

Hoist, von, fon hoist, (HERMANN EDUARD,) a Ger- 
man historian, born at Fellin, in Livonia, (Russia,) June 
19, 1841. He was educated at Dorpat and Heidelberg. 
He removed to New York in 1867. In 1872 he was 
called to a professorship of history at Strasburg, and in 
1874 was made professor of modern history at Freiburg. 
He later visited the United States, and became pro- 
fessor of history at the University of California in 1892. 
His writings include a very able "Constitutional His- 
tory of the United States," and a " Life of J. C. Cal- 

Holstein, hol'stln, (JOHAN LUDWIG,) a worthy Dan- 
ish statesman, born at Ltibtz in 1694, became prime 
minister in 1735, and president of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences in 1742. Died in 1763. 

Hol-ste'nI-us, [Ger. pron. hol-sta'ne-as,] (LuCAS,) 
the Latin form of the name of LUCAS HOLSTE, (hol'steh,) 
an eminent German scholar, born at Hamburg in 1596. 
He studied at Leyden, and went to Paris, where he joined 
the Roman Catholic Church in 1626. His friend Peiresc 
recommended him to Cardinal Barberini, whom he ac- 
companied to Rome in 1627. He became librarian to 
Barberini in 1636, and librarian of the Vatican in the 
pontificate of Innocent X. He projected great literary 
works, some of which he left unfinished. In 1630 he 
published a Greek and Latin edition of Porphyry's " Life 
of Pythagoras," to which he added an excellent notice 
of Porphyry. Among his other published works is 
" Demophili, Democratis et Secundi Sententias Morales 
Graece et Latine," ("The Moral Maxims of Demophilus, 
Democrates, and Secundus, in Greek and Latin " with 
notes, 1638.) Died in 1661. 

See WILKBNS, " Leben des gelehrten Luc* Holstenn_ ' 1723, 
NICEKON, "Me"moires," vol. xxxi. ; M5LLER, "Cimbria Literate;** 
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Holt, (FRANCIS LUDLOW,) an English barrister, was 
queen's counsel and vice-chancellor of Lancashire from 
1826 to 1844. For many years he was editor of Bell's 
" Weekly Messenger." Died in 1844. 

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long: i, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, I. o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure: far, fall, lit; mf t; nftt; good; moon; 



Holt, (Sir JOHN,) an eminent English judge, born at 
Thame in December, 1642, was entered at Gray's Inn in 
1658, and called to the bar in 1663. Having become 
eminent in his profession, he was chosen recorder of 
London; but for his firm opposition to the despotic 
measures of James II. he was removed. He distin- 
guished himself in the Convention Parliament of 1688, 
and at the accession of William III. was appointed lord 
chief justice of the king's bench in 1689. In 1700 he 
declined the office of lord chancellor. He performed 
the duties of chief justice with wisdom, honour, and 
courage, until the end of his life. " His name," says 
Mackintosh, " never can be pronounced without venera- 
tion as long as wisdom and integrity are revered among 
men." Died in 1709. 

See LORD CAMPBELL, " Lives of the Chief Justices ;" "Life 
of Sir John Holt," (anonymous,) 1764; Foss, "The Judges ol 

Holt, (JOHN,) an English writer and teacher, born in 
Cheshire in 1742. He wrote, besides a few other works, 
"Characters of the Kings and Queens of England," (3 
vols., 1786-88.) Died in 1801. 

Holt, (JOSEPH,) an American minister of state, born 
in Breckinridge county, Kentucky, about 1807. He 
practised law at Louisville. In March, 1859, he was 
appointed postmaster-general. He succeeded John B. 
Floyd as secretary of war in December, 1860, and by his 
energy and zeal for the Union rendered important 
services in the critical times which ensued. About Sep- 
tember, 1862, he became judge-advocate-general of the 
armv. Died August I, 1894. 

Holte, holt, (JOHN,) an English school-master, born 
in Sussex about 1470, wrote the first Latin grammar 
ever printed in England, which was dated about 1497. 

Holtei, von, fon hol'tf, (KARL,) a German poet and 
dramatist, born at Breslau in 1797. He produced many 
comedies and dramas, among which are "The Old 
General," and " Glory and Poverty," a volume of poems, 
(1826,) "German Songs," (1834,) and memoirs of his 
life, entitled " Forty Years," (1843-50.) Died in 1880. 

Holty or Hoelty, hbl'tee, ( LUDWIG HEINRICH 
CHRISTOPH,) an excellent German lyric poet, born at 
Mariensee, near Hanover, in 1748. He studied at Gbt- 
tingen, where he formed friendships with Voss, Stoll- 
berg, and others. He supported himself for a time by 
translating from the English, and giving lessons, until his 
health failed. His elegies, idyls, and odes are admired 
for tenderness of feeling, artless grace, and naivetl. He 
died prematurely in 1776. The first edition of his poems 
appeared in 1783. 


and Poetry of Europe ;" notice of Holty i 

published by Voss in 1804. 

Holtzlinus, holts-lee'nus, (JEREMIAS,) a German 
philologist, born at Nuremberg; died at Leyden in 1641. 

Holtzmann, holts'man, (ADOLF,) a German philolo- 
gist, born at Carlsruhe, May 2, 1810. He was educated 
at Berlin, Munich, and Paris, and became professor of 
German at Heidelberg, where he died, July 3, 1870. 
Among his numerous works are translations of the 
" Mahabharata" and the " Ramayana," and an " Old- 
German Grammar," of which only one volume has been 

His son, HEINRICH JULIUS, born in 1832, published 
a large number of theological works, becoming a rep- 
resentative of the advanced modern school in theology. 

Holub, ho'loop, (Dr. EMIL,) a Bonemian traveller, 
born at Holitz, October 7, 1847. He practised the pro- 
fession of medicine in the diamond-region of South 
Africa, and became a high authority on the ethnology, 
geography, languages, and natural history of trans- 
equatorial Africa. Among his works are " Seven Years 
in South Africa," (1880-81,) "African Colonization," 
(1882,) etc. 

Hol'w^ll, (JOHN ZEPHANIAH,) born in Dublin in 1711. 
Having studied surgery, he went to India in I73 2 > an< ^ 
became a member of the council at Calcutta about 1755. 
He was one of those who survived the confinement in 
the " Black Hole," of which he published a narrative, 
(1757.) He succeeded Colonel Clive as Governor of 

Bengal in 1759. Holwell also published "Interesting , lle Biographic Giinerale." 
as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Historical Events relative to Bengal and Hindostan, with 
the Mythology of the Gentoos," (3vols., 1764-71.) Died 
in 1798. 

Hol'y-day, (BARTEN,) D.D., an English divine, bor 
at Oxford in 1593, was chaplain to Charles I. He wrote 
" Survey of the World," a poem, and translated Juve- 
nal and Persius. Died in 1661. 

Holyoak, hol'yok, (FRANCIS,) an English clergyman, 
born in Warwickshire about 1567, published a "Dic- 
tionary of Latin Words," (1606,) which was enlarged 
by his son Thomas. Died in 1653. 

HSl'yoake, (GEORGE JACOB,) an Engjjsh agitator, 
born at Birmingham, April 13, 1817. He for many years 
edited " The Reasoner" and " The Present," organs of 
" secularism" in civilization and morals, and was for a 
time imprisoned on a charge of atheism, although he 
asserted that his system was not opposed to theology, 
though apart from it He all his life refused to take an 
oath, from which circumstance he incurred much loss. 
He published a large number of books, among which 
are a " History of Co-operation," (1874,) " Self-Help 
a Hundred Years Ago," (iSSS,) "Sixty Years of an 
Agitator's Life," (1892,) and "Public Speaking and 
Debate," (1895.) 

Holyoke, hol'ySk, (EDWARD AUGUSTUS,) M.D., an 
American physician, was born in Marblehead, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1728. He graduated at Harvard in 1746, 
and for seventy-nine years followed his profession with 
I eminent success in Salem, where he died, March 31, 1829. 
i At the age of ninety-two he performed the operation of 
paracentesis, and on his hundredth anniversary partook 
of a public dinner given him by the physicians of Salem 
and Boston. 

See " Memoirs of Edward A. Holyoke," Boston, 1829. 

Hol'yoke, (SAMUEL,) an American teacher and com- 
poser of vocal and instrumental music, born at Boxford, 
Massachusetts, in 1771. He published " Harmonia 
Americana," (1791,) "The Columbian Repository of 
Sacred Harmony," (1809,) and other works. Died in 

HoVy-wood, Hall-fax, or Sac'ro Bos'co, (JOHN,) 
a noted mathematician of the thirteenth century, was 
professor of mathematics in the University of Paris. 
The time and place of his birth are unknown. He wrote 
a work entitled " De Sphaera Mundi." 

Holzbauer, holts'bSw'er, (!GNAZ,) a German com- 
poser, born in Vienna in 1711, produced operas, sym- 
phonies, etc. " He has a good style," says Mozart, " and 
composes very fine fugues." Died in 1783. 

Holzer, holt'ser, (JOHANN,) an eminent German 
fresco-painter and engraver, was born near Marienburg, 
in the Tyrol, in 1709. He painted numerous frescos in 
Augsburg of religious subjects, among which is "The 
Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian." He produced spirited 
etchings of " The Adoration of the Magi," after Berg- 
miiller, of the "Ecce Homo," after his own design, and 
of other paintings. Died in 1740. 

Homann, ho'man, QOHANN BAPTIST,) a German 
geographer and engraver of maps, born at Kamlach, in 
Suabia, in 1664. He settled in Nuremberg, and published 
many maps, which were more than ordinarily accurate 
He formed a large collection of the same, under the title 
of "Atlas," (1716.) His establishment, called "Officina 
Homanniana," was well known throughout Europe. 
Died in 1724. 

Homberg, hom'be'RG, (WiLHELM,) M.D., an excel- 
lent chemist, born of German parents at Batavia, in Java, 
in 1652, came to Europe at an early age. He studied 
chemistry and other natural sciences with Otto Guericke 
and Boyle, and visited the principal capitals of Europe 
in pursuit of knowledge. About 1685 he practised medi- 
cine at Rome with success, and in 1691 removed to 
Paris, where he was chosen a member of the Academy 
of Sciences, to which he contributed many memoirs. 
He was patronized by the Duke of Orleans, who chose 
him as his first physician. He discovered boracic acid 
and Homberg's pyrophorus. Died in Paris in 1715. 
See FONTKHBLLK, " filoge de Homberg;" NICERON, "Mi- 
ires;" F. HOEFER, " Histoire de 1 Chimie," tome ii. ; "Noo- 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



Home, (DAVID.) See HUME. 

Home, (DAVID,) a Scottish Protestant minister, who 
lived in France during the reign of James I. of Eng- 
land. He wrote "Apologia Basilica," (1626.) 

Home, (Sir EVERARD,) an eminent Scottish surgeon, 
born in the county of Berwick in 1756, studied medicine 
with his brother-m-law, the celebrated John Hunter. 
He practised in London with distinction, and was presi- 
dent of the Royal College of Surgeons. He published 
" Lectures on Comparative Anatomy," and other pro- 
fessional works. Died in 1832. 

Home, (HENRY,) Lord Kames, a Scottish judge, born 
at Kames m 1696, was called to the Edinburgh bar in 
1724. After publishing several legal treatises, which 
were well received, he was appointed in 1752 a judge of 
the court of sessions, and took the title of Lord Kames. 
In 1758 he wrote a valuable work, entitled " Historical 
Law Tracts." His greatest work, " Elements of Criti- 
cism," (1762,) was regarded by some as an admirable per- 
formance, and is highly commended by Dugald Stewart 
Dr. Johnson said, "The Scotchman has taken the right 
method in his ' Elements of Criticism.' " He was ap- 
pointed one of the lords of justiciary in 1763. Died in 1782. 

See LORD WOODHOUSELEE, "Memoirs of the Life of Henry 
Home," i8of-io, a vols. ; WILLIAM SMELLIE, "Life of Lord 
K.vnes," 1800 : CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent 

Home or Hume, (JoHN,) a popular Scottish drama- 
tist, born at Ancrum in 1724. He was licensed to preach 
in 1747, and settled at Athelstaneford. In 1756 he 
became at once distinguished by the publication of his 
"Tragedy of Douglas," which was performed first at Edin- 
burgh with unbounded applause, and is still very popular 
on the stage. " I think nobody can bestow too much praise 
on Douglas," says Professor Wilson. " There has been 
no English tragedy worthy of the name since it ap- 
peared." It rendered the author so obnoxious to the 
elders of the Kirk that he retired from the ministry. 
He was patronized by the Earl of Bute, who procured 
him a pension of 300. Home wrote several other 
dramas, much inferior to "Douglas," and a " History of 
the Rebellion in 1745." Mrs. Siddons once said "she 
never found any study [which, in the technical language 
of the stage, means the getting verses by heart] so easy 
as that of Douglas." Died in 1808. 

See SIR WALTER SCOTT'S critique on the " Life and Writings of 
John Home," in the "Quarterly Review" for June, 1827; HENRY 
MACKENZIE, " Life of John Home," prefixed to a collection of his 
works, 3 vols. 8vo, 1822; "Noctes Ambrosianae" for April, 1822; 
CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Ho'mer, [Gr. 'O^poc; Lat. HOME'RUS ; Fr. HOMERE, 
o'maiR'; Ger. HOMER, ho-maR';* It. OMERO, o-ma'ro,l 
the reputed author of the two great epics the " Iliad" ana 
the " Odyssey," and the most celebrated poet that ever 
lived, is generally supposed to have been born at Smyrna, 
or Chios, t (Scio,) and to have flourished about one thou- 
sand years before the Christian era ; but both the place 
and the century of his birth are involved in the greatest 
uncertainty. The best ancient authorities, including 
Aristotle and Aristarchus, represent him as contemporary 
with the Ionian migration which occurred about one 
hundred and forty years after the Trojan war. Of the 
two great poems above named, the " Iliad" has been 
aptly called " the beginning of all literature." In the 
opinion, indeed, of the greatest critics of antiquity, it was 

See principles of German pronunciation, in the Introduction. 
t If the weight of authorities is m favour of Smyrna, the greater 
umber would seem to be on the side of Chios. (See Smith's " Clas- 
sical Dictionary.") Byron appears to give the preference to the lat- 
ter ; for he calls Homer 

"The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle." 

Bride of Abytfos, canto ii 

It has been suggested (and it seems highly probable) that Homer, 
though born at Smyrna, may have afterwards removed to Chios, 
where his family, or a branch of it, (the Homeridje,) are said to have 
Hired for several generations. Seven different cities are said to have 
disputed for the honour of having given birth to Homer, as expressed 
m the following couplet by Antipater of Sidon : 


X/ivpya, XiiK. KoAo^wc, Idaxi), IIvAot , 'Apyof , Afliji ai. 
Literally. " Seven cities (or states) contended for the wise race of 
Homer, [i.e. the race or origin of the wise Homer,] Smyrna, Chios, 
Colophon, Ithaca, Pylos, Argos, and Athens." Some writers substi- 
tute Salamis for Ithaca nd Rhodes ("PoSiw) for Pylos. 

not only the beginning, but the end ; it was not merely 
the first attempt at the production of a great poem, but 
the faultless model which excited alike the admiration and 
despair of all succeeding poets. In the words of Aris- 
totle, 'Ofajpof . . . tea xo2 diai'oip Travraf irntp$efoj}K.\ 
" Hie omnes sine dubio," says Quintilian, "in i mini genere 
eloquentiae procul a se reliquit" Some other ancient 
writers speak in even stronger terms of praise. 

Among the ancients, none appears ever to have doubted 
that Homer was a real personage, and that he was the 
author of the most wonderful poem of antiquity, (the 
" Iliad.") But before or about the time of the Christian 
era there was a class of critics who denied that the 
" Iliad" and " Odyssey" were the productions of the same 
author. They were called Xupi'sovrff, or " Separators." 
It cannot be denied that there is a remarkable difference 
between those works, not in one or two points only, but 
in several important respects. Perhaps the most striking 
difference is that which exists in respect to the character 
of the gods in the two poems. The gods of the " Iliad" 
are completely human in their character, unless it be 
that they have more than human foibles or vices. They 
are capricious and selfish, and seldom, if ever, show 
much regard for justice. The deities of the " Odyssey" 
appear as the rewarders of merit and the avengers of 
sin or crime. There is, moreover, a marked difference 
in the spirit or tone of the two poems. To explain this 
difference, Longinus tells us that the " Iliad" was com- 
posed by Homer when he was in the vigour of life, while 
the " Odyssey" was the production of his old age. 

Modern critics had seemed disposed to leave the ques- 
tion of Homer's age and the authorship of the Homeric 
poems very much where they had been left by the writers 
of antiquity, until a little before the close of the last cen- 
tury, when F. A. Wolf startled the world by announcing 
a new theory respecting the Homeric poems, (1795.) He 
maintained that, as writing was not in use among the 
Greeks until long after the time in which those poems 
must have been composed, it would have been wholly 
impossible for an^r poet, however great his genius, to 
compose and retain in memory even one such work as 
the "Iliad" or "Odyssey." For this and other reasons, 
he concludes that the two great epics which go under the 
name of Homer were really produced by a number of 
different authors, and that these separate productions 
were, after the introduction of the art of writing, thrown 
together as they happened to fit, so as to form a continu- 
ous whole. The inconclusiveness, not to say absurdity, 
of such a train of reasoning must, we think, be obvious 
to every unbiassed mind. We meet, even now, with 
persons who by two or three perusals can commit to 
memory the whole of such a poem as the " Lady of the 
Lake." " Who can determine," says Miiller, " how 
many thousand verses one thoroughly filled with his sub- 
ject . . . might produce in a year and confide to the 
faithful memory of disciples devoted to their master and 
his art ?" When we take into consideration the fact 
that the mental activity of the ancients, instead of being 
divided and diluted among an endless variety of studies 
or pursuits, was concentrated and constantly exercised 
on a comparatively few, the retaining of even two such 
works as the " Iliad" and " Odyssey" will not, perhaps, 
seem more incredible than many feats of memory which 
are known to have been performed in modern times. 
Nor must it be forgotten that the poetry of Homer, unlike 
that of many of our great modern poets, is, generally 
speaking, remarkable for the simplicity and directness of 
its language ; and these qualities, added to the marvellous 
facility and animation of the narrative, render the verse 
extremely easy to be learned and retained in memory. 

The consummate art with which the various parts of 
the " Iliad" (though sometimes seemingly disconnected) 
are arranged and adapted so as to delay the denouement 
and yet to heighten the interest till near the very end, 
proves the poem to have been, beyond all reasonable 
doubt, the work of one master-mind. But this master- 
mind may very probably have used materials prepared 

t " Homer has surpassed all [other writers] in diction (or expres- 
sion) and in thought" 

J " In every kind of eloquence he undoubtedly has left all [others] 
far behind him." 

I, e, T, 5, 5, y, kng; a,e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1,6, u, Jf, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; m!t; not; good; moon: 



(or him by preceding poets, just as the consummate 
architect, when erecting an edifice designed to be the 
admiration of all coming time, may avail himself of the 
materials, and, for subordinate parts of the building, even 
of the designs, furnished by inferior workmen. There 
seem, indeed, to be strong reasons for believing that 
before the time of Homer there existed many poems 
treating of the events of the Trojan war, and that he, in 
selecting and combining the facts necessary to the plot 
>f his great work, occasionally adopted some of the finest 
l_ies of his predecessors, at the same time changing or 
adapting others to suit his purpose, so as to give the 
whole poem the impress of his matchless skill and tran- 
scendent genius. This supposition will perhaps best 
explain the introduction into the poem of such a great 
variety of words or phrases differing in different parts of 
the work, as well as the marked diversity of dialects. It 
is well known that Shakspeare used freely, in some of 
his historic dramas, not only the ideas, but, in repeated 
instances, the very lines, of some of the poets that had 
gone before him. At other times he appears to have 
adopted some of the leading ideas, and perhaps many 
of the expressions, of previous dramatists, and yet to 
have so cast them into the mould of his own mind, and so 
coloured them with the hues of his wonderful imagina- 
tion, that he may be said to have surpassed the fabled 
achievements of the alchemists, and transmuted his crude 
materials into something far more precious than gold. 

But, while we claim it as a point established, that the 
" Iliad" is virtually and essentially the production of a 
single poet, we must admit that the question is still un- 
decided whether the same Homer was also the author 
of the "Odyssey." "If," says the learned and accom- 
plished critic already quoted, "the completion of the 
1 Iliad' and ' Odyssey' seems too vast a work for one 
man, we may perhaps have recourse to the supposition 
that Homer, after having sung the ' Iliad' in the vigour of 
his youthful years, in his old age communicated to some 
devoted disciple the plan of the ' Odyssey,' which had long 
been working in his mind, and left it to him for comple- 
tion." (K. ( ). Miiller's " History of Greek Literature.") 
The prevailing belief that Homer was blind appears to 
have taken its origin from one of the so-called Homeric 
hymns addressed to the Delian Apollo, the author of 
which calls himself the blind poet who lived in rocky 
Chios. The hymn in question was considered by some 
of the most judicious of the ancient writers to be the 
p. oduction of Homer himself; but this view is not ac- 
cepted by the best modern critics. The wonderful accu- 
racy of many of the descriptions in the "Iliad" utterly 
precludes the idea of their having been written by a 
poet who had not himself been an eye-witness of the 
scenes which he paints so admirably. But he might, per- 
haps, have described in his blind old age scenes which 
had been indelibly stamped upon his memory in youth 
jr early manhood. (See, on the various questions con- 
nected with the Homeric poems, Colonel W. Mure's 
"Critical History of the Literature, etc. of Ancient 
Greece," (1850,) and the able article on " Homerus," in 
Smith's " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography.") 
See, in addition to the works referred to in the article, OLOF 
CELSIUS, " Dissertatio de Homeri Vita et Scriptis," 1714 ; LuooLPk 
KUESTKR, "Historia critica Homeri," 1696; THOMAS BLACKWELL, 
"Enquiry into the Life and Writings of Homer," 1735; KOPPBN, 
" Ueber Homer's Leben und Gesange," 1788 : CARL ERNST Sciiu- 
BARTH, " Ideen uber Homer und sein Zeitalter," 1821 ; MATTHIAS 
ASP, " Disputationes de Homero," 1714; J. E. TURR, " Hometus 
en zijn Scnriften," 1810; ALPHONSK DH LAMARTINE, "Homere," 
1852; FORTIA D'URBAN, " Homere et ses ficrits," 1832; BERNARD 
THIBRSCH, " Das Zeitalter des Homer," 1824; J. PASCHIUS, "Di- 
eertatio de Poetarum Principe Homero," 1687 ; EDOUARD JUSTE, 
" Dissertation sur 1'Origine des Poemes attribu^s a Homere,'' 1849; 
'* Homer and his Successors in Epic Poetry," in the " Quarterly Re- 
view" for January, 1857; MATTHEW ARNOLD'S admirable observa- 
ions " On Translating Homer." in liis " Essays," 1865. 

Ho'mer, (Rev. HENRY,) an English scholar, born at 
Birdingbury in 1752, was educated at Cambridge. He 
edited several Latin authors, and, in partnership with 
Dr. Combe, published a complete edition of Horace. 
Died in 1791. 

Ho'mer, (WlNSLOW,) an American painter, born in 
Boston, Massachusetts, February 24, 1831. He learned 
in youth the business of a lithographer, and afterwards 

began to draw on wood for engravers. In 1859 he estab- 
lished himself in New York, and was for a time artist 
and war-correspondent for a newspaper of that city. His 
war-pictures, and especially " Prisoners at the Front," 
(1865,) gave him great fame. He is a member of the 
National Academy, and resides at Scarborough, Maine. 
Homci<;. See HOMER. 

Homeridae, ho-mer'e-dee, (singular, Ho-mgrl-deS,) 
or Ho'mer-ids, the name applied to the family of the 
poet Homer. (See HOMER, note t.) 
Homerus. See HOMER. 

Homes or Holmes, homr, (NATHANIEL,) D.D., an 
English theologian, ejected for nonconformity in 1662, was 
a believer in the fifth monarchy. He wrote the " Resur- 
rection Revealed," and other works. Died in 1678. 

Homeyer, h6'm!-er, (KARL GUSTAV,) a German 
jurist, born at Wolgast, in Pomerania, August 13, 1795. 
He studied in Berlin, Gottingen, and Heidelberg; in 
1824 was made extraordinary, and in 1827 ordinary, law- 
professor in Berlin. His principal works are an edition 
of the " Sachsenspiegel," and " Die Haus- und Hof- 
marken," (1870.) Died October 20, 1874. 

Homeyer, von, fon ho'mi er, (ALEXANDER,) a Ger- 
man soldier and naturalist, born at Vorland, in Pome- 
rania, January 19, 1834. In 1874 he led an expedition 
into Central Africa. He is noted as an ornithologist and 

Homeyer, von, (EuGEN FERDINAND,) a German 
ornithologist, born at Herdin, November 11, 1809. His 
best-known work is "The Migration of Birds," (iSb'i,) 
and he is the owner of the largest collection ever made 
of European birds. 

Ho-mil'J-us, jGer. pron. ho-mee'le-as,J (GOTTFRIED 
AUGUST,) an eminent German organist and composer of 
church music, born at Rosenthal, in Bohemia, in 1714. 
Among his best works are a cantata for Christmas, and 
a number of motets. He was organist and director of 
music at Dresden. Died in 1785. 

Hommaire de Hell, X;o'm5R' deh /;el, (!GNACH 
XAVIER MORAND,) a French geologist, born at Altkirch 
in 1812, explored the regions which border on the Black 
and Caspian Seas, and left an account of his travels, in 
3 vols. Died at Ispahan in 1848. 

Hommel, hom'me.1, [Lat. HOMME'LIUS,] (KARL FER- 
DINAND,) a learned jurist and ingenious writer, born at 
Leipsic in 1722. He became professor of feudal law at 
Leipsic in 1752, and of civil institutes in 1756. Among 
bis works are " Literatura Juris," (1761,) a very piquant 
treatise on legal literature, " Rhapsodia Qujestionum in 
Foro quotidie obvenientum," (" Questions occurring daily 
in the Forum," 5 vols., 1765-79; 4th edition, 7 vols., 
1787,) and "Sceleton Juris civilis," ("Skeleton of Civil 
Law," 4th edition, 1767.) Died in 1781. 
Hommelius. See HOMMEL, 

Hompesch, von, fon hom'pe'sh, (FERDINAND,) the 
last grand master of the Knights of Malta, was born at 
Dusseldorf in 1744; died in 1803. 

Honain, (or Honein,) ho-mn', (Aboo-Yezeed or 
Abu- (Abou-) YezSd, S'boo yeh-zeed',) otherwise 
called Honain-Ben-Ishak, (b?n is'hik',) an Arabian 
physician, born at Heerah, (Hirah,) in Mesopotamia, liveo 
mostly at Bagdad. Died about 875 A.D. He translated 
into Arabic the works of Hippocrates, Galen, Euclid, etc. 
See IBN- KHALLIKAN, " Biographical Dictionary ;" HAJI-KHALJA. 
" Lexicon Bibliographicum." 

Hondekoeter, hon'deh-koo'ter, (GILES,) a noted 
Dutch landscape-painter, born at Utrecht in 1583, was 
the son of the Marquis of Westerloo. He often added 
to his landscapes highly-finished figures of birds. 

Hondekoeter, (GYSBRECHT,) a son of the preceding, 
and a painter of poultry, was born in 1613 ; died in 1653. 

Hondekoeter, (MELCHIOR,) an excellent painter, a 
son of the preceding, was born at Utrecht in 1636. He 
studied with his father and his uncle, John B. Weenit 
He painted poultry, pea-fowls, and other birds, with a 
skill that has never been surpassed. The backgrounds 
of his pictures are adorned with beautiful landscapes. 
Among his works is "The Entrance of the Animals into 
the Ark." Died in 1695. 

See JAKOB CAMPO WBYERMAN. "De Schilderkonst der Neder- 

as k: c as s: g hard; g as /; <:. H. Vi.gvitura!: N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.; 




Hondius, hon'de-us, or Hondt, h6nt, (ABRAHAM,) a 
Dutch painter and engraver, born at Rotterdam in 1638. 
He painted hunting-scenes, anin.als, and landscapes 
with success. " He often equals the best masters," says 
Descamps. Among his works are " The Burning of 
Troy," and " The Animals entering the Ark." He worked 
some years in England, where he died about 1692. 

Hondiua, (HENDRIK,) an engraver of maps and por- 
traits, born at Ghent in 1573. His principal work is a 
series of portraits of one hundred and forty-four artists, 
mostly Flemings. He also engraved some pictures by 
Albert Diirer and Holbein. Died at the Hague in 1610. 

See BASAN, " Dictionnaire des Graveurs ;" STRUTT, " Dictionary 
of Engravers." 

Hondius or De Hondt, deh h6nt, (HENRY,) called 
THE YOUNGER, born in London in 1580, was accounted 
;he best engraver of the family. He engraved portraits, 
landscapes, and history after several Flemish painters. 
Among his works are portraits of Queen Elizabeth and 
James I. Died at Amsterdam about 1650. 

See BASAN, "Dictionnaire des Graveurs." 

Hondiua or De Hondt, (JossEor JODO'CUS,) a skilful 
Flemish engraver and geographer, born at Wacken about 
1550, was the father of the preceding. He had a high 
Deputation as an engraver on copper. He worked in 
London, and afterwards settled in Amsterdam, where he 
engraved maps of superior quality, and published new 
editions of the " Grand Atlas" of Mercator. Died in 161 1. 

Hondt, hont, (WlLLEM,) a Flemish engraver, a bro- 
ther of Henry the Younger, born at the Hague in 1601. 

Hone, ho'neh, (GEORG PAUL,) a German lawyer, born 
at Nuremberg in 1662, wrote " Iter Juridicum," and other 
works. Died in 1747. 

Hone, (NATHANIEL,) a portrait-painter, born in Dub- 
lin about 1730; died in 1784. 

Hone, (WILLIAM,) an English writer, born at Bath in 
1779, resided in London, and failed several times as a 
bookseller. He wrote " The Political House that Jack 
Built," a satire, which was illustrated by Cruikshank 
and ran through fifty editions. He was prosecuted for 
his Parody on the Liturgy in 1818, and, having ably 
defended himself, was acquitted. In 1826 he began to 
issue in weekly numbers his " Every-Day Book," which 
had a large sale, and was commended by Professor 
Wilson, Scott, Lamb, and Southey. It was followed by 
the "Table-Book" and the "Year-Book," which were 
well received, but did not save the author from insol- 
vency. He was in prison for debt about three years. 
Died in 1842. 

See "The Early Life and Conversion of William Hone," written 
by himself 

Honey-wood, hun'ne-wood, (SAINT JOHN,) an Amer- 
ican poet, born in Massachusetts in 1765 ; died in 1798. 

See GRISWOLD, " Poets and Poetry of America." 

Honore de Sainte-Marie, o'no'ri' deh saNt'mi're', 
[Lat. HONORIUS DE SANCTA MARIA,] called, after he 
entered the cloister, BLAISE VAUXELLE, (vS-seV,) a 
learned monk, born at Limoges in 1651 ; died in 1729. 

Ho-no'rl-us J-, a native of Campania, was elected 
Pope or Bishop of Rome in 626 A.D. He is charged 
with assenting to the heresy of Monothelism. The Council 
of Constantinople, held in 680, condemned his doctrine 
on this point Died in 638. 

Honoriua U, POPE, previously known as Cardinal 
Lamberto and Bishop of Ostia, succeeded Calixtus II. 
in 1124. Tebaldus was chosen pope at the same time 
by a number of bishops, but forbore to contest his 
claim. Honorius died in 1130. See, also, CADALOUS. 

Honorius 1 1 1 , elected Pope in 1216, was a Roman 
oy birth. His proper name was CENCIO SAVELLI. He 
crowned Frederick II. Emperor of Germany in 1220, in 
the hope that he would lead a crusade against the Turks. 
He was more successful in instigating the King of France 
to a crusade against the Albigenses. He died in 1227, 
and was succeeded by Gregory IX. 

Honorius IV, POPE, (Cardinal GIACOMO Savelli,) 
a native of Rome, was elected in 1285 as successor to 
Martin IV. Died in 1287. 

Ho-no'rf-us, (FLAVIUS,) a Roman emperor, the sec 
ond son of Theodosius the Great, was born at Constan- 
tinople in 384 A.D. At the death of his father, in 395, he 

inherited the Western Empire, (his elder brother Area- 
dius having obtained the Eastern,) under the guardian- 
ship of Stilicho, a famous general, whose daughter he 
married. His court was held at Milan, and afterwards 
at Ravenna. About 402 Alaric the Goth invaded Italy, 
and was defeated by Stilicho at Pollentia. In 408 Stili- 
cho was put to death by order of Honorius, who was a 
man of weak and vicious character. From this event 
may be dated the fall of the Roman power. Rome 
was taken and pillaged by Alaric in 410, and the empire 
went rapidly to ruin. He died, without issue, in 423, 
and was succeeded by Valentinian III. 

See GIBBON, " History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire;" SOZOMKN, " Historia Ecclesiastica ;" JORNANDBS, "De 
Rebus Getitis ;" TILLEMONT, " Histoire des Empereurs." 

Honorius de S a net a Maria. See HONOR* DB 

Hontheim, von, fon hont'hlm, (JoHANN NIKOLAUS,) 
a German jurist and Catholic priest, born at Treves in 
1701. He became Bishop (in partibus) of Myriophis in 
1748, and suffragan of the see of Treves. He published 
under the pseudonym of JUSTINIUS FEBRONIUSB famous 
book against the usurpations of the popes, entitled " De 
Statu Ecclesiae et legitima Potestate Romani Pontificis," 
(5 vols., 1763,) which was often reprinted. Died in I79a 

Honthorst, hint'horst, or Hundhorst, hunt'hoRst, 
(GERARD,) a Flemish painter, called also by the Italians 
GERARDO DELLA NOTTE, ("Gerard of the Night,") be- 
cause he excelled in nocturnal scenes. He was born at 
Utrecht in 1592, and was a pupil of A. Bloemaert. He 
worked in Rjme and in England, where he painted 
portraits of the royal family and gained a high repu- 
tation. Among his works is "The Prodigal Son." He 
was a good colorist, and excelled in design. Died at 
the Hague in 1660. His brother WILLEM was a suc- 
cessful portrait-painter. Died at Berlin in 1683, aged 
about eighty. 

See PILKINGTON. " Dictionary of Painters." 


Hood, hood, (EDWIN PAXTON,) an English dissenting 
minister, born at Westminster in 1820. He wrote "Self- 
Formation," "William Wordsworth," a biography, 

Life of Swedenborg," "Lamps, Pitchers, and Trum- 
pets," " Oliver Cromwell," (1882,) " Scottish Character- 
istics," (1883.) etc. Died June 12, 1885. 

Hood, hood, (JOHN B.,) an American general, born 
in Bath county, Kentucky, in 1831, graduated at West 
Point in 1853. He commanded a division of Lee's army 
at Antietam, September, 1862, and at Gettysburg, July 
1-3, 1863. He lost a leg at the battle of Chickamauga, 
September 20, 1863, soon after which he was promoted 
to be a lieutenant-general. In the spring of 1864 he 
commanded a corps of the army opposed to General 
Sherman in Northern Georgia. He succeeded General 
Johnston in July as commander-in-chief of that army, 
which was then near Atlanta. General Johnston was 
removed because he had adhered to a cautious and de- 
fensive policy. Hood assumed the offensive, and attacked 
General Sherman on the 22d of July, and again on the 
28th, but was repulsed with heavy loss. He was com- 
pelled to abandon Atlanta on the 1st of September, 1864. 
(See SHERMAN, W. T.) After he had damaged the rail- 
road by which Sherman's army was supplied, General 
Hood invaded Middle Tennessee, attacked Genera] 
Schofield at Franklin, November 30, and besieged Nash- 
ville. He was defeated on the ifjth of December, 1864, 
by General Thomas, at the decisive battle of Nashville, 
where he lost fifty pieces of cannon, and was relieved of 
the command in January, 1865. Died August 30, 1879. 
See " Southern Generals," New York, 1865. 
Hood, (ROBIN,) a famous English outlaw, who is sup- 
posed to have lived in the reign of Richard I. Sherwood 
Forest was his head-quarters. His exploits are the sub- 
ject of many popular ballads, which applaud his gal- 
lantry to the ladies and his generosity in sharing among 
the poor the spoils of the rich. He was the chief of a 
numerous band, who seem to have lived chiefly on the 
products of the chase. 

See W. W. CAMPBELL, " Historical Sketch of Robin Hood and 
Captain Kidd," New York, 1853; "Edinburgh Review" for July, 
1847: " North American Review" for January, 1857. 

a, e, I, o, u, y, /(7f; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 5, u, y, short; a, e, j, p, ofaeiire; far, fill, fit; met: nfttjgood; mo"on 




Hood, (SAMUEL,) VISCOUNT, an English admiral, 
born at Butley in 1724, entered the navy in 1740, and 
became captain in 1754. In 1780 he was made a rear- 
admiral, and was second in command in the West Indies. 
The next year he succeeded Rodny in command of the 
fleet, with which he fought De Grasse near the mouth of 
the Chesapeake, but failed to relieve the British army at 
Yorktown. He took part in the victory over De Grasse 
in April, 1782, and was rewarded with the title of Baron 
Hood of Catherington. In 1784, after a close contest 
with Fox, he was elected to Parliament, and in 1788 ap- 
pointed a lord of the admiralty. In 1793 he commanded 
against the French in the Mediterranean and at the siege 
of Toulon. He was made, in 1796, Viscount Hood of 
Whitley, and afterwards an admiral. Died in 1816. 

See CAMPBELL, " Lives of British Admirals." 

Hood, (Sir SAMUEL,) cousin of the preceding, was a 
vice-admiral in the British navy, and a brave and skilful 
officer. He took part in the victory of Rodney over De 
Grasse in 1782, and in the battle of the Nile, (1798.) In 
1806 he was returned to Parliament for Westminster, 
and captured three French ships near Rochefort. He 
was afterwards appointed to command in the East Indies, 
where he died in 1814. 

Hood, (THOMAS,) a famous English humourist and 
popular author, born in London in 1798, was the son of 
a bookseller. He served an apprenticeship to an en- 
graver, but soon exchanged that employment for literary 
pursuits. In 1821 he became sub-editor of the " London 
Magazine," by which he gained access to the society of 
many authors who have since risen to eminence. His 
" Whims and Oddities" (1826) displayed an abundant 
vein of inimitable wit and comic power. He issued the 
" Comic Annual" from 1830 to 1842, which was followed 
by his " Comic Album," " Whimsicalities," and " Hood's 
Own." His tales and novels were less successful than 
his humorous works. Among his most popular poems 
are the " Song of the Shirt," (which first appeared in 
" Punch,") the " Bridge of Sighs," and the " Dream of 
Eugene Aram." He was editor of " The Gem" for one 
year, and, in the latter years of his life, editor of the 
" New Monthly Magazine." Like poor Yorick, he was 
"a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy." As 
a punster he is unrivalled. Some of his serious poems 
are exquisitely tender and pathetic. In 1844 he began to 
issue " Hood's Magazine," for which he wrote until his 
last illness. A pension of 100 which had been granted 
to him was transferred to his widow. Died in 1845. 

"London Magazine" for December, 1826; "British Quarterly Re- 
Yiew" for October, 1867. 

Hood, (THOMAS, or " TOM,") a son of Thomas Hood, 
the humorist and poet, already noticed. He was born 
at Wanstead, England, January 19, 1835, and was edu- 
cated at Pembroke College, Oxford. Among his works 
are " Pen and Pencil Pictures," (1854-55,) a volume of 
Poems, (1861,) some books for children, and a number 
of novels. In 1865 he became editor of " Fun," a Lon- 
don comic paper. Died November 20, 1874. His talent 
was much like his father's, but not so brilliant. 

Hooft, hoft, (NiKLAAS,) a Dutch historical painter, 
born at the Hague in 1664; died in 1748. 

Hooft or Hoofft. (PiETER CORNELIS,) an excellent 
Dutch poet and historian, born in Amsterdam in March, 
1581. After leaving college he travelled in France and 
Italy, and filled several civil offices. He published about 
1602 " Granida," a tragi-comedy, which is a master-piece. 
He wrote other dramas, and erotic poems of great 
merit, and translated Tacitus into Dutch. His chief 
prose works are a " Life of Henry IV. of France," (1626,) 
and a " History of the Netherlands,";" De Nederlandsche 
Historien," 2 vols., 1642-54,) which is esteemed a model 
of grace, purity, and vigour, both in thought and style, 
He has the honour of rendering his vernacular language 
more polished and classical than it was before his rime. 
He was a friend of Grotius. " Though deeply religious," 
says the " Biographic Universelle," "he never ranged 
himself under the banner of any outward communion." 
Many critics assjgn him the highest place as a writer of 

Dutch prose ; but, though a great purist, his style abound* 
'n Latin idioms. Died at the Hague, May 21, 1647. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" and VAM 
KAMPEN'S article on " Hollandische Sprache und Literatur," in the 
same work : also." Nouvelle Biographic Gne>a!e ;" JAN VAN KRUYPF, 

838; LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" " Fraser'j 
Magazine" for March, 1854. 

Hooge, de, deh ho'ceh or ho'neh, written alsoHoogh, 
(PiETER,) a Dutch painter of genre, born about 1644. 
Little is known of his history. His colour is good, his 
design correct, and his manner natural. He represents 
the effects of light with great skill. Among his works 
(which command high prices) are a " Supper," an "In- 
terior," and a "Guard-Room." Died in 1708. 

See DESCAMPS, " Vies des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc 

Hooge or Hooghe, de, (ROMEYN,) an eminent Dutch 
designer and engraver, was born at the Hague about 1 640, 
or, as others say, about 1650. He worked for a long time 
in Paris, and passed his latter years at the Hague. He 
had a rich imagination and great facility, but was deficient 
in correctness. Among his works are " The Entrance of 
Louis XIV. into Dunkirk," and "The Assassination of 
De Witt." Died in 1725. 

See J. C. WEYERMAN. "De Schilderkonst der Nederlandere." 

Hoogeveen, ho'geh-van' or ho'Heh-van', sometimes 
written Hoogeven, (HENDRIK,) a Dutch Hellenist, born 
at Leyden in 1712, was successively rector of the gym- 
nasiums of Breda, Dort, and Delft, and was an excellent 
grammarian. He is the author of a valuable treatise 
on " Greek Particles," (" Doctrina Particularum Linguae 
Graecae," 2 vols., 1769,) and " Dictionarium Analogicum 
Unguaa Graecae," (Cambridge., 1800.) Died in 1791. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" HARLKSS, 
"Vitas Philologorum." 

Hoogstaad, van, vSn hoo'stit', (GERART,) a Flemish 
painter of history and portraits, born at Brussels, was 
living in 1661. 

Hoogstraaten, van, vSn hSc'stRa'ten, (DAVID,) a 
Dutch scholar, a nephew of the following, was born at 
Rotterdam in 1658, and became a classical professor at 
Amsterdam. He compiled a Latin-Dutch Dictionary, 
(1704,) and wrote several elegant Latin poems, " Poe- 
mata," (1710.) Died in 1724. 

Hoogstraaten, van, (SAMUEL,) a Dutch painter, 
born at Dort in 1627, was a pupil of Rembrandt, and 
the master of Houbraken. He painted portraits, land- 
scapes, etc. with success, and wrote a good work on the 
theory of painting. Died in 1678. 

His father, DIRCK, born at Antwerp in 1596, was also 
a skilful landscape-painter. Died in 1640. 

See PILKINGTON'S "Dictionary of Painters." 

Hoogvliet, h5c'vleet or hoH'vleet, (ARNOLD,) a popu- 
lar Dutch poet, born at Vlaardingen in 1687, was edu- 
cated for a merchant, and held the position of cashier in 
his native place. His reputation is founded on an epic 
poem, called "Abraham the Patriarch," (1727.) which 
was received with extraordinary and durable favour. 
"No book in Dutch literature," says Marron, "has 
been honoured with a more decided national adoption." 
(" Biographic Universelle.") He afterwards published a 
collection of poems on various subjects, which are not 
unworthy of his name. Died in 1 763. 

See JAN VAN KRUVFF, " Leven van A. Hoogvliet," 1782; WlL- 
LEM TERPSTRA, "Oratio de A. Hoogvlietio Poeta," 1816. 

Hoogzaat, hoc'zit, (JAN,) an able Dutch painter, 
born at Amsterdam in 1664. He decorated the chateau 
of Loo for William III. of England. Died in 1712. 

Hook, hook, (JAMES,) an English composer and mu- 
sician, born at Norwich in 1746. He was employed as 
organist at Vauxhall Garden, London, for many years, 
and composed numerous popular ballads, songs, con- 
certos, etc. Died in 1827. 

Hook, (JAMES,) LL.D., an English writer, brother of 
Theodore E. Hook, was bom in London about 1771. He 
was educated for the church, and in 1825 was appointed 
Dean of Worcester. His principal works are two 
novels, called "Pen Owen" and "Percy Mallory." 
Died in 1828. 

Hook, (JAMES CLARKE,) an English painter, born in 
London, November 21, 1819. In the early part of his 

as/t; casjv ghard; g as ;'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: sasz.- ill as in this. (JlJP'See Explanations, p. 23.) 




career he painted subjects from Italian history and 
scenes from Shakspeare, but later has executed many 
marine pieces and scenes from English domestic life. 
He became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1850, 
and a full Academician in 1860. 

Hook, (THEODORE EDWARD,) born in London in 
1788, was the son of James, the musical composer, noticed 
above. He was an excellent vocalist, an expert mimic, 
and a prodigy of colloquial power. In 1805 he wrote 
"The Soldier's Return," an operatic farce, which was 
very successful. He was addicted to punning, to extrava- 
gant dissipation, and to audacious practical jokes. His 
brilliant wit and marvellous faculty of improvisation 
rendered him an idol of the gay world, and commended 
him to the favour of the prince-regent, who procured his 
appointment in i8i2as treasurer to the colony of Mauri- 
tius, with a salary of about ^2000. In 1818, a large de- 
ficit being found in his treasure-chest, he was sent home 
charged with peculation. The legal inquiry, however, 
proved nothing against him except a culpable negligence 
of his official duties. In 1820 he became editor of the 
"John Bull" newspaper, which was very successful in a 

1 Gilbert Gurney," a novel, which contains an autobiog- 
raphy of himself. In 1836 he was editor of the " New 
Monthly Magazine." Died in 1841. 

See R. H. BARHAM, " Life and Writings of Theodore Hook," 
1848; "Life of T. Hook," from the "Quarterly Review," London, 
1853 : R. H. HORNK, " New Spirit of the Age," 1844 : " Quarterly 
Review" for May, 1843, (vol. bociL ;) " Noctes Ambrosianz ;" Moin, 
" Poetical Literature of the Past Half-Century ;" SAMUEL SMILES, 
"Brief Biographies;" "Memories of Authors," in the "Atlantic 
Monthly ' for April, 1865. 

Hook, (WALTER FARQUHAR,) an English theologian, 
a nephew of the preceding, was born in London in 
1798. He became vicar of Leeds in 1837, and Dean 
of Chichester in 1859. Among his works are "Hear 
the Church," (28th edition, 1838,) "Ecclesiastical Biog- 
raphy," (8 vols., 1845-52,) "Church Dictionary," (7th 
edition, 1854,) and "Lives of the Archbishops of Can- 
terbury," (9 vols., of which the first volume was published 
in 1860.) He was noted for his zeal and success in the 
cause of church extension. Died October 20, 1875. 

Hooke, hook, (NATHANIEL,) a Roman Catholic his- 
torian, born about 1690, was an intimate friend of Pope the 
poet. His principal work is "The Roman History from 
the Building of Rome to the End of the Commonwealth," 
(4 vols. 4to, 1733-71,) which was often reprinted, and is 
commended as a faithful compilation. I le was employed 
by Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, as editor of her 
Memoirs, (1742.) Died in 1764. 

Hooke, (ROBERT,) M.D., an English philosopher, 
born at Freshwater, in the Isle of Wight, in 1635, and 
noted for his inventive faculty, mechanical genius, and 
scientific acquirements. In 1662 he was chosen curator 
of experiments to the Royal Society, of which he was 
a Fellow, and afterwards secretary. About 1666 he 
became professor of geometry in Gresham College, and 
city surveyor of London. Among his multifarious 
accomplishments was skill in architecture, which he 
exercised in drawing the plan of Bedlam and other 
public buildings in London. He wrote many memoirs 
on various branches of natural science. He had a 
dispute with Hevelius on the subject of the telescope, 
and attacked Newton's theory of light and colours. 
He claimed the invention of the barometer, quadrant, 
balance-spring for watches, etc. Died in 1702. 

See "Biographia Britannica;" WALLER, "Life of R- Hooke;" 
WOOD, "Gresham Professors." 

Hook'er, (HERMAN,) an American Episcopalian di- 
vine, born at Poultney, Rutland county, Vermont. He 
published, among other works, "The Portion of the 
Soul," etc., (1835,) "The Philosophy of Unbelief in 
Morals and Religion," and "Uses of Adversity," (1846.) 
Died in 1857. 

See GRISWOLD, " Prose Writers of America." 

Hook'er, (hook'?r,) otherwise called VSw'elL. 
(JOHN,) M.P., an English historian, born at Exeter 
about 1524, was uncle of Richard Hooker, noticed 
below. He represented Exeter in Parliament in 1571. 

He compiled a large part of Holinshed's "Chronicles," 
(1586,) and wrote a treatise on the order and usage of 
Parliaments, and a few other works. Died in 1601. 

Hook'er, (JOSEPH,) an American general, born in 
Hadley, Mass., November 13, 1814, graduated at West 
Point, in 1837. He served as captain in the Mexican 
war, (1846-47,) and gained the brevet of lieutenant- 
colonel at Chapultepec. Having resigned his commis- 
sion about 1853, he lived several years in California. He 
was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers about 
May, 1861, served at the battle of Williamsburg, and in 
the "seven days' battles" near Richmond, June 26-July 
I, 1862. He became a major-general in July, and com- 
manded a corps at the battle of Antieta'm, September 
17, 1862, a few days after which he was promoted to 
the rank of brigadier-general in the regular army. He 
commanded a grand division under General Burnside 
at Fredericksburg in December, 1862, and succeeded 
Burnside as commander of the army of the Potomac in 
January, 1863. This army, which probably amounted 
to 100,000 men or more, engaged the enemy at Chan- 
cellorsville, May 2 and 3, and was defeated, but was not 
pursued. During this battle he was stunned by a 
cannon-ball. He was relieved of the command on the 
28th of June, 1863, and was sent to Tennessee with two 
corps in September of that year. He contributed to the 
victory gained by General Grant at Lookout Mountain, 
November 24 and 25, 1863, and commanded a corps of 
the army which General Sherman moved from Dalton 
to Atlanta, May-August, 1864. He afterwards had 
command of the Northern Department. Died in 1879. 
Hooker, (Sir JOSEPH DALTON,) an eminent 
botanist and traveller, a son of Sir William Jackson 
Hooker, was born in 1817. He studied medicie, and 
in 1839 sailed as surgeon with the expedition of Sir 
James Ross to the Antarctic Ocean. On his return he 
published " Flora Antarctica," (2 vols., 1844-47,) the 
descriptions and illustrations of which are highly com- 
mended. Between 1848 and 1852 he explored the bo- 
tanical productions of the Himalayas, and published 
" Himalayan Journals," (2 vols., 1854,) and " Flora In- 
dica." He accompanied Asa Gray through the western 
United States in 1877. In 1855 he became assistant 
director at Kew, and succeeded his father as director 
in 1865. Of his various botanical works the best 
known is " The Student's Flora of the British Islands," 
(1870.) The most important are "Genera Planta- 
mm," (with Bentham, 1862-83,) and "Index Kcw- 
ensis," (with Jackson, 1893 et seq.) 

Hooker, (RICHARD,) an eminent English divine and 
author, born at Heavytree, near Exeter, in 1553. After 
graduating at Oxford, he took orders in 1581, and in an 
unguarded hour married a scolding wife. By the favour 
of Sandys, Bishop of London, he became Master of the 
Temple in 1585. Here he was involved in a controversy 
with Mr. Travers, a Calvinist, who was also a lecturer 
in the Temple. One of the consequences of this dispute 
was the production of his great argument for the consti- 
tution and discipline of the Anglican Church, entitled 
"The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity." After he began 
this work, desiring a more retired station than the 
Temple, he obtained in 1591 the rectory of Boscombe, 
to which the prebend of Salisbury was added. From 
1595 until his death he was rector of Bishopsbourne. 
His work above-named was published from 1594 to 
1597. It is regarded as a great bulwark of the Church, 
a monument of sound learning, and a noble model of 
literary excellence. According to Hallam, "the finest 
as well as the most philosophical writer of the Eliza- 
bethan period is Hooker. The first book of his ' Eccle- 
siastical Polity' is at this day one of the master-pieces 
of English eloquence. ... So stately and graceful is the 
march of his periods, so various the fall of his musical 
cadences upon the ear, so rich in images, so condensed 
in sentences, so grave and noble his diction, that I 
know not whether any later writer has more admirably 
displayed the capacities of our language, or produced 
passages more worthy of comparison with the splendid 
monuments of antiquity." ("Introduction to the Litera- 
ture of Europe.") Died in 1600. 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, Jf, short; a, ?, i, p. obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; nSt ; good; moon 




Hooker, (Rev. THOMAS,) one of the founders of Con- 
necticut, was born at Marfield, England, in 1586. After 
preaching in Holland, he emigrated in 1633 to Boston, 
Massachusetts, and was the first pastor of Cambridge. 
In 1636, in company with Samuel Stone, he founded the 
city of Hartford, where he was minister until his death. 
He was a very influential man in the churches, and wrote 
many treatises, among which is the "Application of 
Redemption." Died in 1647. 

See E. W. HOOKER. "Life of Thomas Hooker," 1849. 

Hooker, (WILI.IAM JACKSON,) F.R.S., a distinguished 
English botanist, born at Norwich in 1785. He pub- 
lished in 1811 "A Journal of a Tour in Iceland in 1809," 
and described, with Dr. Taylor, British mosses in 
"Muscologia Britannica," (1818.) His "Flora Scotica" 
appeared in 1821. He produced an excellent "Flora 
Exotica," (3 vols., 1823-27.) For many years he was pro- 
fessor of botany in the University of Glasgow. Among 
his greatest works are "Icones Filicum," or "Figures 
and Descriptions of Ferns," (with Dr. Greville, 2 vols., 
1829-31,) " Flora Boreali-Americana," (2 vols., 1829-40,) 
and a "British Flora," (1830; 6th edition, 1850,) which 
gives a complete description of British plants, arranged 
after the natural method. He was appointed about 1840 
director of the royal gardens at Kew, which have been 
greatly improved under his superintendence, and are 
said to surpass all other gardens in the world in the 
number and variety of the plants. He was the father 
of Dr. J. D. Hooker, noticed above. Died in 1865. 

Hooiakoo, Houlakou, HtUaktt, hoo'lS-koo', or 
Hoolagoo, hoo-la-goo', sometimes very improperly 
written Hulakoo, a grandson of Jengis Khan, born in 
1217, was the first of the Eel-Khans, (Ilkhans or Ilchans,) 
or Mongol kings of Persia. He was commanded by 
his elder brother Mangoo (the father of Kooblai Khan) 
to complete the conquest of Persia, which he accom- 
plished about the year 1255. He exterminated the Is- 
maeelians, or Assassins, and afterwards directed his forces 
against Bagdad, which he took in February, 1258, and 
delivered up to pillage and massacre. If we may believe 
the statements of the Moslem historians, nearly 800,000 
persons, including Motassem (the last of the Abbasside 
caliphs) and his eldest son, perished on that occasion. 
As a warrior, Hooiakoo was distinguished for his san- 
guinary cruelty : he was nevertheless a patron of science, 
and the celebrated Eel-Khanee (or -Khannee) astro- 
nomical tables were prepared under his auspices, and 
derive their name from his title of Eel-Khan, signifying 
the prince or chief of the tribe. He died in 1265, and 
was succeeded by his son, Abaka Khan. 

See MALCOLM, "History of Persia," vol. i. chap. x. : VON 
HAMMER, "Geschichte der Ilchane:" D'OHSSON, "Histoire des 

Hoole, hool, (Rev. CHARLES,) born at Wakefield, 
England, in 1610, taught school with credit in London, 
etc., and was afterwards rector of Stock. He wrote a 
" Latin Grammar," and other school-books. Died in 1666. 

Hoole, (ELIJAH,) an English Orientalist and Wesleyan 
minister, born at Manchester about 1798. He served as 
a missionary in India, and published " Madras, Mysore, 
and the South of India." Died in 1672. 

Hoole, (JOHN,) an English dramatist and translator, 
born in London in 1727, was educated in Grub Street. 
He was a friend of Dr. Johnson, and was a clerk in the 
East India House about forty years. He wrote several 
tragedies, and translated into bad or insipid verse the 
great poems of Tasso and Ariosto. In reference to his 
version of Tasso, (published in 1763,) Sir Walter Scott 
called Hoole a " noble transmuter of gold into lead." 
His "Orlando Furioso" appeared in 5 vols., 1773-83. 
Died in 1803. 

See "Biographia Dramatics." 

Hooniay oon or Humayflu, hoo'mi'yoon', Emperor 
of Hindostan, of the dynasty of the Great Moguls, was 
the eldest son of Baber. He was born at Cabool in 1508, 
and ascended the throne in 1530. Agra was his capital. 
He was defeated by the Afghans in 1540. His brothers 
having rebelled against him, he was driven out of his 
kingdom, and took refuge at the court of Persia. In 
1545 he returned with an army and recovered his throne. 

He gained decisive victories over the Afghans, umlei 
Sekunder Shah, on the Sutlej, in 1554, and at Sirhind in 
'555- He died in 1556, and was succeeded by his son, 
the celebrated Akbar. He was versed in astronomy, and 
wrote several poems. 

See "Private Memoirs of Houmaioon," translated from the Per- 
sian by MAJOR C. STEWART; FERISHTA, " History of the Rise of 
the Mahomedan Power io India," translated by GENERAL HRIGGS; 
W. ERSKINE, " History of India under Baber and Humayun," 2 vols., 
1854; ABOOL-FAUHL, " Akbar-Nameh." 

Hoop'er, (GEORGE,) D.D., an English prelate, born 
at Grimley in 1640, was educated at Oxford, and was 
an excellent classical and Oriental scholar. In 1677 he 
was almoner to Mary, Princess of Orange, and in 1691 
became chaplain to William and Mary, and Dean of Can- 
terbury. He obtained the bishopric of Saint Asaph in 
1703, from which he was afterwards transferred to that 
of Bath and Wells. He published numerous religious 
works. Died in 1727. 

Hooper or Hoper, (JOHN,) an English reformer and 
martyr, born in Somersetshire about 1495. While a stu- 
dent at Oxford, he was converted to the Protestant faith. 
In 1539, to escape the Bloody Statutes of Henry VIII., he 
retired from England and passed several years at Zurich. 
At the death of Henry he settled in London, where he 
became an eminent and eloquent preacher. In 1550 he 
was made Bishop of Gloucester, and in 1552 received 
the bishopric of Worcester in commendam. Soon after 
the accession of Mary he was condemned as a heretic, 
and, refusing to recant, was burned at the stake in 1553. 
He wrote numerous theological works. 

See Fox, " Book of Martyrs ;" BUKNET, " History of the Reforma- 

Hoop'er, (LuCY,) an American writer, born at New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, in 1816, wrote sketches entitled 
"Scenes from Real Life," (1840,) "The Poetry of Flow- 
ers," and other works. She died in 1841, and her "Literary 
Remains" were published in 1842, with a Memoir. 

See GRISWOLD, " Female Poets of America ;" " Democratic Re- 
view" for July, 1842. 

Hooper, (Lucv HAMILTON,) an American author, 
born at Philadelphia in 1835. Her maiden name was 
JONES. She published " Poems," and " Under the Tri- 
color," a novel. For a long time she was a newspaper 
correspondent in Paris. Died August 31, 1893. 

Hooper, (ROBERT,) a British medical writer, was born 
in 1773. Among his works are a "Medical Dictionary," 
(1798; 8th edition, by Dr. Grant, in 1839,) and "Sur- 
geon's Vade-Mecum," (3d edition, enlarged by Dr. 
Dunglison, 1824.) Died in 1835. 

Hooper, (WILLIAM,) an American patriot, was born 
in Boston in 1742. He graduated at Harvard in 1760, 
studied law with James Otis, and rose to eminence in 
his profession in Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1774 
he was chosen one of the delegates to the first Conti- 
nental Congress. Soon after signing the Declaration of 
Independence, in 1776, he resigned his seat. Died in 1790. 

Hoorn van Vlooswyck, hoRn vSn vlos'wik,(PiETER 
NIKLAAS,) BARON, a Dutch nobleman, born at Amster- 
dam in 1742, possessed an immense fortune. Having a 
taste for art, he formed a splendid collection of gems, 
cameos, mosaics, etc. Died in 1809. 

Hooinbeek or Hoornbeck, hoRn'bak, (JAN,) 
Dutch writer on theology, born at Haarlem about 1616, 
was professor at Utrecht. Died in 1666. 

Hoorne, COUNT. See HORN. 

Hoorne, van, vin hoR'neh, or Home, (JAN,) a Dutcu 
anatomist, was born at Amsterdam in 1621. He became 
professor of surgery at Leyden about 1650, and gained a 
high reputation. He published, besides other works on 
anatomy, a " Brief Introduction to the History of the 
Human Body," (" Brevis Manuductio ad Historian! 
Corporis humani," 1660,) a work of much merit Died 
in 1670. 

See EsscHundGRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyldopaedie ;" CHARLES 
DRELINCOUKT, "Oratiode J. van Home," 1670. 

author and connoisseur, son of Thomas Hope, noticed 
below, was born in London in 1820. Among his works 
are an essay on " Newspapers and their Writers," "The 
English Cathedral of the Nineteenth Century," and 
"Worship in the Church of England." Died in 1887. 

< a.s k, c as s; g hard: g as/V G, H, K,.?uttiir,jl; N, nasal; R, trilled: Bass; th as in this. 

See Explanations, p. 





Hope, (Rev. FREDERICK WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an Eng 
lish entomologist, born about 1800, wrote " The Coleop 
terist's Manual." Died in 1862. 

Hope, (Sir HENRY,) a British admiral, born in 1787; 
died in 1863. 

Hope, (JAMES,) a British physician of the present cen 
tury, was physician to Saint George's Hospital, London, 
and published " Principles and Illustrations of Morbid 
Anatomy," (1834,) and a "Treatise on Diseases of the 
Heart and Great Vessels," (1839.) Died about 1840. 

Hope, (JOHN,) M.D., F.R.S., a Scottish botanist, born 
in 1725, was educated at Edinburgh and Paris, and 
practised in the former city. In 1761 he was appointed 
king's botanist in Scotland, and superintendent of the 
royal garden, and in 1786 regius professor of botany in 
the University of Edinburgh. He commenced a work 
on botany, which he did not live to finish. Died in 1786. 

Hope, (JOHN,) Earl of Hopetoun, a British general, 
born near Linlithgow in 1766, was a younger son of the 
second Earl of Hopetoun. After passing through the 
inferior grades, he was made a colonel in 1796, and re- 
turned to Parliament. In 1800 he served as adjutant- 
general under General Abercrombie in Egypt, and in 
1802 obtained the rank of major-general. Having been 
made lieutenant-general in 1808, he took part in the 
battle of Corunna, in 1809, and at the death of Sir John 
Moore succeeded him in the command. He was com- 
mander-in-chief in Ireland about 1812. In 1814 he was 
raised to the peerage, as Baron of Niddry, and at the 
death of his elder brother, in 1816, inherited his title. 
Died in 1823. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Hope, (Sir THOMAS,) a Scottish lawyer, born in Edin- 
burgh. He was knighted and appointed king's advocate 
in 1627, after gaining distinction at the bar. He wrote 
valuable legal treatises. His father, Henry Hope, was 
related to the wealthy family of Hope in Amsterdam. 
Died in 1646. 

Hope, (THOMAS,) an English novelist and miscellane- 
ous writer of rare merit, born about 1770, was a member 
of the wealthy family of Hope of Amsterdam. After 
traversing Europe, Asia, and Africa, to gratify his pas- 
sion for architecture, and retiring from business with an 
immense fortune, he settled in London, and distinguished 
himself as a patron of the fine arts. He formed galleries 
of paintings and statues, and magnificent collections of 
lare works of art. In 1807 he published a work on 
" Household Furniture," which produced quite a revolu- 
tion in upholstery and an improvement in the public 
taste. Soon after appeared " The Costume of the An- 
cients," and " Modern Costumes," which evince great 
antiquarian lore. In 1819 he published, anonymously, 
"Anastasius; or, Memoirs of a Modern Greek," which 
was attributed to Byron, and made a vivid sensation 
by its surprising combination of Oriental romance and 
classic learning. " Mr. Hope will excuse us," says Syd- 
ney Smith, "but we could not help exclaiming, in read- 
ing it, 'Is this Mr. Thomas Hope? is this the man of 
chairs and tables ? the CEdipus of coal-boxes ? he who 
meditated on muffineers and planned pokers? Where 
has he hidden all this eloquence and poetry up to this 
hour?' The work before us places him in the highest 
list of eloquent writers and of superior men." Byron 
said he would have given his two most approved poems 
to have been the author of "Anastasius." Hope also 
wrote an " Essay on the Origin and Prospects of Man," 
and a "Historical Essay on Architecture," (1835.) which 
was received with favour. He married in 1807 Louisa 
Beresford, a daughter of W. Beresford, Archbishop of 
Tuam. Died in 1831. 

See SYDNEY SMITH'S article in the " Edinburgh Review" for 
March, 1821, (vol. uocv.,) also for July, 1807; "Quarterly Review," 
rol. xxiv. 

Hope, (THOMAS CHARLES,) an eminent teacher of 
chemistry, born in Edinburgh in 1766, was a son of John 
Hope, the botanist, noticed above. He became profesioi 
of chemistry at Glasgow in 1787, and discovered a new 
earth, which he named "Strontites," about 1792. In 
1798 he succeeded Dr. Black in the chair of chemistry 

in Edinburgh, where he lectured until 1843. He was 
reputed the most popular teacher of chemistry in Great 
Britain. He wrote several short treatises, one of which 
is "On the Point of Greatest Density of Water," (1805.) 
Died in 1844. 

Hope, (Sir WILLIAM JOHNSTONE,) M.P., a British 
naval officer, born at Finchley in 1766. As post-captain, 
he served with distinction under Lord Howe against the 
French in 1794. In 1819 he was raised to the rank of 
vice-admiral, and the next year became a lord of the admi- 
ralty. He was knighted in 1825. He was a member of 
the House of Commons for thirty years. Died in 1831. 

Hoper. See HOOPER, (JOHN.) 

Hopfner or Hoepfher, hopfner, (ToHANN GEORG 
CHRISTIAN,) a German archaeologist, born at Leipsic in 
1765. He published, besides other works, a " Manual 
of Greek Mythology," (1795.) Died in 1827. 

HSpital. See L'HOpiTAL. 

Hopken or Hoepken, hop'ken, (ANDERS JOHAN,) 
a Swedish statesman and writer of great merit, born 
in 1712, became a member of the senate in 1746. He 
was one of the first who formed the Swedish language 
on the models of Greece and Rome. His Eulogies on 
Count Tessin and Ekeblad are greatly admired. Died 
in 1789. 

See E. M. FANT," Aminnelse-Tal ofver A. J. von Hopken," 1789; 
GVLDHNSTOLPK, " Aminnelse-Tal bfver A. J. von Hopken," 1789. 

Hop'kini, (CHARLES,) born at Exeter in 1664, was 
the son of Bishop Ezekiel Hopkins. He was intimate 
with Dryden and Congreve, wrote several tragedies, 
and translated Ovid's "Art of Love." Died in 1699. 

His brother JOHN, born in 1675, was the author of a 
collection of poems entitled "Amasia," (3 vols., 1700,) 
and other poems, among which is "The Triumphs of 
Peace, or the Glories of Nassau," (1698.) Died after 

Hop'kin, (EDWARD,) Governor of Connecticut, born 
in London in 1600, emigrated to Boston, Massachu- 
setts, in 1637. He was chosen Governor of Connecticut 
in 1640, and was re-elected every other year until 1654. 
Soon after this he returned to England, where he was 
appointed warden of the fleet and commissioner of the 
admiralty, and was elected to Parliament. Died in 1657. 

Hopkins, (EDWARD JOHN,) an English musician 
and composer, born at Westminster, June 30, 1818. 
Since 1843 he has been organist of the Temple Church 
in London. He published "The Organ, its History and 
Construction," and has composed anthems, chants, and 
psalm-tunes. His brother, JOHN HOPKINS, born in 
1822, has also distinguished himself as a composer of 
sacred music. 

Hopkins, (EsEK,) an American naval officer, born 
in Scituate, Rhode Island, in 1718. He was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the navy in 1775. He captured 
a British fort at New Providence, and several vessels of 
war, in 1775 or 1776. Died in 1802. 

Hopkins, (EztKlEL,) an English Calvinistic divine, 
born at Sandford, Devonshire, in 1633, was a popular 
preacher, and one of the standard theologians of Eng- 
land. He became Bishop of Raphoe in 1671, and Bishop 
of Londonderry in 1681. He was driven from this place 
by the Catholic insurgents in 1688. Among his works 
(which are admired even by many who are not Calvinists) 
are a "Treatise on the Vanity of the World," (1663,) 
" Sermons," (4 vols., 1691-96,) the "Doctrine of the Two 
Covenants," and " Exposition on the Lord's Prayer," 
(1692.) His style is remarkable for sententious brevity. 
Died in 1690. 

Hopkins, (JoHN,) an English teacher, who graduated 
at Oxford in 1544, is chiefly noted for his share in the 
poetical version of David's Psalms by Sternhold and 
Hopkins. He is supposed to have been a clergyman. 

Hopkins, (JOHN HENRY,) an Episcopal theologian, 
born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1792, came to the United 
States in 1800. He became rector of a church at Pitts- 

rg in 1824, and was chosen Bishop of Vermont in 
1832. Among his numerous works are "The Primitive 
Creed Examined and Explained," (1834,) a "Scriptural, 
Ecclesiastical, and Historical View of Slavery," (1864,) in 
which work he advocates the Southern view of slavery, 
and "The Law of Ritualism," (1866.) Died in 1868 

, e, i, 6, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, o, obscure, far, (311, fat; mit; not; good; moon 



Hopkins, (JOHN HENRY,) D.LI., an American clergy 
man, a son of Bishop J. II. Hopkins, already noticed 
was born at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, October 28, 1820 
He graduated at the University of Vermont in 1839, anc 
at the General Theological Seminary (Episcopal) in 
1850, took priest's orders in 1872, founded the "Church 
Journal," (New York,) and edited the same, 1853-68 
He published a "Manual of Matrimony," (1845,) "Carols 
Hymns, and Songs," (1863 ; 3d edition, 1882,) "Canticles 
Noted," (1866,) "Life of Bishop Hopkins," (1872, 
" Poems by the Wayside," (1883,) etc. He also editec 
the writings of Dr. Milo Mahan, and wrote his memoir 
Hopkins, (JOHNS,) an American philanthropist, born 
in Anne Arundel county, Maryland, May 19, 1795. He 
acquired a large fortune as a wholesale grocer of Balti- 
more. He founded a noble free hospital, a convalescent 
hospital, a coloured orphanage, and the Johns Hopkins 
University, endowing these institutions with more than 
eight millions of dollars. He was a member of the 
Society of Friends, and lived and died a bachelor. Diec 
at Baltimore, December 24, 1873. 

Hopkins, (LEMUEL,) M.D., born at Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, in 1750. He practised medicine at Litchfielc 
from 1776 to 1784, and at Hartford until 1801. He wrote 
"The Hypocrite's Hope," and other poems. He was 
associated with Barlow and Trumbull in writing "The 
Anarchiad," a poem. Died in 1801. 

Hopkins, (MARK,) a Presbyterian theologian, born in 
Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in 1802, graduated at Wil- 
liams College in 1824. He became professor of moral 
philosophy in that college in 1830, and was president of 
the same from 1836 to 1872. He published " Lowell Lec- 
tures on the Evidences of Christianity," "Miscellaneous 
Essays and Discourses," (1847,) "Lectures on Moral 
Philosophy," (1858,) "The Law of Love and Love as a 
Law, or Christian Ethics," (1869,) "Outline Study of 
Man," (1873,) and " Strength and Beauty," (1874.) He 
received the degree of D.D. from Dartmouth College in 
1 837, and that of LL. D. from the University of New York 
in 1857. Died June 17, 1887. 

Hopkins, (SAMUEL,) an American divine, born at 
Waterbury, Connecticut, in 1721, is called the founder 
of the Hopkinsian school. He studied theology under 
Jonathan Edwards, was ordained a minister in 1743, and 
began in that year to preach at Housatonnoc, now 
Great Barrington. In 1769 he removed from that place 
to Newport, Rhode Island. " Dr. Hopkins," says Allen, 
"was a very humble, pious, and benevolent man. . . . His 
life was spent chiefly in meditation ; his preaching had 
but little effect." He published a " System of Doctrines 
contained in Divine Revelation Explained and Defended," 
(1793,) and also wrote a " Dialogue against Slavery," 
(1776,) etc. He forms a prominent character in Mrs. 
Stowe's " Minister's Wooing." Died in 1803. 

Hopkins, (STEPHEN,) an American statesman, born 
at Scituate, Rhode Island, in 1707, was a farmer in his 
youth, and afterwards a merchant. He was chief justice 
of the superior court from 1751 to 1754, and subsequently 
Governor of Rhode Island. In 1774 he was elected to 
Congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence 
in 1776. The unsteadiness of his hand indicated by his 
signature was occasioned not by fear, but by a nervous 
affection. He continued in Congress until 1779. Died 
in 1785. 

Hopkins, (Rev. WILLIAM,) a learned antiquary, born 
at Evesham, England, in 1647, was made prebendary of 
Worcester in 1675, and vicar of Lindridge in 1686. Died 
in 1700. 

Hopkins, (WILLIAM,) an English Arian writer, born 
*t Monmouth in 1706, became vicar of Bolney in 1731. 
He wrote a treatise in favour of Arianism, and translated 
the book of Exodus, (1784.) Died in 1786. 

Hop'kin-son, (FRANCIS,) an eminent author, wit, and 
patriot, born in Philadelphia in 1737. He graduated at 
the college of his native city, and chose the profession 
of the law. Having visited England in 1765, and passed 
two years there, he returned home, settled at Borden- 
town, and married Miss Ann Borden. From 1774 to 
1 777 he published " The Pretty Story," " The Prophecy," 
tnd the " Political Catechism," three humorous and 

popular essays, which contributed to foment f.,e spirit 
of freedom and to prepare the people for national inde- 
pendence. He represented New Jersey in the Conti- 
nental Congress of 1776, and signed the Declaration of 
Independence. He was appointed judge of the admi- 
ralty of Pennsylvania in 1779, and in 1790 judge of the 
district court of the United States. Besides the above 
essays, he wrote the " Battle of the Kegs," a ballad, and 
other works, in prose and verse. Died in 1791. 

See SANDERSON, " Biography of the Signers to the Declaration 
of Independence;" "National Portrait -Gallery of Distinguished 
Americans," vol. iii. 

Hopkinson, (JOSEPH,) LL.D., an American jurist, 
author of " Hail Columbia," and son of the preceding, 
was born in Philadelphia in 1770. He was educated at 
the University of Pennsylvania, studied law, and rose to 
eminence in his profession in his native city. He was 
the leading counsel for Dr. Rush in his famous libel 
suit against William Cobbett in 1799, and was also em- 
ployed in the trials under the alien and sedition laws 
before Judge Chase in 1800, and in the impeachment of 
the latter for alleged misdemeanour in office during these 
trials, before the United States Senate, in 1805. From 
1815 to 1819 he was a representative in Congress, in 
which he distinguished himself as a speaker, particu- 
larly in opposition to the United States Bank, and on 
the Seminole war. In 1828 he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Adams judge of the United States court for the 
eastern district of Pennsylvania, which position he held 
till his death, in 1842. 

See "Lives of Eminent Philadelphians," 1859, 

Hop'per, (ISAAC TATEM,) a distinguished philanthro- 
pist, a member of the Society of Friends, born near Wood- 
bury, New Jersey, in 1771. He resided many years in 
Philadelphia, but passed the latter part of his life in New 
York. He was a man of great energy, courage, and intel- 
lectual acuteness, and distinguished for his life-long efforts 
to promote benevolent and humane objects, especially 
negro emancipation. In the controversy which resulted 
in the separation of the Society of Friends in 1827, he 
was one of the most zealous adherents of the anti- 
orthodox party. Died in 1852. 

See LYDIA M. CHILD, " Life of I. T. Hopper," 1853 ; " Lives of 
Eminent Philadelphians," 1859. 

er, (THOMAS,) an English architect, born at 
Rochester about 1775. After being employed by the 
prince-regent on Carleton House, he erected many castles 
and mansions for the nobility, among which Penrhyn 
Castle is regarded as one of the best. He possessed 
superior conversational powers, and associated freely 
with people of distinction. Died in 1856. 

Hoppers, hop'pers, or Hopper, hop'per, (JOACHIM,) 
[Lat. HOPPE'RUS,] a Dutch jurist, born in Friesland in 
1523. Ln 1566 he became privy councillor at Madrid, 
and chancellor for the affairs of the Netherlands. He 
was more moderate than the other ministers of Philip 
[I. Among his works is one " On the Legal Art," (" De 
Juris Arte Libri tres," 1553.) Died in 1576. 

See MOTLEY, " Rise of the Dutch Republic," part ii. chap T., 
and part iv. chap. iv. 

Hop'pin, (AUGUSTUS,) an American artist, born in 
Providence, Rhode Island, in 1828. He pursued a col- 
egiate course at Brown University, and entered upon 
:he profession of law, but subsequently devoted himself 
o drawing on wood. He illustrated "The Autocrat of 
he Breakfast-Table," the poem of "Nothing to Wear," 
md numerous other subjects. Died April I, 1896. 

Hoppin, (JAMES MASON,) D.D., an American scholar, 
>orn at Providence, Rhode Island, January 17, 1820. 
rle graduated at Yale College in 1840, and studied in the 
Jniversity of Berlin, was professor of homiletics and 
jastoral theology in Yale College, 1861-79, and in 1879 
jecame professor of the history of art in the same insti- 
ution. His principal books are " Notes of a Theological 
Student," (1854,) "Old England," (1867,) "Office and 
Work of the Christian Ministry," (1869,) "Life of 
Admiral Foote," (1874,) "Memoirs of Henry Armitl 
Brown," (1880,) and " Homiletics," (1881.) 

Hoppin, (THOMAS F.,) an American painter and de- 
igner, brother of Augustus Hoppin, born in Providence, 

t as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; til as in Ms. (3^=See Explanations, p. 33.) 




Rhode Island, in 1816. Among the most important of 
his designs are the figures on the great window of Trinity 
Church, New York. 

Hopp'ner, (JOHN,) R.A., an excellent English por- 
trait-painter, born in London in 1759. He studied in 
the Royal Academy, and was patronized by the Prince 
of Wales. For many years he was the most fashionable 
portrait-painter of London, except Sir Thomas Lawrence. 
H</ppner was very successful in portraits of women. His 
colouring is natural and powerful, and his tones are 
mellow and deep. His works have a charming air of 
facility and negligence. Died in 1810. 

See CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of Painters," etc. 

Hop'tpn, (ARTHUR,) a learned English mathema- 
tician, born in Somersetshire in 1588, was intimate with 
Selden. He wrote "Speculum Topographicum," (1611,) 
and a few other works. Died in 1614. 

Hopton, (Sir RALPH,) an English royalist officer, who 
fought for Charles I. in the civil war. He obtained some 
success in Cornwall in 1643. In 1646 he commanded 
about 8000 men at the battle of Torrington, where he 
was defeated by Fairfax. Died about 1652. 

Hopton, (SUSANNA,) an English authoress, born in 
1627, wrote " Hexameron, or Meditations on the Six 
Days of Creation." Died in 1709. 

Horace, hor'ass, [Lat. HORA'TIUS; Fr. HORACE, 
o'riss'; Ger. HORAZ, ho-rits'; It. ORAZIO, o-rlt'se-o,] or, 
more fully, Quin'tus Hora'tius Flac'cus, an excellent 
and popular Latin poet, born at Venusia, (now Venosa,) 
in Italy, in December, 65 B.C. His father was a freed- 
man, who gained a competence as a coactor, (collector of 
indirect taxes or of the proceeds of auctions,) and pur- 
chased a farm near Venusia, on the bank of the Aufidus, 
(Ofanto.) At an early age he was sent to Rome, and 
became a pupil of the noted teacher Orbilius Pupillus, 
with whom he learned grammar and the Greek language. 

About his eighteenth year, he went to prosecute his 
studies in the groves of the Academy at Athens, then 
the principal seat of learning and philosophy, where he 
remained until the death of Julius Csesar (in 44 B.C.) 
involved the empire in a civil war. As Brutus passed 
through Athens, Horace, with patriotic ardour, joined 
his army, was made a military tribune, took command 
of a legion, and witnessed the fatal defeat of the cause at 
Philippi, where he threw away his shield. (Carmina, ii. 
7.) llis estate having been confiscated, he went to Rome, 
where he supported himself a short time by acting as clerk 
in the treasury. His early poems having excited the 
interest of Virgil and Varius, they recommended him to 
Maecenas, in whom he found a liberal patron and intimate 
friend. Thenceforth his life was eminently prosperous, 
and serenely passed in congenial studies and patrician 
society. Preferring independence to the tempting prizes 
of ambition, he refused the office of private secretary 
to Augustus, who treated him with particular favour. 
He had a true relish for rural pleasures and the charms 
of nature, which he often enjoyed at his Sabine farm or 
his villa in Tibur. Died in November, 8 B.C. He was 
never married. He was of short stature, and had dark 
eyes and hair. His character, as deduced from his writings, 
is well balanced, and unites in a high degree good sense, 
good nature, urbanity, and elegant taste. His poems, 
consisting of odes, satires, and epistles, may all be con- 
tained in one small volume. His chief merits are a calm 
philosophy, a graceful diction, an admirable sense of 
propriety, and a keen insight into human nature, which 
have attracted an admiration growing from age to age, 
and have rendered him, next to Virgil, the most illus- 
trious poet of ancient Rome. " It is mainly," says " Black- 
wood's Magazine" for April, 1868, "to this large and 
many-sided nature of the man himself that Horace owes 
his unrivalled popularity, a popularity which has indeed 
both widened and deepened in its degree in proportion 
to the increase of modern civilization." His " Epistles" 
are among the few poems which represent the most per- 
fect and original form of Latin verse. There is no very 
good English translation of Horace's entire works : that 
of Francis (4 vols., 1747) is perhaps the best. Lord Lyt- 
ton's translation of the Odes (1869) is highly praised. 

See SUETONIUS, " Vita Horatii ;" MASSON, " Vita Horatii," 1708 ; 
HENRY H. MILMAN, "Life of Q. Horatius Flaccus," 1854: VAN 

OMMBRN, " Horaz als Mensch und Bilrger von Rom," i8oa; C 
FRANCKB, " Fasti Horatiani," 1839 : WALCKBNAKR, " Histoire de la 
Vie et des Poe'sies d'Horace," 2 vols., 1840; I. MURRAY, "Ori- 
ginal Views of the Passages in the Life and Writings of Horace," 
1851 : J. (or F.) JACOB, Horaz und seine Freunde, 1852 ; ERSCH 
und GRUBSR, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" see, also, the excellent 
article on Horatius in SMITH'S "Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Biography," by the late DKAN H. H. MILMAN, (author of the " Life 
of Q. Horatius Flaccus;") "Horace and his Translators," in the 
" Quarterly Review" for October, 1858 ; " Horace and Tasso," in the 
" Edinburgh Review" for October, 1850. 

Horae, ho'ree, iGr. 'Cp<u ; Fr. HEURES, UR, or HORES, 
OR,] the Hours or Seasons, which the ancients imagined to 
have charge of the gates of heaven or doors of Olympus. 
They appear to have been originally personifications 
of the order of nature and of the seasons. They were 
also regarded as goddesses of justice, peace, and order. 
Milton associates them with the Graces : 
" while universal Pan, 

Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance, 
Led on the eternal Spring." 

Paradise Lost, book iv. 

Ho-ra-pollo or Ho'rus A-pol'lo, [Gr. 'QpairoUuv ; 
Fr. HORAPOLLON, o'ri'po'loN',] the celebrated author 
of a Greek treatise on the Egyptian hieroglyphics. His 
name and the epoch in which he lived have been the 
subject of much discussion. Recent critics favour the 
opinion that he lived at Alexandria about the fifth century. 

See SMITH, " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography ;" A. S 
CORBY, "The Hieroglyphics of Horapollo," 1840: GOULANIOF 
" Essai sur les Hie"roglyphes d'Horapollon," 1827. 

Horapollon. See HORAPOLLO. 

Horatius. See HORACE. 

Horatius, ho-ra'she-us, (in the plural, Horatii, ho- 
ra'she-T,) a hero of the early Roman legends, who witt 
his two brothers fought against the three Curiatii for 
the supremacy of Rome over Alba. His brothers fell ir. 
the first onset By a feigned flight he separated hu 
antagonists, and slew them one after the other. 

Horatius Codes. See COCLKS. 

Horberg or Hoerberg, hoR'be'RG, (PEHR,) an emi- 
nent Swedish painter, born in Smaland in 1746. He 
practised his art with success at Olstorp, chiefly on reli- 
gious subjects, and received the title of historical painter 
to the king. Died in 1816. 

See his Autobiography," (in Swedish,) published in 1817, and 
translated into German by SCHILDBNBR, 1819 ; C. MOLBECH, " Leben 
und Kunst des Malers IV Hoerberg," 1819; " Biographiskt-Lexicon 
ofver namnkunnige Svenska Man. 

Hor'be-ry, (MATTHEW,) D.D., an English divine, 
born in Lincolnshire in 1707, was educated at Oxford. 
He became canon of Lichfield, vicar of Hanbury, and 
rector of Standlake. His sermons were published in 
several volumes, (1745-74,) and were pronounced excel 
lent by Dr. Johnson. Died in 1773. 

Horebout, ho'reh-bSwt', (GERARD or GUERARD,) a 
Flemish painter of high reputation, was born at Ghent. 
He removed to England, and became first painter to 
Henry VIII. 

Hores. See HoRvt 

Horfelin, de, da oR-fl-leen', (ANTONIO,) a Spanish 
painter of history and portraits, born at Saragossa in 
1597 ; died in 1660. 

Horleman or Harleman, hoR'leh-man', (CARL,) 
BARON, a Swedish architect, born at Stockholm in 1700, 
designed the cathedral of Calmar, and completed the 
royal palace at Stockholm. He was ranked among the 
greatest architects of Sweden. Died in 1753. 

Hoi 'man, (WILLIAM,) of Eton College, an English 
botanist, born at Salisbury. He published " Herbarum 
Synonyma." Died in 1535. 

Hormayr, von, fon hoR'miR, (JOSEPH,) a German 
historian, born at Innspruck in 1781. He fomented a 
revolt in the Tyrol against the French in 1809, and was 
appointed historiographer of Austria in 1815. He be- 
came councillor for the foreign department of Bavaria 
in 1828, and minister from Bavaria to Hanover in 183*. 
Among his works area " History of Tyrol," (1808.) "The 
Austrian Plutarch, or Lives of all the Austrian Princes," 
(20 vols., 1807-20,) "General History of Modern Times, 
178710 1 815," (1817-19, 3 vols., (and " Vienna, its History 
and Curiosities," (9 vols., 1823-25.) Died in 1848. 

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations- Lexikon ;" " Foreign Quarterlj 
Review" for January, 1845. 

V e, I, o, u, y, long: a, e, d, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; 0r, fill, fit; m8t; not; good; m<5on; 



Hor-mis'das [Persian, HORMOOZ) I., King of Persia, 
son of Shahpo'or (or Sapor) I., began to reign in 271 
A.D. After an uneventful reign of fourteen months, he 
died in 272, and was succeeded by his son, Bahram I. 

See FIRUOUSKE, "Shah Namah;" MIRKHOND, " Histoire del 

Hormisdas H., King of Persia, of the Sassanide 
dynasty, was the son of Narses, whom he succeeded 
in 303 A.D. He died in 311, leaving the throne to his 
infant son, Shahpoor II. 

Hormisdas ITT., a son of Yezdejerd III., became 
King of Persia in 457 A.D. He was defeated and deposed 
by his brother Fyrooz about 460. 

Hormisdas IV., King of Persia, a son of Chosroes 
(Khosroo) I., began to reign in 579 A.D. He waged war 
against Tiberius, Emperor of the East, by whose army 
he was defeated in several battles. Provoked by his 
tyranny, his subjects revolted against him, and he was 
deposed and put to death in 591 A.D. 

Hormuzd. See ORMUZD. 

Horn, hoRn, (ARVID BERNARD,) COUNT, a Swedish 
statesman, born in 1664. His influence secured the 
elevation of Frederick of Hesse-Cassel to the throne in 
1720. He became the head of the party of "Bonnets," 
which was in power until 1738. Died in 1742. 

See GUSTAV HORN, "A. B. Horn," 1853; THOMABUS, "Svensk 

Horn or Home, (CHARLES EDWARD,) born in Lon- 
don in 1786, was noted as a composer of music. He was 
the author of " The Deep, Deep Sea," and other popular 
songs. He died in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1850. 

Horn, hoRn, (FRANZ CHRISTOPH,) a German critic, 
born at Brunswick in 1781. He published several novels, 
a " Critical History of German Poetry and Eloquence," 
(4 vols., 1822-29,) a "d "The Dramatic Works of Shak- 
spe.ire," ("Shakespeare's Schauspiel?," 5 vols., 1823- 
31.) Died in 1837. 

See " Franz Horn : biographisches Denkmal," Leipsic, 1839. 

Horn, hoRn, (FREDRICK,) Count of Aminne, a Swedish 
general in the French service, born at Husby in 1725. 
As aide-de-camp of Marshal D'Estr^es, he had an im- 
portant part in the victory of Hastenbeck, (1757.) He 
obtained the rank of lieutenant-general ir\ the Swedish 
army in 1778. Died in 1796. 

His son, COUNT HORN, was an accomplice in the as- 
sassination of Gustavus III. in 1792, for which he was 
banished for life. Died in 1823. 

Horn, [Lat HOR'NIUS,] (GEORG,) a German historian, 
born at Greussen in 1620. He became professor of his- 
tory at Leyden about 1648, and wrote, in Latin, works 
on history and geography, among which are an " Eccle- 
siastical and Political History," (1665,) and "Noah's 
Ark, or a History of the World," (1666.) Died in 1670. 

See JOHANN ADAM FLESSA, "Dissertatio de Vita G. Horaii," 

Horn, (GusTAF,) COUNT OF, an able Swedish general, 
born in Upland in 1592. Having served with credit in 
Poland and Livonia, he was appointed a senator about 
1624. At the battle of Leipsic, in 1631, he commanded 
the left wing, and contributed to the victory. After 
Gustavus Adolphus was killed at Liitzen, Horn gained 
Borne advantages over the enemy, but was taken prisoner 
at Nordlingen in 1634. Restored to liberty in 1642, he 
was made commander-in-chief of the Swedish army in 
the war against Denmark, in which he was successful. 
The queen rewarded him (about 1652) with the office of 
Constable of Sweden and the title of count. Died in 1657. 

See EMPORAGIUS, " Likpredikan ftfver G. C. Horn," 1660; FLO- 
RANDER, "Encomium Miiitiz Hopianae," 1648; J. F. AP LUND- 
BLAD, " Svensk Plutarch,"i823 ; " Biographiskt- Lexicon ofver namn- 
kunnige Svenska Man." 

Horn, (UFFO DANIEL,) a German litttrateur, born at 
Tratenau, m Bohemia, in 1817; died in 1860. 

Horn or Hoorn, de, deh hoRn, also written Hoorne 
COUNT, a Flemish noble, born in 1522, was the son of 
Joseph de Nivelle and Anne of Egmont. After the death 
of his father, his mother married Count de Horn, whose 
name and vast fortune he inherited. He distinguished 
himself at the battles of Saint-Quentin and Gravelines, 
nd served Philip II. of Spain many years as admiral 

of the Low Countries, president of the council of state, 
governor of Gueldres, etc. Arrested by the Duke of 
Alva, with Count Egmont, on a charge of treason, he 
was unjustly condemned and executed in 1568. 

Horn'aday, (WILLIAM TEMPLE,) an American 
zoologist, was born at Plainfield, Indiana, in 1854. 
He visited various parts of the world to collect wild 
animals, and was chief taxidermist of the National 
Museum 1882-90, in business at Buffalo 1890-96, and 
director of the New York Zoological Park after 1896. 
He published " Two Years in the Jungle," " The Man 
who became a Savage," "The Extermination of the 
American Bison," etc. 

Homt>low-er, (JOSEPH C.,) an American jurist, 
born at Belleville, New Jersey, in 1777. He was chief 
justice of the supreme court of New Jersey from 1832 
\ to 1846. He decided in 1856 that Congress had no 
right to pass a law for the rendition of fugitive slaves. 
Died at Newark in June, 1864. 

Home, horn, (GEORGE,) D.D., an English bishop and 
author, born at Otham, in Kent, in 1730, was a good He- 
brew scholar. He was chosen vice-chancellor of Oxford 
in 1776, Dean of Canterbury in 1781, and Bishop of 
Norwich in 1790. He wrote against the philosophy of 
Newton, and published treatises in favour of John Hut- 
chinson, and other works on theology. His " Commentary 
on the Book of Psalms" (2 vols., 1771) is esteemed an 
excellent performance, and has often been reprinted. 
He was a friend of Dr. Samuel Johnson. Died in 1792. 

Home, (RICHARD HENGFST,) an English poet and 
dramatist, born in London about 1803. He produced, 
besides other dramas, a tragedy entitled " Gregory the 
Seventh," (1840.) His reputation is founded on "Orion, 
an Epic Poem," (1843,) which was announced at the 
price of one farthing, as a sarcasm upon the low esti- 
mation into which epic poetry had fallen. After three 
editions had been sold, the price was raised to one 
shilling, and finally to five shillings. Among his other 
works are "The New Spirit of the Age," (2 vols.. 1844,) 
and "Ballads and Romances," (1846.) From iS,2 to 
about 1870 he lived in Australia. Died March 13, 1884. 

Home, (THOMAS HARTWELL,) D.D., an eminent 
English author, born in 1780, was educated in London. 
| He passed eight years in the labour of a barrister's 
clerk, and acquired some knowledge of law, while his 
leisure was diligently improved in literary studies. In 
1818 he published his principal work, the "Introduction 
to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scrip- 
tures," (3 vols., 1818 ; loth edition, enlarged, 1850,) which 
is considered the most complete and valuable work on 
that subject, and was soon adopted as a class-book in all 
the universities and colleges of England and in some of 
those in the United States. Having no sectarian tend- 
ency, it is appreciated by Christians generally, and ha 
conduced greatly to the diffusion of sound biblical litera- 
ture. In 1819 Home was ordained by the Bishop of 
London, and obtained a prebend in Saint Paul's Cathe- 
dral, besides other livings. Among his other numerous 
publications are "Deism Refuted, "(1819,) and a "Manual 
of Biblical Bibliography," (1839.) Died January 27, 1862. 

Home Tooke. See TOOKE. 

Home, van, (JAN.) See HOORNE. 

Horneck, hoR'nSk, (ANTHONY,) D.D., was born at 
Bacharach, in Germany, in 1641, removed to England 
about 1660, and became prebendary of Exeter, West- 
minster, and Wells. He wrote many devout religious 
works, among which are "The Great Law of Consider- 
ation," (1677; nth edition, 1729,) and "The Happy 
Ascetic," (1681.) His writings were commended by 
Doddridge as " exceedingly pathetic and elegant." Died 
in 1696. 

See his Life, by BISHOP KIDDER, 

Horneck, von, fon hoR'n?k, (OTTOKAR,) called alsr 
OTTOKAR von Steiermark, (st!'er- maR k',) one of the 
earliest who wrote in the German language, was the 
author of a " History of the Great Empires of the World 
to the Death of Frederick II.," (1280,) and a chronicle 
in rhyme. It has been published in Petz's " Austrian 
Historians," and is valued for its interesting account of 
the manners and customs of that age. 

as k; c as s; g hard; g zsj ; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J[5 = See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Horneman, hoR'neh-man', (JENS WILKEN,) a Dan- 
ish botanist, born at Marstal in 1770, became professor 
of botany at Copenhagen in 1808. He continued the 
" Flora Danica," a magnificent work, which other natu- 
ralists cojnmenced, and which appeared in 14 vols. 
folio, (1806-40.) He wrote "Economical Botany for 
Denmark," (1798,) and other works. Died in 1841. 

See his Autobiography ; ERSLEW, " Forfatter- Lexicon." 

Hornemann, hoR'neh-man', (FRiEDRiCH CONRAD,) 
a German traveller, born at Hildesheim in 1772, at- 
tempted in 1797 to explore Northern and Central Africa 
He left Moorzook with a caravan bound for Bornoo in 
April, 1800, after which date he was never heard from. 

Hor'ner, (FRANCIS,) an eminent British statesman 
and lawyer, born in Edinburgh in 1778, was educated in 
the university of that city, and studied law with his friend 
Henry Brougham. Having removed to London in 1803, 
he was welcomed by the leading Whigs, such as Fox, 
Mackintosh, and Romilly, who hastened to enlist his 
eminent abilities in the public service. In 1806 he was 
returned to Parliament for Saint Ives. The death of 
Fox having produced a change of ministry and a disso- 
lution of the House, Homer was returned for Wendovei 
in 1807. He acquired great influence in Parliament by 
his integrity, wisdom, liberality, and knowledge of politi- 
cal economy. In 1810 he was a member of the Bullion 
committee and author of a part of the "Bullion Report," 
and made an able speech on that question. In 1813-14 
he was recognized as one of the leaders of his party, and 
in 1816 he made a speech on Catholic claims, which was 
his last speech in the House. Compelled by ill health 
to retire from business, he set out on a journey to the 
south of Europe, and died, greatly lamented, at Pisa, in 
1817. He was one of the originators of the " Edinburgh 
Review," for which he wrote numerous articles. " He 
died at the age of thirty-eight," says Lord Cockburn, 
" possessed of greater public influence than any other 
private man." "No eminent speaker of Parliament," 
says Sir J. Mackintosh, " owed so much of his success 
to his moral character. His high place was therefore 
honourable to his audience and to his country." 

See "Memoirs and Correspondence of F. Homer," published by 
his brother, LEONARD HORNHR, in 1843: CHAMBERS, "Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen :" "Edinburgh Review" for Octo- 
ber, 1843; "Quarterly Review" for May, 1843. 

Homer, (LEONARD,) F.R.S., a British geologist, and 
jrounger brother of the preceding, took a prominent part 
in the organization of the London University, of which 
he was appointed warden in 1827. About 1833 he be- 
came inspector of factories, in which capacity he con- 
tributed largely to the moral and physical improvement 
of the operatives. He wrote articles on the "Mineral 
Kingdom" for the " Penny Magazine," " On the Employ- 
ment of Children in Factories," (1840,) and other short 
works. Died in 1864. 

Hor'ner, (WILLIAM E.,) an American anatomist, 
born in Virginia about 1790, became in 1816 demon- 
strator of anatomy to Dr. Wistar, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and in 1831 succeeded Dr. Physick as 
professor of anatomy in that institution. Died in 1853. 

Hornius. See HORN, (GEORG.) 

Hor'nung, (ERNEST WILLIAM,) an English nov- 
elist, born in 1866. He has written several novels of 
Australian life, and "The Unbidden Guest," (1894,) 
"Young Blood," and " Some Persons Unknown." 

Horrebow or Horreboe, hoR'reh-bo, (CHRiSl-OF- 
FER,) a Danish astronomer, born at Copenhagen in 1718. 
He succeeded his father as professor of astronomy 
about 1750, and published, besides other works, a Latin 
treatise " On the Annual Parallax of the Fixed Stars," 
(1747.) Died in 1776. 

Horrebow. (NIKOLAUS,) a Danish author, born at 
Copenhagen in 1712, became a judge of the supreme 
court In 1750 he was sent by government to explore 
Iceland, of which he wrote a description, said to be very 
correct. Died in 1750. 

Horrebow or Horreboe, (PEDER,) an eminent Dan- 
Wh astronomer, the father of Christoffer, noticed above, 

was born in Jutland in 1679. He became professor 
of astronomy at Copenhagen in 1710. He determined, 
the parallax of the sun more exactly in his " Clavis As- 
tronomias," a treatise on physical astronomy, in which 
he favours the theory of Descartes. He wrote other 
works, among which is "Copernicus Triumphans, sive 
de Parallaxi Orbis Annui," (1727.) Died in 1764. 

See KRAFT og NYERUP, " Litteraturlexicon ;" NVERUP, " Uni- 
versitaets Annalen." 

Horrebow, (PEDER,) a son of the preceding, born in 
1728, observed the transit of Venus in 1761, and wrote 
an account of it Died in 1812. 

Hor'rocks or Hor'rox, (JEREMIAH,) a distinguished 
English astronomer, born at Toxteth, near Liverpool, in 
1619, was educated at Cambridge, took orders, and be- 
came curate of Hoole. He was the author of the true 
theory of lunar motion, and was the first who observed 
the transit of Venus, (in 1639,) which he had successfully 
foretold, and of which he wrote an account, entitled 
"Venus sub Sole visa." His other works on astronomy 
were published by Dr. Wallis in 1672. " His investiga- 
tions," says the " Edinburgh Review" for October, 1843, 
" are all stamped with the clear indications of a genius 
of the first order ; and he doubtless would have achieved 
far greater discoveries had not his privations and suc- 
cesses, his toils and triumphs, been together cut short by 
his premature death, in 1641." 

See A. B. WHATTON, "Memoir of the Life and Labours of J. 
Horrox," 1859. 

Horsburgh, hors'bur-eh, or Horsbury, hors'ber-e, 
(JAMES,) F.R.S., a Scottish hydrographer, born at Elie 
in 1762, was for some years captain of a merchant-ship 
navigating the East Indian seas. In 1809 he was ap- 
pointed hydrographer of the East India Company. He 
was author of a valuable work entitled " Directions for 
Sailing to and from the East Indies, China," etc., (1809.) 
Died in 1836. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen," 
(Supplement;) "NouvelTe Biographic GeWrale." 

Horse'field, (Rev. THOMAS W.,) an English anti- 
quary, published the " History and Antiquities of Sus- 
"x." Died in 1837. 

Hora'field or Horsefield, (THOMAS,) M.D., F.R.S., 
an eminent naturalist and traveller, born in Pennsylvania 
in 1773. He explored the natural history of Java for 
many years, and returned to England about 1820. He 
published "Zoological Researches in Java," etc., (1821- 
24.) The plants which he collected were described in 
an excellent work entitled " Plantae Javanicae Rariores," 
(1838-52, with fifty coloured engravings,) in which he 
was aided by Robert Brown and J. J. Bennett He also 
wrote several smaller works. Died in London in 1859. 

Horsley, (CHARLES,) an English composer, born at 
Kensington in 1821. He composed oratorios entitled 
"Davicf 1 and "Joseph," (1852.) Died in New York, 
March 2, 1876. 

Horaley, (JOHN,) F.R.S., an eminent British anti- 
quary, born in Mid-Lothian in 1685, became pastor of a 
dissenting church at Morpeth. He wrote an excellent 
work entitled " The Roman Antiquities of Britain " 
(" Britannia Romana," 1732.) Died in 1731. 

See RHV. J. HODGSON, " Memoirs of the Life, etc of John Hoi* 
ley," London, 1X31 : CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Emi- 
nent Scotsmen ;" NICHOLS, " Literary Anecdotes." 

Horsley, (JOHN CALLCOTT,) an English historical 
painter, born in London in 1817. His cartoon of "Saint 
Augustine Preaching" (1843) received one of the prizes 
of .200 from the Commission of Fine Arts. He was 
one of the artists commissioned to adorn the House 
of Lords, in which he painted a fresco of the " Spirit of 
Religion," (1845.) Among his master-pieces are " L'Alle- 
gro and II Penseroso," (1851,) "Lady Jane Grey and 
Roger Ascham," (1853,) and a "Scene from Don Quix- 
ote," (1855.) 

Hor8ley,(SAMUEL,) LL.D., an eminent English bishop 
and writer, born in London in 1733, was educated at Cam- 
bridge. In 1759 he obtained the rectory of Newington 
Butts, and, after receiving other preferments, became 
Bishop of Saint David's in 1788, of Rochester in 1793, 
and of Saint Asaph in 1802. To superior talents he 
joined profound learning, both classical and scientific. 

i, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonped; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n&t; good; moon; 




He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1767, 
and secretary of the same in 1773. In 1783 he gained 
distinction by a controversy with Dr. Priestley on Unita- 
nanism, in which it is usually conceded that Horsley 
had the advantage. He published in 1796 an excellent 
treatise "On the Prosodies of the Greek and Latin Lan- 
guages," and " Critical Disquisitions on the Eighteenth 
Chapter of Isaiah." Among his numerous publications 
are sermons, treatises on mathematics, and several ad- 
mired performances in biblical criticism. Died in 1806. 
See " Edinburgh Review" for February, ign; "London Quar- 
terly Review" for May, 1810, (vol. xvii.) 

Hors'ley, (WILLIAM,) an English song-writer of high 
merit, born November 15, 1774. His glees and madri- 
gals are among the best ever written. He was the father 
of Charles Horsley, before noticed. Died June 12, 1858. 

Hors'man, (EDWARD,) a British lawyer and poli- 
tician, born in 1807. He represented Stroud in Parlia- 
ment from 1853 to 1868. He was one of those who were 
called " Adullamites," who voted against the Reform 
bill in 1866, although elected as Liberals. Died in 1876. 

Horst, hoRst, [Lat. HOR'STIUS,] (GREGOR,) a German 
physician, was born at Torgau, in Saxony, in 1578. He 
became professor at Ulm in 1622, and was surnamed 
THE GERMAN JEscuLAfivz. Among his chief works 
are " On Diseases and their Causes," (" De Morbis 
eorumque Causis," 1612,) and "Anatomy of the Human 
Body," (1617.) Died in 1636. 

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary ;" ERSCH and 
GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklooaedie ;" FRKHER, "Theatrum Eru- 
ditorum. " 

Horst, van der, vSn der hoRst, (NIKOLAAS,) a Flem- 
ish painter of history and portraits, born at Antwerp, 
was a pupil of Rubens. His works are highly prized. 
Died in 1646. 

Horstiua. See HOKST. 

Horstius, hoR'ste-us, (JACOBUS,) a Dutch religious 
writer, originally named MERLER, was born at Horst 
about 1597. He wrote, in elegant Latin, "Paradise of 
the Christian Soul," (" Paradisus Animae Christianse," 
1630.) Died in 1644. 

Horstius, hoR'ste-us, (JAKOB,) a German physician, 
born at Torgau in 1537 ; died in 1600. 

Hort or Horte, (JosiAH,) an English theologian, 
educated at a dissenting academy with Dr. Watts, who 
expressed a high opinion of him. He became Bishop 
of Kilmore and Ardagh in 1727, and Archbishop of 
Tuam in 1747. A collection of his sermons was pub- 
lished. He died at an advanced age in 1751. 

Hortemels, //oR'teh-mels' or /ioRt'mel', (FRDRIC,) 
a French engraver, born at Paris about 1688. 

Hortemels, (MARIE MADELEINE,) an able engraver, 
born in Paris about 1688, was the wife of the celebrated 
engraver Nicolas Cochin. Died in 1777. 

Hortense Eugenie de Beauharnais, oR't&Nss' 
uh'zhi'ne' deh bo'iR'nJ)', Queen of Holland, and mother 
of the emperor Napoleon III., was born in Paris in 
1783. She was the daughter of Alexandre, Vicomte de 
Beauharnais, and Josephine Tascher, afterwards Empress 
of France. Her personal charms and amiable character 
rendered her a favourite with Napoleon and the ornament 
of his court Against her own inclination, and through 
the influence of her mother, she became in 1802 the wife 
of Louis Bonaparte, with whom she did not live happily. 
It is said that she wept abundantly at the performance 
of the ceremony. In 1806 her consort Louis was made 
King of Holland. On this occasion Hortense said she 
would have preferred the throne of Naples. " I would 
have rekindled," said she, " the flame of the fine arts 
in Italy." She disliked the Dutch fogs, and deemed 
sunshine and Parisian society indispensable blessings. 

Hortense was the mother of three sons, whom by the 
edicts of 1804 and 1805 the emperor had preferred as 
successors to his crown : i. NAPOLEON Louis CHARLES, 
who died in 1807 ; 2. NAPOLEON Louis, who died at 
Pesaro in 1831; 3. CHARLES Louis NAPOLEON, the 
late Emperor of France. In 1810 Louis abdicated his 
throne, and was separated from his wife, who, with her 
sons, returned to Paris. At the restoration of 1814 she 
was created Duchess of Saint-Leu, through the favour 
of some of the allied powers. Louis XVIII., after an 

interview with her, declared he had never seen a woman 
who united so much grace and dignity. After sharing the 
brief and brilliant triumphs of the Hundred Days, she 
was compelled to fly from France. The authorities of 
Geneva refused her an asylum ; but she received a 
hospitable offer from the canton of Thurgau, where she 
purchased the castle of Arenenberg in 1817. For many 
years she passed the summer at this place and the winter 
at Rome. When Louis Napoleon was exiled to the 
United States, in 1836, she wished to go with him, but 
had not sufficient strength to bear the voyage ; and she 
died in 1837, in the arms of her son, who, learning her 
illness, had returned home. We should not omit to 
mention that she excelled in music, and composed the 
popular air of " Partant pour la Syrie," one of the 
favourite national songs of France. 

Sec LASCBLLES WRAXALL, " Memoirs of Queen Hortense ;" 
COMTS DE LAGARDE, " Esquisse biographique sur la Reine Hor- 
tense," 1853 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for July, 1838. 

Hortensius. See DESJARDINS. 

Hor-ten'sl-us, (LAMBERT,) a Dutch philologist, born 
at Montfort about 1500. He wrote "On the German 
War," (" De Bello Germanico," 1560,) and annotations 
on Virgil's ".(Eneid," (1567.) Died about 1575. 

Hortensius, hor-ten'she-us, (QuiNTUS,) an eminent 
Roman orator, born of an equestrian family in 1 14 B.C. 
At an early age he acquired celebrity in the Forum, 
where, a few years afterwards, he maintained a spirited 
and generous rivalry with Cicero, who applauds his elo- 
quence and calls him his friend. After serving in the 
army of Sulla in Asia, he became successively quaestor, 
sedile, praetor, and, in 69 B.C., consul. In the previous 
year he was counsel for Verres, when Cicero made his 
memorable speech for the prosecution. His orations 
and other works are all lost. His eloquence is said to 
have been ornate, flowery, Oriental in exuberance, and 
enlivened with sententious and brilliant passages. He 
had a retentive memory, a sonorous voice, and a grace- 
ful gesture. Died in 50 B.C. 

books ix., x., xxxiv. ; QUINTILIAN, books iv., x., xi., xii. ; LINSBN, 
"Dissertatio de Hortensio Oratore," Abo, 1822. 

Horto, ab, ab OR'IO, or de la Huerta, da 1J weR'ti, 
(GARCIA,) called also Garcia da Orta, a Portuguese 
botanist, went to India as physician to the viceroy, and 
wrote "On the Plants and Drugs of India," (1563.) 

See BARBOSA MACHADO, " Bibliotheca Lusitana." 

Hor'tpn, (THOMAS,) D.D., born in London about 
1600, was professor of divinity in Gresham College, and 
published a number of sermons. Died in 1673. 


Ho'rua, [Gr. 'Qpof, possibly related etymologically to 
the Sanscrit S&rya, Lat. Sol, and Sp. Sur,] the Egyptian 
god of the Sun, was regarded as the son of Isis and Osiris. 
(See OSIRIS and HARPOCRATES.) His Egyptian name 
was Har. He had a hawk's head. The god Harpocrates 
is often called the younger Horus, or Horus the child. 

Horus Apollo. See HORAPOLLO. 

Horush. See BARBAROSSA. 

Horvat, hor'vat, (IsTVAN, or STEPHEN,) called "the 
Hungarian Varro," was born at Stuhlweissenberg in 
1784. He wrote " Primitive Magyar Families," (1820, a 
monumental work,) and various histories. Died in 1846. 

Horvdth, hoR'vSt, (MICHAEL,) a Hungarian histo- 
rian, born at Szentes in 1809. He became Bishop of 
Csanad in 1848, and minister of public instruction in 
1849. After the defeat of the patriotic cause he went 
into exile in 1849. He wrote a valuable " History of 
the Magyars," (4 vols., 1842-46.) Died Aug. 19, 1878. 

Hos'ack, (DAVID,) LL.D., F.R.S., an eminent Ameri- 
can physician, born in New York City in 1769. After 
graduating in Philadelphia in 1791, and prosecuting hia 
studies in Edinburgh and London, he returned to New 
York, and became professor of botany and materia 
medica in Columbia College in 1795. He taught clinical 
medicine and obstetrics in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons nearly twenty years, between 1807 and 1826. 
For many years he was one of the most successful prac- 
titioners and most influential citizens of New York. 
From 1820 to 1828 he was president of the New York 
Historical Society. His first wife was the sister of 

tas k; c. as j; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (flap-See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Thomas Eddy, and his second the widow of Henry A. 
Costar. He wrote a treatise on Vision, published by the 
Royal Society of London, (1794,) "Memoirs of De Witt 
Clinton," (1829,) a "System of Practical Nosology," 
( 1 829,) " Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Physic," 
(1838,) several volumes of medical essays, and other 
works. Died in 1835. 

See J. W. FRANCIS, " Memoir of Dr. Hosack ;" GROSS, "Ameri- 
can Medical Biography," 1861 ; " National Portrait-Gallery of Dis- 
tinguished Americans," vol. ii. 

Hoschel or HoescheL, ho'shel, [Lat, HOESCHE'- 
Lius,] (DAVID,) a distinguished German Hellenist, born 
at Augsburg in 1556. He was professor of Greek and 
keeper of the public library at Augsburg. He edited 
numerous Greek works, among which are the Homilies 
of Saint Basil and Saint Chrysostom, and the book of 
"Origen against Celsus," (1605.) His "Catalogue of 
the Greek Manuscripts in the Augsburg Library" (1595) 
is highly esteemed. Died in 1617. 

Sre BRUCKER, " De Mentis in Rem literariam D. Hoeschelii," 
17^8; BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NICERON, 
"Memoires;" J. A. FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Gra." 

Ho-se'a or O-se'a, [Heb. ^Pin : Fr. OSEE, o'zi',] one 
of the twelve minor Hebrew prophets, of whom little is 
known, except that he lived in the "days of Uzziah, 
Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, Kings of Judah." It is 
inferred that his prophetic career extended from about 
785 to 725 B.C. His language is remarkably obscure. 
" He is the most difficult and perplexed of all the pro- 
phets," says Lowth. He is quoted in Matthew ii. 15, 
ix. 13, Romans ix. 25, (where his name is written Osee,) 
and Revelation vi. 16. 

Hosemann, ho'zeh-man, (THEODOR,) a German genre 
painter and illustrator, born at Brandenburg, Septembei 
24, 1807 ; died at Berlin, October 15, 1875. 

Ho-she'a or Ho-se'a, I Heb. ;>i?in,] the last King 
of Israel, began to reign' about 730 B.C., after he had 
assassinated King Pekah. (See II. Kings xv. 30 and 
xvii. I to 7.) After a reign of nine years, his capital, 
Samaria, was taken by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria, 
who carried Hoshea with his subjects as captives to 
Halah, Habor, and the cities of the Medes. Since 
this event the fate of the ten tribes has been involved 
in mystery. 

HoBiuB. See Osius. 

Ho'sl-us, (STANISLAS,) an eminent cardinal, born at 
Cracow, in Poland, in 1504. After holding responsible 
civil offices, he entered the Church, and was made suc- 
cessively Bishop of Culm and of Warmia. He was a 
violent opponent of heretics and Protestants. In 1561 
he received a cardinal's hat from Pius IV., who sent him 
as legate to the Council of Trent. He wrote the "Con- 
fession of the Catholic Faith," (1551,) and other works. 
Died in 1579. 

See RESCIUS, "Vita Hosii," Rome, 1587: BAYLE, "Historical 
and Critical Dictionary ;" ERSCH und GRUBHR, "Allgemeine Ency- 

Hos'king, (WILLIAM,) an English architect and 
writer on architecture, born in Devonshire in 1800. He 
became a resident of London in his youth, and acquired 
distinction by a " Treatise on Architecture and Building," 
republished from the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," (1839.) 
About 1840 he was chosen professor of civil engineering 
and architecture at King's College, London. He wrote 
" Guide to the Regulation of Buildings as a Means of 
Securing the Health of Towns," (1848.) Died in 1861. 

Hos'kina or Hoa'kyna, JOHN,) Sr., an English 
writer and lawyer, born in Herefordshire in 1566. He 
was noted for skill in Latin and English poetry, and 
wrote epigrams, law treatises, etc. According to Wood, 
it was Hoskins who " polished Ben Jonson the poet," and 
revised Sir Walter Raleigh's History before it went to 
press. Died in 1638. 

Hosklua, (JOHN,) an English portrait-painter, patron- 
ized by Charles I. Died in 1664. 

Hos'm?r, (HARRIET,) an American sculptor, born in 
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1831, studied in Rome, 
where she fixed her residence. Among her works are 
"Medusa," "Beatrice Cenci," "Zenobia in Chains," 
(" Zenobia Captiva,") a statue of Thomas H. Benton, 
and a memorial monument to Abraham Lincoln. 

Hosmer, (WILLIAM,) an American divine of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, born in Brimfield, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1810. He was editor of the " Northern 
Christian Advocate," published at Auburn, New York, 
and of the " Northern Independent," a religious ant- 
slavery journal. He wrote, besides other works, " Chris- 
tian Beneficence," etc., (1855.) Died June 17, 1889. 

Hoamer, (WILLIAM HENRY CUYLER,) an American 
poet, born at Avon, in the Genesee valley, New York, 
in 1814, studied in Geneva College, and practised law 
in his native town. He spent much time among the 
Indians. In 1854 he took up his residence in New York. 
He wrote, besides other works, " Indian Traditions and 
Legends of the Senecas," etc., (1850.) A complete 
edition of his Poetical Works, in 2 vols., was pub 
lished in 1854. Died May 23, 1877. 

See GRISWOLD, " Poets and Poetry of America." 

Hoa-pin'i-an, [Ger. pron. hos-pe-ne-Jn'; Fr. HO3PI- 
NIEN, hos'pe'ne-aN'; Lat. HOSPINIA'NUS,] (RUDOLF,) an 
eminent Swiss Protestant theologian, born at Altorf in 
1547. He became the minister of a church near Zurich, 
and wrote a number of learned works, in Latin, among 
which are " On the Origin and Progress of Ceremonies, 
Rites, and Holydays (Festis) among Christians," (1585,) 
" History of Sacraments," (" Historia Sacramentaria," 
!598,)anda"HistoryoftheJesuits,"(i6l9.) Diedin 1626. 

See JOHN H. HEIDEGGER. " Historia Vita Rodolphi Hospiniani," 
1681 ; BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary. 

Hospinianus. See HOSPINIAN. 

Hoapinien. See HOSPINIAN. 

Hospital See L'HdPiTAL. 

Hossch. See HOSSCHIUS. 

Hosschiua, hos'ke-us, or Hoasch, hosK, (SiDOXius,) 
a Flemish Jesuit, born at Merckhem in 1596, published 
in 1635 a collection of Latin elegies, which were much 
admired. Died in 1653. 

Host or Hoeat, host, (GEORG,) a Danish traveller, 
born in Jutland in 1734, became secretary for foreign 
affairs, etc. He wrote an " Account of the Kingdoms 
of Morocco and Fez," (1779.) 

Host or Hoeat, (JENS KRAGH,) a Danish historian, 
son of the preceding, was born at Saint Thomas, in the 
Antilles, in 1772. He was the author of "Politics and 
History," (5 vols., 1816,) "Johann Friedrich Struensee 
and his Ministry," (3 vols., 1824,) and other works. 
Died near Copenhagen in 1844. 

See J. K. HOEST, " Erindringer ;" ERSLBW, "Almindeligt For- 

K' Kit, host, (NlKOLAUS THOMAS,) an Austrian, born 
in 1763, was first physician to the Emperor of Austria, 
and published " Flora Austriaca," (2 vols., 1827.) Died 
in 1834. 

Hoste, hoi, (JEAN,) a French geometer, born at 
Nancy, became professor of mathematics at Pont-i- 
Mousson. He published several treatises on geometry. 
Died in 1631. 

Hoate. Ii', lot, (PAUL,) a French Jesuit, born at Pont- 
de-Vesle in 1652, was professor of mathematics in Tou- 
lon. He wrote a treatise on the " Construction of Ships 
and Naval Tactics," (1697.) Died in 1700. 

Hoa-till-an, [Fr. HOSTILIEN, os'te'le-aN',1 or, more 
fully, Cai'ua Va'lena Mea'sius Quin'tiua Hoatilia'- 
nus, second son of the Roman emperor Decius. At the 
death of his father, 251 A.D., he was acknowledged by 
some as a partner in the- empire with Gallus ; but he 
died a few months after, in 252. 

Hoatilien. See HosriLiAN. 

Hoa-til'I-ua, (TuLLUS,) the third King of Rome, and 
the successor of Numa, reigned about 650 B.C. Among 
the principal events of his reign, which is semi-fabulous, 
was the war against Alba, terminated in favour of Rome 
by the victory of Horatius over the Curiatii. 

Hoatrup, hos'tRup, (CHRISTOFFER,) a Danish drama- 
tist, born in iSiS, produced many successful comedies, 
among which are "The Neighbours." ("Gjeiboerne,") 
and "The Intrigues." Died November 21, 1892. 

Hoatus, hos'tus, (MATTHAUS,) a German antiquary, 
born in 1509; died in 1587. 

Ho'tham, (HENRY,) an English vice-admiral, born in 
1776. In 1815 he commanded the Channel fleet, was 
charged after the battle of Waterloo to blockade the 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; 1, e, 6. same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, ?, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon; 




west coast of France, and received Napoleon as a pris 
oner on board his flag-ship, the Bellerophon. He was 
appointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty in 
1818. Died in 1833. 

Hotho, ho'to, (HEINRICH GUSTAV,) a German writer 
on art, born in Berlin in 1802. He became professor of 
philosophy at the University of Berlin in 1829, and was 
considered one of the chief representatives of the school 
of Hegel. He wrote a " History of Painting in Germany 
and the Low Countries," (2 vols., 1840-43.) Died 1873. 

Hotman, /iot'moN', (ANTOINE, ) a French jurist, 
a brother of Franjois, noticed below, was born about 
1525; died in 1596. 

Hotman or Hottomann, [Lat HOTOMAN'NUS 
and HOTTOMAN'NUS,] (FRANCOIS,) an eminent French 
jurist and Protestant, born in Paris in 1524, was a friend 
of Calvin. He was deeply versed in jurisprudence, 
literature, and antiquities. He became professor of law 
at Strasburg about 1550, and at Valence in 1561. By 
concealment he escaped the Massacre of Saint Bar- 
tholomew, (1572,) after which he retired to Geneva and 
Bale. He was appointed councillor of state by Henry 
IV. about 1580. He performed an important part in the 
scientific revolution which was produced in jurisprudence 
in the sixteenth century. His famous work on public 
French law, entitled "Treatise on the Government of 
the Kings of Gaul," ("Franco-Gallia, sive Tractatus de 
Regimine Regum Gallias," 1573,) had an immense influ 
ence. He wrote, in elegant Latin, many other works, 
among which are a " Commentary on Legal Words, 
("Commentarius de Verbis Juris," 1558,) and "Cele- 
brated Questions," (" Qusestiones illustres," 1573.) Died 
at Bale in 1590. His son JEAN (1552-1636) was a diplo 
matist and writer. 

See BAYLB, " Historical and Critical Dictionary:" HAAG, "La 
France protestante ;" NHVELET, "Vita Hottomanni," prefixed to 
Hotmail's Works, about ioo; DARESTB, "Essaisur F. Hotman," 
1850: " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Hotmann or Hottomann. See HOTMAN. 

Hotmannus or Hottomannua. See HOTMAN. 

Hottinger, hot'ting-er, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) an 
eminent Swiss Orientalist and Protestant divine, born at 
Zurich in 1620. After studying in his native city, at Ge- 
neva, and Leyden, and becoming one of the best Oriental 
scholars of his time, he was chosen in 1648 professor of 
theology and Oriental languages at Zurich. In 1655 he 
accepted the chair of Oriental languages at Heidelberg, 
where he remained until 1661, when he was elected rector 
of the University of Zurich. The University of Leyden 
persuaded him to accept their chair of theology ; but be- 
fore he arrived at that scene of labour he was accidentally 
drowned, in 1667. Among the numerous monuments of 

1651-67,) and " Etymo'logicum Orientale, 
seven languages, (1661.) 

See J. H. HEIDEGGER, " Historia Viue J. H. Hottingeri," 1667; 
BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary :" G. H. HAHN, " Un- 
tersuchung ob des gelehrten Hottinger's wirkliche Lebensgefahr," 
etc., 1742; NIC^RON, "Me'moires." 

Hottinger, (JOHANN JAKOB,) a Swiss theologian, a 
son of the preceding, was born at Zurich in 1652. From 
1698 until his death he was professor of theology in his 
native city. He wrote, besides other works, an " Eccle- 
siastical History of Switzerland," in German, (4 vols., 
1708-29.) Died in 1735. 

Hottinger, (JOHANN JAKOB,) a Swiss professor and 
philologist, born at Zurich in 1750. He taught Greek 
and Latin in his native city, and published several 
good editions and translations of classic authors. Died 
in 1819. 

Hottinger, ( JOHANN JAKOB, ) a Swiss writer, born 
in 1783 at Zurich, where he became professor of his- 
tory, and published, besides other works, a " History of 
the Schism in the Swiss Church," in German, (2 vols., 
1827.) Died May 18, 1859. 

Hotze, von, fon hot'seh, (DAVID,) an Austrian gene- 
ral, born near Zurich about 1740. He commanded the 
army which was opposed to Massena in Switzerland in 
1799. He was killed in a battle near Zurich, in Sep- 
tember, 1799. 

Houard, OO'!R',* (DAVID,) a French jurist, born at 
Dieppe in 1725 ; died in 1802. 

Houbigant, //oo'be'goN',* (CHARLES FRANCOIS,) a 
French priest, born in Paris in 1686, was a member of 
the Oratory, and an excellent biblical scholar. After 
teaching rhetoric at Marseilles and philosophy at Sois- 
sons, he became deaf about 1722, and thenceforth de- 
voted himself to study and writing. He gave especial 
attention to Hebrew, with a view to correct the text 
of the Bible. The principal fruit of his labours is an 
edition of the Hebrew Bible, with Critical Notes and 
a Latin Version, (4 vols., '753,) which is highly com- 
mended. Died in Paris in 1783. 

See J. F. ADRY, " Notice sur la Vie de C. F. Houbigant," 1806; 
'* Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'raJe. " 

Houbraken, how'bRa'ken, ( ARNOLD, ) a Dutch 
painter, engraver, and critic, born at Dort in 1660. He 
painted history and portraits with success at Amsterdam, 
and wrote (in Dutch) " The Lives of Dutch and Flemish 
Painters," with portraits, (3 vols., 1718,) a work of much 
merit. Died in 1719. 

See JAKOB CAMPO WEYERMAN, " De Schilderkonst der Neder- 

Houbraken, (JACOB,) son of the preceding, was born 
at Dort in 1698. He worked many years at Amsterdam, 
was almost unrivalled as an engraver, and executed 
several hundred portraits, among which are a collection 
of " Illustrious Persons of Great Britain," (London, 
1748.) He also engraved the "Sacrifice of Manoah," 
after Rembrandt, and the portraits in his father's " Lives 
of the Dutch and Flemish Painters." Died in 1780. 

See BASAN, " Dictionnaire des Graveurs." 

Houcbard, oo'shiR', (JEAN NICOLAS,) a French 
general, born at Forbach in 1740. He served in the 
army before the Revolution, in which he espoused the 
popular party. In 1792 he succeeded Custine in the 
command of the armies of the Moselle and of the North. 
In August, 1793, he gained a victory at Hondschoote, 
and forced the British to raise the siege of Dunkirk; 
but he was arrested by the dominant faction, and exe- 
cuted, in 1793, on the charge that he had permitted the 
enemy to escape after the battle just mentioned. 

Houdard. See MOTTE, DE LA. 

Houdart de la Motte. See MOTTE, DE LA. 

Houdetot, oo'deh-to',* (LISABETH FRANCHISE 
French lady, born about 1730, was the wife of General 
Houdetot, the sister-in-law of Madame Epinay, and a 
favourite of Rousseau, to whose passion and indiscretion 
she chiefly owes the publicity of her name. Her liaison 
with M. Saint-Lambert was well known. Died in 1813. 


Houdon, oo'ddN',* (JEAN ANTOINE,) an eminent 
French sculptor, born at Versailles in 1741. About 1760 
lie won the grand prize for sculpture at the Academy, 
and went to Rome with a pension. After remaining 
there ten years, during which he executed an admired 
statue of Saint Bruno, he returned to Paris, and was 
admitted into the Royal Academy in 1775. About 1785 
be received from Dr. Franklin a commission to execute 
:he marble statue of Washington which adorns the State- 
House at Richmond, Virginia. He came to Philadelphia 
to obtain the model of this work. His reputation was 
ncreased by his statues of Voltaire and Cicero, and his 
Dusts of Rousseau, Buffon, Franklin, D'Alembert, Napo- 
eon, Ney, etc. His heads of young girls are highly 
successful in the expression of modesty and innocence. 
Houdon was a member of the Institute. His personal 
character was amiable and estimable. Died in 1828. 

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Houdry, oo'dRe',* (VINCENT,) a French Jesuit, born 
at Tours in 1631, was employed as preacher in the chief 
cities of France. He published sermons, and a compila- 
tion entitled " Bibliotheque des Pre'dicateurs," (23 vols., 
1712 a seq.) Died in 1729. 

Houel, //oo'll',* (JEAN PIERRE Louis LAURENT,) a 

* There isperhaps no question in French pronunciation attended 
with more difficulty than that respecting the aspiration of the letter k, 
The best French authorities differ in regard to the initial k of many 
names. Some respectable authorities assert that the k should never 

as k; c as s: g A,irJ: g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as z: th as in this. ( 

Explanations, p. 2].) 




French landscape-painter and engraver, bora at Rouen , of the inventors of the Thomson-Houston system of 
in 1735. In a journey through Italy, Sicily, etc., he col- arc lighting, and was long connected with the Central 
lected materials for an interesting work, entitled "A High School of Philadelphia; was also professor o 
Picturesque Tour through Sicily, Malta, and the Lipari physics at the Franklin Institute. _ He has put 

Islands,"' (4 vols., !782-*87, with 264 engravings.) Died 
in 1813. 

Hough, huf, (FRANKLIN BENJAMIN,) M.D., an Ameri- 
can author, born at Martinsburg, New York, July 20, 
1822. He graduated in arts at Union College in 1843, 
in medicine at the Cleveland Medical College in 1848, 
was superintendent of the New York State census in 

an electrical dictionary, and works on physical geog- 
raphy, elements of physics, etc. 

Houston, (GEORGE SMITH,) an American Demo- 
cratic politician, born in Tennessee in 1811. He 
studied law, which he practised at Huntsville, Alabama, 
and was elected a member of Congress in 1841. He 
was chairman of the committee of ways and means in 

1855 and 1865, was a surgeon in the Federal army, 1862- the i ower House, 1851-55. Died December 31, 1879. 
63, and in 1 876 was appointed to carry on forestry inves- Houston, hu'stgn, (SAM*) an American general 

tigations for the United States government. He is author born neaj Leidrigton, Virginia, in 1793, was taken to 
and editor of many books and pamphlets on local, colo- Tennessee in his childhood. He studied law, which he 


meteorology and on vital statistics. He wrote aiso-r-ic- passed - _ ..____ 

ments of Forestry," (1882,) etc. Died June u, Ib5- lived west o f Arkansas. About the end of 1832 he 

Hough, huf, (JOHN,) D.D., an English scholar, born emigrated to Texas, where he took an active part in the 

in Middlesex in 1651, was elected president of Magda- ensui re volt against the Mexican government Having 

lene College, Oxford, in 1687, in opposition to the illegal faeen c |, osen commander-in-chief of the Texan army, he 

dictation of James II. The king then sent a mandate defeated and captured Santa Anna at San Jacinto, April 

to the Fellows to elect Parker, a Catholic. In this 2J jg 6 He was e ] ected president of Texas in July, 

contest Hough firmly maintained his rights and those of lg ' 6 ;J nd re . e ] ected for a term of three years in 1841. 

the college, and the king's agents broke open the door Af ^ (he annexat j on o f Texas to the Union, (1845.) he 

in order to place Parker in the president's chair. In was chosen a United States Senator, and at the end of 

1688 Hough was reinstated, and in 1690 was made his (erm ; n [g5 , was e ] ectc d for a second term. He 

Bishop of Oxford. Translated to the see of Lichfield made an ab)e speec h against the Kansas-Nebraska bill 

and Coventry in 1699, he refused the Archbishopric of jn March l& ,^ about wn j c h time he joined the Ameri- 

Canterbury in 1715, and became Bishop of Worcester can /Know-Nothing) party. He was chosen Governor 

in 1717. He was eminent for piety and learning. Died of Te xas in 1859. On the breaking out of the civil war 

in 1743. 


Houghton, ho'ton, MAJOR, an English traveller, who 


he favoured the Union, but was overborne by a large 
majority of the people. Died July 26, 1863. 

Hous'tpn, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an English surgeon 

.... and naturalist, born about 1695, studied under Boerhaave, sent by the African Company to explore the source at Ley deni j n 1728-29, and made there, with Van Swieten, 
of the Niger. He started in 1790, ascended the Gambia experiments respecting the respiration of animals. About 
many hundred miles, and afterwards proceeded by land. ,_, 2 ne made a voyage for scientific purposes to the 
It is supposed that he died near Jarra, in 1791 ; but his Wes( j nd j eSi where he died in 1733, after collecting and 
papers were never recovered. describing many rare plants. The results of his botanical 

Houlakou or Houlagou. See HOOLAKOO. labours were published by Sir Joseph Banks. 

Houlieres, des. See DESHOULIERES. _._. .n_ - TT .* r ..,;iio /,t'Ai' 

Houllier, /iool'e-4', [Lat. HOLLE'RIUS,] (JACQUES.) 

an eminent Frencrf"pnysician, born at Etampes, obtained tll , uuu . ..^ ^ , ... _,__, 

a large practice in Paris, and was chosen Dean of the Christian Religion proved by Facts 
Faculty in 1546. He wrote able commentaries on Hip- 
pocrates, (1579,) and other works. Died in 1562. 

Houmayoun or Houmaioon. See HOOMAYOON. 

Houseman, (C.) See HUYSMAN. 

House'man, (LAURENCE,) an English author and 

artist, born July 18, 1867. He has published "A 

Farm in Fairyland," (1894,) " Green Arras," (1896,) 

'The Field of Clover," (1898,) etc., and illustrated 

many works. 


Houteville or Houtteviile, /ioot'vel', (CLAUDE 
FRANCOIS,) a French priest of the Oratory, born in Pans 
in 1686. He published, in 1722, "The Truth of the 
Christian Religion proved by Facts," which attracted 
much attention and hostile criticism. In 1723 he was 
chosen a member of the French Academy. He was 
elected perpetual secretary of the Academy in 1742, and 
died in the same year. 

Houtman, howt'man, (CoRNELis,) a Dutch navigator, 

born at Gouda, was the pioneer or founder of the com 
merce between Holland and the East Indies. As agent 
of a company, he made the first voyage in 1595, and re- 

turned home in 1597. In 1598 he renewed the enterprise 
with two ships, and landed at Acheen, in Sumatra, where 
he was arrested with some of his men, and kept a prisoner 

Houssaye, >WsV, (ARSENE,) a successful French , unti , hjs deatlx Died a b ou t 1605. 

littiratmr and poet, born near Laon in 1815. He pro- Houtteviile. See HOUTEVILLE. 
duced "La Couronne des Bluets, (1836,) and many Houwaert, how'wSrt, ([EAN BAPTISTA,) a Flemish 
other novels. His "History of Flemish and Dutch wrjter and po i itic i a n, born in 1533. He wrote in a 
Painting" (1846) was received with favour. In 1844 he curjous mixture of Flemish and Burgundian, with many 
published a "Gallery of Portraits of the Eighteenth ^ . ds and idioms His works include several 

Century," (ist series 2 vols ) which was completed in classical subjects, and the remarkable didactic 

5 vols. about 1850. From 1849 to 1856 he was director 

of the Theatre Francais. He 
on art, and published a volume of poems, 
completes," (1849,) and " Le Roi Voltaire," (1858.) lie 
was chosen inspector-general of the works of art and 
Muslts m 1856, and subsequently produced " Histoire 

9 to 15 e was irector .. p ides P]eyn ca lled also "The Palace of 

also wrote able cr.tiques . Maidens b w hich discusses the varieties of love. Died 
ume of poems, " Poesies r ' 

(1879,) etc. Died February 26, 1896. 

Houston, (EDWIN JAMES,) an electrical engineer, 
born at Alexandria, Virginia, July 9, 1844. He is one 

be sounded in any case, others maintain that in certain words and 
names it should be slightly sounded, while in others it is entirely mute. 
Respecting this subject, see the remarks on French pronunciation in 
the Introduction. 

g v yjn ho / veh (ANTOON,) a Dutch historian 
d L , b about died in ^^ 

H ovede H ri f huv'den or hov'den, de, (ROGER,) an 
English historian, born at York, lived about 1170-1200, 
He was professor of theology at Oxford, and filled re- 
sponsible offices at the court of Henry II. He wiote, in 
Latin, a " History of England from 731 to 1202,' -!:- 
is commended by Leland, Selden, and others 

See Vossius, "De Historicis Latinis." 

Hovel. See HEVELIUS. 

So called by himself. 


Ccr u' 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon; 




Ho'ven-d?n, (THOMAS,) an artist, born at Dunman- 
way, county of Cork, Ireland, December 20, 1840. He 
studied art in the Cork School of Design and in the 
New York National Academy. In :88i he was elected 
an associate, and in 1882 a full member of the National 
Academy. He resided near Philadelphia. Amo..^ his 
best works are " In HocSigno Vinces," (1880,) "Elaine," 
(1882,) "A Breton Interior," and "The Last Moments of 
John Brown," (1884.) Accidentally killed Aug. 14, 1895. 

Church. Representing Carlisle in Parliament, he acted 
with the opposition during the ministries of Lord North 
and Lord Shelburne. At the death of his father, in 1786, 
ne became Duke of Norfolk. As a member of the 
House of Lords, he opposed the measures of Pitt. Died 
in 1815. 

Howard, (Hon. EDWARD,) an English writer, a so 
of Thomas, Earl of Berkshire, lived about 1650. H 

, , r , j _ ,. wrote several unsuccessful dramas, and "The British 

Hovey, huv'e, (ALVAH,) an American divine and Princes; a Heroic Poem," in which occur these lines. 
author, bom in Chenango county, New York, about 1820. often quoted in ridicule : 
He graduated at Dartmouth in 1843, and about 1850 be- j A p? i n ted vest Prince V Drtigem had on, 

came a professor in the Baptist Theological Seminary , Which from a naked Pict his grandsire won. 

at Newton, and president of the same in 1868. 

Hovey, (ALVAN P.,) an American statesman and sol- 
dier, entered the military service from Indiana in 1861, 
became a brigadier-general in 1862, and commanded a 
division at Champion's Hill, Mav 16, 1863. He was 
minister to Peru from 1865 to 1870, and governor of 
Indiana from 1888 till his death, November 23, 1891. 

Hovey, (RICHARD,) an American poet, born at 
Normal, Illinois, May 4, 1864. He became a jour- 
nalist, actor, and dramatist, and wrote " Launcelot 
and Guenevere," a dramatic poem, "Along the 
Trails," " Songs from Vagabondia," (with Bliss Car- 
man,) etc. Died February 26, 1900. 

H6w, (WILLIAM,) M.D., born in London in 1619, *?hop ot Neocaesarea and coadjutor to the Cardinal- 
became a captain in the royal army in the civil war, and Blsh P * Ffasc ^' ar ' d > ?77 " created a card nal. 
afterwards practised medicine in his native city. He P" st - He , was also protector of the College 
is said to have been the author of the first English* Flora, at R">. and In . l88 ' became arch-priest of Saint Peter s 
("Phytologia Britannica," 1650,) which contains twelve I a ' ld P re! ^ ct .. of the congregation having care of the fabric 
hundred and twenty plants. Died in 1656. I f *H** ^*? t *^&i5*L J _- 

Pope, in the " Dunciad," alludes to him in these terms : 

" And high-born Howard, more majestic sire, 
With fool of quality completes the choir." 

Howard, (EDWARD,) a popular English novelist, was 
a lieutenant in the royal navy. He published "The 
Old Commodore," (1837.) "Ratlin the Reefer," (1838,) 
" Outward-Bound," etc. Died in 1842. 

Howard, (EDWARD,) an English cardinal, born at 
Nottingham, February 13, 1829, a cadet of the family of 
the dukes of Norfolk. He became an officer of the 
Lite-Guards, but when twenty-six years old took orders 
at Rome, and became personally attached to the house- 
hold of Pius IX. In 1872 he was consecrated Arch- 

twenty plants. Died in 1656. 
HJSw'ard, the name of an ancient and noble family 

Howard, ( FRANK, ) 

an able English designer and 

, , . | , , ''"f'xT 14 f'YlJ writer on art, a son of Henry Howard the painter. He 

of England, the head of which >s_ the Duke of Norfolk b]ished .. The Spirit of ^ plays of sh kspeare) ex - 

ne ,aris 01 .;L;,,J rt.,*i;n pu*<.c " /r , frt ic iQ^i-tt \ */! , 

3,) and the 

ays ot bnal 

hibited in Outline" Plates," (5 vols., 1827-3 
"Science of Drawing," (1840.) Died in 1866. 
Howard, (FREDERICK,) fifth Earl of Carlisle, an 

a "Poetical Essay on Pope's Characters of Women," ! E n g lish P oet a " d statesman . born in '748. In 177 
anH nth^r nnoms * ni-H in ,,fin. I he was ne of the commissioners sent to persuade the 

and the premier peer of Great Britain. The 
Carlisle and Suffolk also belong to the Howard family. 

Howard, (ANNE,) daughter of Charles, Earl of Car- 
lisle, was married to Richard, Viscount Irwin. She wrote 

and other poems. Died in 1760. 

HSw'ard, (BLANCHE WILLIS,) an American author- | P e P le of the Un ' ted Sta , tes to / u ' 1 )mlt to th 5 Bntlsl J 
ess, born 'at Bangor, Maine, July 21, 1847. I" l8?S she le - He published a volume of Poems, and several 
removed to Germany, and edited a magazine in English | tragedies, one of which, calle The father s Re- 
al Stuttgart. Her principal works are the novels "One ', venge," was commended by Dr. Johnson. Died in 
Summer," (1875,) " One Year Abroad," " Aunt Serena," ' 1825. 

and "Guenn," (188^,) all of which were remarkably Howard, (GEOPGE EDMUND,) a British poet and 
successful. She married Baron von Teuffel in 1890. architect, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He 
Died October 7, 1898. .published in 1782 several volumes of miscellaneous 

Howard, (BRONSON,) an American dramatist, works, the most important of which treat on the ex- 
born at Detroit, Michigan, October 7, 1842. He wrote ' chequer, revenue, and trade of Ireland. Died in 1786. 
a considerable number of plays, the best known being Howard, (GEORGE WILLIAM FREDERICK,) Earl of 
"Saratoga," "Young Mrs. Winthrop," " Shenan- Carlisle and Viscount Morpeth, a statesman and author 
rlnoh " "Th* BanVpr^ r>n,,,rht e r " , born in :8o2, was a grandson of Fredenck, fifth Earl 

d0 Howarl he (CHtlVs,rLSrd er Emng C ham, or Lord | of Carlisle. He was styled Lord I Morpetl .before the 
Howard of Effingham, an English admiral, born in 1536, deat !> f . hls father ' wh ! c occurred about 1848 Unde 
was the son of William, Lord Effingham, and grandson the Whig ministry wmcH was dissolved in 1841 he was 
of Thomas Howard, second Duke of Norfolk. After ! ?tary for Ireland. In 1854 he published a Diary 
important civil and military services, he was appointed '" Turkl ^ h and , Gr f , k ^ aters ' /;' hl = h ' s a w 
in 1585 lord high admiral by Queen Elizabeth, and sue- merit. He was lord-lieutenant of Ireland about three 
cessfully opposed the Invincible Armada in 1588. In years, (1855-58.) and was reappomted to that office 
1596 he was associated with the Earl of Essex in the i by Palmerston in June,. 1859. He had the reput 
victorious expedition against Cadiz, and was rewarded of a liberal statesman and benevolent man. 
with the title of Earl of Nottingham. About three years 1864. 

later, when another Spanish invasion was expected, the Howard, (HENRY,) Earl of Surrey, a celebrated 
sole command of the army and navy for a short time was English poet, born about 1516, was the son of Thomas, 
committed to him, with the title of lieutenant-general of , third Duke of Norfolk, and of Elizabeth Stafford. He 
England. He retained his honours and offices under excelled in the accomplishments of a scholar, courtier, 

James I. Died in 1624. 

and soldier, and cultivated as well as patronized the 

See CAMPBELL," Lives of British Admirals ;" J. BARROW, " Me- | fine arts. About 1535 he married Lady Frances Vere. 
moirs of the Naval Worthies of Queen Elizabeth's Reign," 1845. In 1544 he accompanied Henry VIII. in his invasion of 

Howard, (CHARLES,) tenth Duke of Norfolk, (pre- i France, was made a field-marshal, and was appointed 
vious'.y Hon. CHARLES HOWARD, of Greystock Castle, governor of Boulogne after it was captured hv the 
Cumberland,) succeeded to the dukedom in 1777. "- ''--- -- .-<*"-- t- 


published "Thoughts, Essays, and Maxims, chiefly Re- 
ligious and Political," (1768,) and " Historical Anecdotes 
of some of the Howard Family." Died in 1786. 

Howard, (CHARLES,) eleventh Duke of Norfolk, an 
English nobleman, born in 1 746, was the son of the tenth 
Duke. In 1780, being then styled the Earl of Surrey, 
he exchanged the Catholic faith for that of the Anglican 

English. Soon after this he became the object of the 
king's suspicion. He was recalled in 1546, arrested 
with his father, condemned, and executed in 1547. He 
left two sons and three daughters. (With respect to 
Surrey's guilt or innocence, see Froude's " History of 
England," vol. iv. chap, xxiii.) 

Surrey is the first who used blank verse in our lan- 
guage, and is considered the first English classical 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as>; G, H, Yi,giMural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( Jp=See Explanations, p. 23. ) 




poet. He did much to improve the style of versification. 
One of his principal productions is a translation into 
blank verse of the second book of the " ^neid," which 
is admired for its fidelity and poetic diction. He also 
wrote numerous sonnets and songs. There is some 
doubt of the reality of his romantic passion for Geral- 
dine, who is the subject of his most admired effusions. 
She was a child of thirteen, named Lady Elizabeth Fitz- 
gerald, who afterwards became the wife of the Earl of 

See HALLAM, "Introduction to the Literature of Europe;" 
WARTON, " History of English Poetry ;" JOHNSON and CHALMERS, 
'Lives of the English Poets;" " Edinburgh Review," vol. xlii. 

Howard, (HENRY,) Earl of Northampton, second 
son of the preceding, was born at Norfolk about 1539. 
He was a person of much learning, but of bad principles. 
He became a privy councillor at the accession of James 
I., who made him Earl of Northampton. In 1608 he 
was appointed lord privy seal. He was suspected of 
complicity in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, and 
in the disgraceful conduct of his relative, the Countess 
of Essex. Died in 1614. 

See GARDINER'S " History of England from 1603 to 1616," voL 
i. chap. ii. pp. 63 and 64 ; also, chaps, x. and xii. 

Howard, (HENRY,) born in 1757, was the son of 
Philip Howard of Corby Castle, England, and a de- 
scendant of the noble Earl of Surrey. He published 
" Indication of Memorials, etc. of the Howard Family," 
(1834,) and other works. Died in 1842. 

Howard, (HENRY,) an English painter, born in 1769, 
entered the Royal Academy as a student in 1788. In 
1790 he won two of the highest premiums, a gold 
medal for the best historical painting, and a silver medal 
for the best drawing from life. After a visit to Rome 
he was chosen a member of the Royal Academy in 1808, 
and secretary of that body in 1811. His favourite sub- 
jects are classical and poetical, and are treated with 
elegant taste. Among his best works are " The Birth 
of Venus," "The Solar System," " The Circling Hours," 
uid "The Story of Pandora." Died in 1847. 

Howard, (Sir JOHN,) was a son of Sir Robert Howard 
and Margaret, a daughter of Thomas Mowbray, Duke 
of Norfolk. He was a partisan of the house of York 
during the wars of the Roses. He was created Duke 
of Norfolk in 1483, and was killed with Richard III. at 
Bosworth in 1485. 

Howard, (JOHN,) F.R.S., a celebrated English phikn- 
thropist, born at Hackney, near London, in 1726. He 
was the son of a London tradesman, who died in his 
minority and left him an independent fortune. Having 
made a tour on the continent, he returned home and 
took lodgings with a widow named Loidore, by whom he 
was kindly nursed when his health required such atten- 
tion, and whom he married out of mere gratitude in 1752, 
although she was more than twenty years his senior. 
After their marriage she Hved only three or four years. 
In 1756 he embarked for Lisbon, in the desire to relieve 
the miseries caused by the great earthquake of 1755, but 
during the passage was taken by a French privateer, and 
detained in prison long enough to excite his lasting sym- 
pathy with prisoners and to impress him with the neces- 
sity of a reform in their treatment. After he was re- 
leased he returned home, and married in 1758 Henrietta 
Leeds, with whom he lived happily at Cardington until 
her death in 1765. He had by this marriage one son, 
whose vicious habits produced first disease and then 
incurable insanity. Having been appointed sheriff of 
the county of Bedford in 1773, he witnessed with pain 
the abuses and cruelties to which prisoners were usually 
subjected. After visiting most of the county jails of Eng- 
land, and collecting much information respecting them, 
he induced the House of Commons in 1774 to begin a 
reform in prison discipline, to which his life thenceforth 
was constantly, heroically, and successfully devoted. In 
1777 he published a valuable volume on "The State of 
the Prisons in England," etc. From 1778 until his death 
he was almost continually employed in traversing all 
parts of Europe, visiting prisons and hospitals, relieving 
the sick, and, as Burke expresses it, "taking the gauge 
and dimensions of misery, depression, and contempt." 
He died of fever in 1790, at Cherson, on the Black Sea. 

His habits were simple, temperate, and self denying. 
Having been educated among Protestant dissenters, he 
continued in their fellowship through life. 

See " Life of Howard," by W. HEPWORTH DIXON, 1849; another 
Life, by JOHN FIELD, 1850; AIKIN, " Life of John Howard," 1791: 
J. B. BROWN, " Memoirs of the Life of John Howard," 1818; " En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica ;" " Blackwood's Magazine" for January, 1850. 

HSw'ard, (JOHN EAGER,) an officer, born in Balti- 
more county, Maryland, in 1752. He commanded a regi- 
ment which distinguished itself by its brilliant bayonet- 
charge at Cowpens, January, 1781, and its gallantry at 
Guilford Court-House, Marcn, 1781, and Eutaw Springs, 
in September of that year. He was chosen Governor of 
Maryland in 1788, and was a United States Senator from 
1796 to 1803. Died in 1827. 

See "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans. 

Howard, (LuKE,) an English meteorologist, born 
about 1770, published an " Essay on Clouds," (1802,) and 
other works on meteorology. Died in 1864. 

Howard, (OLIVER OTIS,) an American general, bom 
at Leeds, Kennebec county, Maine, in November, 1830. 
He was educated at Bowdoin College and at the Military 
Academy of West Point, where he graduated in 1854. He 
became first lieutenant of ordnance in 1857, and colonel 
of the Third Maine Volunteers in May, 1801. He com- 
manded a brigade at Bull Run, July 21, and obtained the 
rank of brigadier-general in September, 1861. At the 
battle of Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862, he lost his right arm. 
He commanded a division at the battle of Antictam, 
September 17, and at Fredericksburg, December, 1862. 
In November, 1862, he was appointed a major-general 
of volunteers, and in April, 1863, obtained command of 
the eleventh army corps, which he led at Chancellors- 
ville, and at Gettysburg, July 2 and 3, 1863. He served 
with distinction at the battle of Missionary Ridge and 
Chattanooga, November 25, 1863. In his report of this 
campaign General Sherman commends him as "exhibit- 
ing the highest and most chivalrous traits of the soldier." 
General Howard commanded the fourth corps of the 
army which, under General Sherman, fought its way 
from Chattanooga to Atlanta, May-September, 1864. 
He was appointed, July 27, commander of the army of 
the Tennessee in place of McPherson, who was killed 
near Atlanta. In the memorable march of Sherman's 
army from Atlanta to the sea, Howard led the right 
wing. From 1865 to 1872 he was chief of the Freed- 
men's Bureau. He commanded the Department of the 
Columbia, 1874-80, was superintendent of the West 
Point Academy, 1881-82, had command of the Depart- 
ment of the Platte, 1882-83, and later of the Depart- 
ment of the East until his retirement, Nov. 8, 1894. 

Howard, (PHILIP,) of Corby Casile, England, was a 
descendant of the eminent poet the Earl of Surrey, and 
father of Henry, noticed above, (1757-1842.) He wrote 
the " Scriptural History of the Earth and of Mankind," 
(1797.) Died in 1810. 

Howard, (Sir ROBERT,) M.P., an English poet, born 
In 1626, was a brother of the Hon. Edward Howard, 
noticed above. He was a royalist in the civil war, and, 
after the restoration, was appointed auditor of the ex- 
chequer. His most successful dramas were "The Com- 
mittee" and " The Indian Queen." He was the original 
hero of "The Rehearsal," in which he is called Bilboa. 
"The poetry of the Berkshire Howards," says Macaulay, 
"was the jest of three generations of satirists." The 
poet Dryden married Howard's sister. Died in 1698. 

See MACAULAY, " History of England," vol. ill chap. xiv. ; Cl- 
BER. " Lives of the Poets." 

Howard, (SAMUEL,) an English musical composer, 
who flourished about 1750, produced several popular 
ballads. Died in 1783. 

Howard, (THOMAS,) second Duke of Norfolk, and 
Earl of Surrey, was a son of John, first Duke. He fought 
for Richard III. at Bosworth, where his father was killed, 
in 1485. He commanded the English army which gained 
a great victory over the Scotch at Flodden in 1513, and 
received the title of Duke of Norfolk for this service, 
before which he was styled Earl of Surrey. He died in 
1524, aged about seventy, and was succeeded by his son 

Howard, (THOMAS,) third Duke of Norfolk, a son of 

a. e, i, o, u, y, twig; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, n, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscitrt; fir, fall, fat; m^t; not; good; mnnn 




the preceding, and an eminent English statesman and gen- 
eral", was born about 1473. I" '5 '3 ne was cnosen high 
admiral of England, and, in co-operation with his father, 
defeated the Scotch at the battle of Flodden. For this 
service he was made Earl of Surrey, while his father 
was made Duke of Norfolk. In 1523 he became lord 
high treasurer, and in 1524, at the death of his father, 
inherited his title. His devotion to the Church of Rome 
made him hostile to Anne Boleyn, though she was his 
own niece. After Henry VIII. had married Catherine 
Howard, the duke, who was her uncle, had much influ- 
ence in the royal councils, and used it for the persecu- 
tion of the Protestants. In 1547 he was arrested on a 
charge of treason, and ordered for execution ; but before 
the fatal day came the king died. Norfolk was released 
from prison in 1553, and died the next year. His son, 
the Earl of Surrey, was executed in 1547. 

See FROUDE, " History of the Reign of Henry VIII.," particu- 
larly vols. iii. and iv. : HUME'S and LINGARD'S Histories of England. 

Howard, (THOMAS,) fourth Duke of Norfolk, was a 
grandson of the preceding. He was the only peer who 
at that time possessed the highest title of nobility ; and, 
as there were no princes of the blood, his rank, together 
with his great wealth and abilities, rendered him the first 
subject in England. He is represented as generous, 
prudent, and moderate, and sincerely attached to the 
Protestant religion. In 1559 Elizabeth appointed him 
her lieutenant in the northern counties. By aspiring to 
become the husband of Mary Queen of Scots, he gave 
offence to Elizabeth, and was committed to the Tower 
in 1569. Having been released, he renewed his suit, 
received a promise of marriage from the captive queen, 
ar.d joined a conspiracy for her liberation. For this he 
was condemned and executed in 1572. 

See HUME, " History of England;" FROUDB, " History of Eng- 
land," vols. ix. and x. 

Howard, (THOMAS,) Earl of Arundel, a branch of 
the ancient and noble family of Howard, was employed 
in foreign embassies by Charles I. In 1639 he was 
appointed commander of an army raised to subdue 
the Scotch ; but peace was made before any important 
action occurred. He formed an extensive collection of 
Grecian antiquities and productions of ancient artists, 
parts of which were presented by one of his heirs to the 
University of Oxford, under the name of the Arundelian 
marbles. His grandson Henry became sixth Duke of 
Norfolk. The earl wrote several relations of his em- 
bassies and voyages. Died in 1646. 

British general, born in 1762, was the son of John Cra- 
dock, Archbishop of Dublin. He entered the array in 
1777. In 1801 he was one of Abercrombie's staff, and 
was engaged in several battles in Egypt. He afterwards 
commanded the British army in India, and in Portugal 
in 1808. In 1831 he was raised to the peerage, as Baron 
Howden. Died in 1839. 

lish diplomatist, a son of the preceding, was born in 1 799. 
He served in the army, and gained the rank of maior-gei;- 
eral. lie was ambassador to Madrid in 1850. Died 1873. 

H5we, (ALBION P.,) an American general, born in 
Maine in 1820, and graduated at West Point in 1841. 
He served with honour in the Mexican and civil wars, 
commanding a division at Fredericksburg, (1862,) and 
Gettysburg, (1863.) He was retired in 1882. Died 
January 25, 1897. 

H8we, (CHARLES,) born in Gloucestershire, England, 
in 1661, was employed as a diplomatist by James II. 
He wrote " Devout Meditations," of which the poet 
\Toung says, " A greater demonstration of a sound head 
and a sincere heart i never saw." Died in 1745. 

Howe, (EDGAR W.,) an American author, born near 
Hutnington, Iowa, May 3, 1854. He was bred a printer, 
and became a successful journalist of Atchison, Kansas. 
His principal works are novels, " A Story of a Country 
Town," (which had great success,) "The Mystery of 
the Locks," "Confession of John Whitlock," etc. 

Howe, (ELIAS,) an eminent American inventor, bom 
at Spencer, Massachusetts, about 1819. While employed 
as a machinist he made many experiments for the inven- 
tion of a sewing-machine, and about 1844 entered into a 

partnership with Mr. George Fisher, of Cambridge, who 
agreed to give him pecuniary assistance on condition of 
becoming proprietor of half the patent. In April, 1845, 
he finished a machine, which in essential points is es- 
teemed by competent judges equal to any that have suc- 
ceeded it He obtained a patent in 1846. His invention 
not meeting in the United States with the success which 
he had anticipated, he resolved to visit England. He 
resided several years in London in great destitution, and 
returned in 1849, without having succeeded in making 
known the merits of his invention. Meanwhile the sew- 
ing-machine had been brought into general notice and 
favour, various improvements having been added by Mr. 
Singer, with whom, as an infringer of his patent, Mr. 
Howe had a law-suit, which was decided in his favour 
in 1854. Soon after the breaking out of the rebellion in 
1861, Mr. Howe raised and equipped at his own expense 
a regiment, in which he served as a private until ill health 
obliged him to resign. Died October 3, 1867. 

See the "History of the Sewing-Machins," in the "Atlantic 
Monthly" for May, 1867, by JAMES PARTON. 

Howe, (JOHN,) an eminent English dissenting min- 
ister and author, born at Loughborough, May 17, 1630, 
was educated at Cambridge. Soon after he was ordained 
he was appointed domestic chaplain to Cromwell, then 
Protector, at whose death he was retained in the same 
office by Richard Cromwell. After the latter was de- 
posed, Howe preached at Great Torrington, until he 
was ejected for nonconformity, in 1662. In 1675 he be- 
came minister of a Puritan congregation in London, 
where he continued to labour (except during a few 
years of absence) until his death. He was eminent for 
piety, for wisdom, for profound learning, and for classical 
scholarship. As an author he is highly applauded for 
his originality, sublimity, and evangelical spirit. Among 
his principal works are "The Living Temple," (1674- 
1702,) "The Blessedness of the Righteous," "The Re- 
deemer's Tears," (1684,) and "The Vanity of this Mortal 
Life." Robert Hall said, " I have learned more from 
John Howe than from any other author I ever read." 
"Nothing in the language," says William Jay, "can 
equal, as a whole, Howe's 'Living Temple.'" He is 
accounted the most philosophical thinker among the 
Puritan divines. Died in 1705. His complete works 
were published in 8 vols., 1810-22. 

See EDMUND CALAMY, "Life of John Howe," 1724; H. ROGERS, 

chap*, vii. and viii. ; R. SOUTHEY, arti*Ue on Howe, in "Quarterly 
Review" for October, 1813, (vol. x. ;) " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

Howe, (JOHN,) M.P., a noted English politician and 
versifier, was returned to the Convention Parliament foi 
Cirencester in 1689, and was several times re-electeil. 
He was conspicuous in the House for his volubility, 
asperity, and audacity of speech. Ilrnng turned Tory, 
he became in the reign of Anne a member of the privj 
council, and paymaster of the army. He wrote a " Pane- 
gyric on William III., "and several short poems. Died 
in 1721. 

See MACAULAY, " History of England," vol. iii. chaps, xi. and xiv. 

Howe, (JosiAH,) an English poet and clergyman, 
became a Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, in 1637, 
and preached before Charles I. at Oxford in 1644. He 
wrote some epigrammatic verses prefixed to the works 
of Beaumont and Fletcher. Died in 1701. 

Howe, ( JULIA WARD,) an American poetess, daughter 
of Samuel Ward, a banker in New York, was born in 
1819. She was educated with great care, and in 1843 
was married to Dr. Samuel G. Howe, of Boston, with 
whom she has twice visited Europe, making on each occa- 
sion an extensive tour. Some of her poems possess 
merit of a very high order. Among the principal are 
"Passion-Flowers," published in 1854, and "Words for 
the Hour." She is the author of the deservedly popular 
song entitled "Battle Hymn of the Republic." She 
wrote also a number of prose works. 

an American bishop, born at Bristol, Rhode Island, 
April 5, 1809. He graduated at Brown University in 
1828, took ppest's c rders in the Episcopal Church in 

as/6,- cas.r: ^.hard; gas;'; G,H,K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz.- thasinMw. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




1833, and in 1874 was consecrated Bishop of Central 
Pennsylvania, the first of that title. Among his works 
are a volume of "Essays and Poems," a "Memoir of 
Bishop Alonzo Potter," (1870,) etc. Died July 31, 1895. 

Howe, (RICHARD,) EARL, a distinguished English 
admiral, bi 'n in 1725, was the second son of Lord 
Emanuel Scrope Howe. He entered the navy about the 
age of fourteen, and obtaii.ed the rank of captain about 
1747. He distinguished himself in the Seven Years' war 
against the French. At the death of his elder brother, 
in 1758, he inherited the title of viscount. In 1763 and 
1 764 hj occupied a seat at the board of admiralty, and 
i.i 1770 he became a rear-admiral of the blue, and com- 
manded the Mediterranean fleet. From 1776 to 1778 he 
commanded on the coast of the United States, where he 
maintained his credit by skilful operations against the 
French fleet under D'Estaing. He v/as promoted to the 
rank of admiral of the blue in 1782, and in the next 
year acted as first lord of the admiralty. In 1788 he was 
created Earl Howe. On June i, 1794, he gained a de- 
cisive victory over the French fleet, of which he captured 
seven ships of the line. Died in 1799. He was regarded 
as the first sea-officer of his time. 

See CAMPBELL, "Lives of British Admirals;" GEORGE MASOK, 
" Life of Richard, Earl Howe ;" JOHN BARROW, " Life of Lord 
Richard Howe," 1838. 

Howe, (Dr. SAMUEL GRIDLEY,) an eminent American 
philanthropist, born in Boston in iSoi. He graduated 
at Brown University in 1821, and entered upon the 
study of medicine in his native city. In 1824 he went to 
Greece, and fought valiantly in ihe war of independence. 
When famine threatened that country in 1827, he came 
to the United States and procured large contributions 
of provisions, clothing, and money, which he distributed 
among the Greek patriots. On his return to his native 
city, in 1831, he entered with ardour into a plan for 
establishing in that city a school for the blind ; and he 
visited Europe, to procure information, teachers, etc. 
The next year (1832) he opened the institution, (Perkins 
Institution for the Blind,) of which he became the prin- 
cipal. His success in the case of Laura Bridgeman, a 
deaf blind mute, whom he taught to read from raised 
letters and instructed in religion, morality, etc., attracted 
great attention. (See BRIDGEMAN, LAURA.) Dr. Howe 
also devoted much attention to the education of idiots, 
for whom a school has been established in South Boston. 
Besides his other labours, he distinguished himself by 
the active part he took in the anti-slavery cause. He is 
the author of a " Historical Sketch of the Greek Revo- 
lution," (1828,) a "Reader for the Blind," and various 
essays and reports on the education of the blind and the 
idiotic, etc. Died January 9, 1876. 

Howe, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English general, was a 
younger brother of Admiral Richard Howe, noticed 
above. In 1774 he was returned to Parliament for Not- 
tingham, professing to disapprove the policy of the min- 
isters in relation to the Americans. In 1775 he was 
appointed commander-in-chief of the army sent to sub- 
due the colonies, though deficient in nearly all the quali- 
ties which constitute a great general. His constituents 
censured him for accepting the command. His firs 
exploit after this promotion was the battle of Bunkei 
Hill, (1775,) in which he lost one-third of his men 
present in the action. In August, 1776, he gained the 
battle of Long Island and took New York City. He 
obtained an advantage over the Americans at Brandy- 
wine in September, 1777, in consequence of which 
Philadelphia was occupied by his army. At his own 
request, he was recalled in 1778, and was succeeded 
by Sir Henry Clinton. Died in 1814. 

See BANCROFT, " History of the United States," vol. ix. chaps. 
., vi., JL, xiv., xriii.. xxv, 

Howe, (\VILLIAM BELL WHITE,) D.D., an American 
bishop, born at Claremont, New Hampshire, March 31, 
1823. He graduated at the University of Vermont in 
1844, took orders in the Episcopal Church, held rector- 
ships in and near Charleston, S.C., and in 1871 was con- 
secrated Bishop of South Carolina. Died Nov. 25, 1894. 

HSw'el THE GOOD, or Hy'wel Dda, a Cambrian 
prince of the tenth century, noted as a legislator, suc- 
ceeded his father Cadell as King of Wales. After visit. 

ing Rome about 926, he framed a code of laws, which 
continued in force a long time. Died in 948. 

HSw'el or HSw'ell, (LAURENCE,) a learned English 
nonjuring divine, graduated at Cambridge in 1688. He 
wrote a "Synopsis of the Canons of the Latin Church," 
and other works on theology. For his pamphlet on the 
" Schism in the Church of England" he was convicted 
of sedition in 1716, and confined in Newgate until hii 
death, in 1720. 

H8w'ell, (JAMES,) a British author, born in Carmar- 
thenshire about 1595. Soon after leaving college he wenl 
to London, and, as agent of a glass-manufactory, made a 
tour on the continent, where he learned several languages. 
He was returned to Parliament in 1627, and exercised 
his versatile talents in several civil offices until 1643, when 
he was imprisoned, for reasons not positively known. 
He was released about 1649, and at the restoration be- 
came historiographer-royal, being the first who had that 
honour. He wrote " Dodona's Grove, or the Vocal 
Forest," a poem, (1640,) and various prose works. His 
" Familiar Letters" (1645) are very entertaining, and 
passed through ten editions before 1750. Died in 1666. 

See " Biographia Britannia." 

Howell, (JOHN ADAMS,) an American admiral, 
born at New York, March 16, 1840. He graduated 
at the naval academy in 1858, and served in the civil 
war and the war with Spain, being promoted rear- 
admiral in 1898. Commanded the patrol squadron in 
the latter war. 

American Baptist clergyman, born in Wayne county, 
North Carolina, March 10, 1801, graduated at Colum- 
bian College in 1826, was ordained in 1827, and held 
pastorships in Norfolk, Richmond, and Nashville, where 
he died, April 5, 1868. His principal works were " Terms 
of Christian Communion," (1854,) "The Deaconship," 
"The Way of Salvation," "Evils of Infant Baptism," 
"The Cross," (1854,) "The Covenants," (1856,) and 
"The Early Baptists of Virginia," (1857.) 

Howell, (WILLIAM,) an English writer, of whose life 
little is known. He was at one time chancellor of the 
diocese of Lincoln. He wrote a " History of the World 
from the Earliest Times to the Ruin of the Roman Em- 
pire," a work of some merit. Died in 1683. 

HSw'ells, (WILLIAM DEAN,) a distinguished Ameri- 
can author, born at Martinsville, Ohio, March i, 1837. He 
learned the printer's trade, and became a journalist at 
Columbus, Ohio. He was United States consul at Venice, 
1861-65, and edited the "Atlantic Monthly," 1866-81. 
His works include " Poems by Two Friends," (by himself 
and John J. Piatt,) "Venetian Life," (1866,) "No 
Love Lost," (poem, 1863,) "Their Wedding Jour- 
ney," (1872,) "The Lady of the Aroostook," (1878,) 
"The Rise of Silas Lapham," (1885,) "A Hazard 
of New Fortunes," (1889,) "The Landlord of Lion's 
Head," (1897,) etc. He has produced several plays 
and a number of amusing dialogue stories. Mr. How- 
ells's style is one of great refinement, and many of his 
characters are drawn with remarkable clearness and 

Howick, LORD. See GREY, EARL OF. 

H6w1-S9L\, (ROBERT REID,) an American author 
born at Fredericksburg, Virginia, June 22, 1820. In 
1841 he was admitted to the bar, and in 1844 was ordained 
to the Presbyterian ministry. His principal published 
works are "History of Virginia," (2 vols., 1846-48,) 
Lives of Generals Morgan, Marion, and Gates, and 
"God and Creation," (1883.) 

HBw'ltt, (ANNA MARY,) an artist and writer, a 
daughter of William and Mary Howitt, was born about 
1830. She produced a work of merit called "7 he Art- 
Student in Munich," (2 vols., 1853,) and also wrote "The 
School of Life," (Boston, 1855,) which was highly com- 
mended. She was in 1859 married to a son of the poet 
Alaric Watts. Died in 1884. 

Howitt, (MARY,) a popular English authoress and 
moralist, daughter of Samuel Botham, of Uttoxeter, was 
born March 12, 1799. She was educated as a member 
of the Society of Friends, and was married to William 

. e, T. 5. ii,y, /; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; m8t; nit; good; mou 




Hewitt in 1821. They published jointly "The Forest 
Minstrel, and other Poems," (1823,) "The Desolation of 
Eyan, and other Poems," (1827,) "The Book of the 
Seasons," (1831,) and "The Literature and Romance of 
Northern Europe," (1852,) the most complete work on 
that subject in English. Mary Howitt is sole author 
of numerous instructive books, among which are " Hope 
on, Hope ever," (3d edition, 1844,) "Hymns and Fire- 
side Verses," (1839,) "Sowing and Heaping," (1840,) 
and "Sketches of Natural History," (8th edition, 1853.) 
She translated many works of Frederika Bremer, and 
several stories of Hans Christian Andersen. " Her lan- 
guage," says Professor Wilson, "is chaste and simple, 
her feelings tender and pure, and her observation of 
nature accurate and intense." ("Blackwood's Maga- 
zine," vol. xxiv.) Died at Rome, January 30, 1888. 

Howitt, (RICHARD,) a poet and physician, a brother 
of William Howitt. He published in 1830 "Antediluvian 
Sketches, and other Poems," which was noticed favour- 
ably by the reviewers. " Richard too," says Professor 
Wilson, "has a true poetical feeling and no small poeti- 
cal power." He settled in Melbourne, Australia, and 
wrote " Impressions of Australia Felix," (1845.) 

Howitt, (WILLIAM,) an eminent English author, born 
at Heanor, in Derbyshire, in 1792. was educated as a 
member of the Society of Friends. His first published 
work was "The Forest Minstrel, and other Poems," 
(1823,) partly written by his wife. Their other joint 
productions have been noticed in the article on MARY 
HOWITT. He wrote a " History of Priestcraft," (1834,) 
which was very successful, and often reprinted, " Rural 
Life of England," (1837,) and "Colonization and Chris- 
tianity," (1839.) In 1840 William and Mary Howitt 
removed to Heidelberg, where they passed several years. 
His "Rural and Domestic Life in Germany" (1842) 
was received with favour both by the English and Ger- 
mans. He published " Homes and Haunts of the Most 
Eminent British Poets Illustrated," (2 vols., 1847,) be- 
sides various other original works, anc! translations from 

Hoyt, (CHARLES HALE,) an American playwright, 
was born at Concord, New Hampshire, July 26, 1860. 
He became a dramatic editor, theatrical manager, and 
playwright, his plays, mainly of the variety character, 
including "A Tin Soldier," "A Midnight Bell," 
"A Milk-White Flag," "A Trip to Chinatown," 
and various others. Died November 20, 1900. 

Hoy t, (EPAPHRAS, ) an historical and military writer, 
born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 1765. He pub- 
lished "Cavalry Discipline," (1797,) and "Anti- 
quarian Researches," (1824.) He was a major-gen- 
eral of militia. Died in 1850. 

Hoyt, (JOHN WESLEY,) educator, was born in 
Franklin county, Ohio, in 1831. He was manager of 
the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society 1860-72, 
Wisconsin commissioner to the London Exhibition of 
1862, and United States commissioner to the Paris 
Exposition of 1867 and the Vienna Exposition of 
1873. He was Governor of Wyoming 1878-82, and 
became president of Wyoming University in 1887. 

Hoz, de la, da la 6th, (j r AN.) a Spanish dramatic 
poet, born at Madrid about 1620, wrote an admired 
comedy, " El Castigo de la Miseria." Died after 1689 

Hozier, d'. See D'HoziER. 

Hrabanus Maurus. See RABANUS. 

Hi nnt.ixi. See NrJRVL 

Hrotsvitha, hRots'vee'ta, also written Hrosuitba, 
Hroswitha, and Roswitha, a celebrated German 
poetess of the tenth century, born in Lower Saxony, was 
educated in the convent of Gandershcim. She wrote Latin 
poems, which are valuable monuments of the literature 
of that time, and six dramas, (in Latin,) that rank among 
the best productions of the kind in the middle ages. 
Among her poems was one in hexameters, containing 
the history of Otto I., only half of which is extant, 

Hrungnir, hrung'nir, in the Norse mythology, a giant, 
who, on his horse Gullfaxi, ("Goldmane,") visited As- 

the German, and edited " Howitt's Journal" (weekly) gard, and, having become intoxicated, defied the gods, 
for about three years, (1847-49.) He described his and threatened to carry Valhalla to Jotunheim, (the 

He was slain by Thor, who 
Jarnsaxa. Some explain 

_ ^ ^ ing Hrungnir (whose name 

to Remarkable Places, Old Halls, Battle-Fields," etc., j they derive"from hruga, to " heap up") to be a lofty 
(2 vols., 1839-41,) and a "History' of England," (6 mountain piled up to the sky, thus appearing to menace 

vols., 1861,) " History of the Supernatural," eTc., (1863',) heaven itself. I 

"Letters on Transportation," (1863,) "Discovery in lightning, is compared by the Norse poets to the liead 

Its summit being smitten and rent by the 

Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand," (1865,) and 
" The Mad War Planet," (1871.) Died March 3, 1879. 
H6w'land, (ALFRED C.,) an American artist, born at 
Walpole, New Hampshire, February 12, 1838. He 
studied at Dusseldorf and Paris, and in 1882 was chosen 

of a giant whose skull Thor (" thunder") broke with his 
terrible hammer. 

Hrym, hreem, sometimes written Rymer, in the 
Northern mythology, the leader of the Frost-giants (Hrim- 
thursar) in the great battle against the gods at Ragna- 

a National Academician. Among his principal paintings rock. The name is clearly another form of Hrim, "frost," 
are " Driving a Bargain," " Monday Morning," "They're and cognate with the Latin rima (" hoarfrost") and the 
Coming," "A Pot-Boiler," etc. Sanscrit Hmd, (Gr. JHUO,) "frost," or "winter." 

How'orth, (Sir HENRY HOYLE,) an English 
scientific writer, was born at Lisbon in 1842. He 
devoted himself to literature and politics, his works 
including a voluminous " History of the Mongols," 
a " History of Chinghiz Khan and his Ancestors," 
" The Mammoth and the Flood," " The Glacial Night- 
mare and the Flood," and numerous memoirs on 
similar subjects. 

Howson, (JOHN SAUL,) an English divine, born in 
1816. He published, with W. J. Conybeare, "The Life 
and Epistles of Saint Paul," (2 vols., 1850-52,) and is 
author of other works, chiefly religious. In 1867 he was 
appointed Dean of Chester. Died December 15, 1885. 

Hoyer, hb'yer, (ANDREAS,) a Danish historian and 
jurist, born at Karlum, published a " Life of Frederick 
IV.," (1732,) and other works. Died in 1739. 

Hoyer, ho'yer, (JoHANN GOTTFRIED,) a German 
military officer and writer, born at Dresden in 1767, 
published a "Dictionary of Artillery." Died in 1848. 

Hoy'er, [Fr. pron. hwa'yl',] (MICHEL,) a Flemish 
priest and Latin poet, born in 1593 ; died in 1650. 

Hoyle, hoil, (EDMUND,) an Englishman, born in 1672. 
wrote popular treatises on Whist and other games. 
Died in 1769. 

Huabalde. See HUBALD. 

Huarte, oo-aR'ta, (JUAN DE Dios,) a Spanish phy 
sician and philosopher, born in Navarre about 1535. 
He published about 1580 a remarkable book, entitled 
" Examen de Ingenios para las Scienzias," which was 
often reprinted and translated. The English version 
was called "Trial of Wits." It contains some new truths, 
with many bold paradoxes. Died about 1600. 

Huascar, hwas'kar, an Inca of Peru, a son of Huayna 
Capac, whom he succeeded in 1525, was defeated in battle 
and dethroned by his brother Atahualpa in 1532. (See 

Huayna Capac, hwi'na ki-pak', Inca of Peru, as- 
cended the throne in 1493. He extended his dominions 
by conquest, and enriched them by the arts of peace 
Died in 1525. 

Hu'bald, written also Huabalde, Hucbald, and 
Hugbald, [Lat. HUBAL'DUS,] a Flemish monk of Saint- 
Amand, born about 840 A.D., wrote a treatise on music, 
and Latin verses in praise of baldness, in which every 
word begins with C; for example, 

"Carmina Clarison* Calvis Cantate Caracena:." 
Died in 930, 

Hubbard, U'bSn', (NICOLAS GUSTAVE,) a French 
author, born at Fourqueux in 1828. He became a law- 

cas*; 9asf; %hard; gasy.-G, H,K,gutluraI; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMw. 

xplanations, p. 23.) 




a "Life of Saint-Simon," ana many reports aim pa^rs 
on industrial questions and on the condition of the 
labouring-classes. Died February 21, 1888. 

Hub'bard, (WILLIAM,) a historian, born in England 
in 1621, was ordained minister at Ipswich, Massachusetts, 
about 1656. He died in 1704, leaving in manuscript a 
" History of New England," which was published by the 
Massachusetts Historical Society in 1815. 

Hube, hoo'beh, (RoMUALD,) a Polish jurist, born at 
Warsaw in 1803, published " Principles of Penal Law," 
(1830,) and other works. He was appointed councillor 
of state at Saint Petersburg in 1843, after w nich he wa ? 
employed in the compilation of a new penal and civil 
code. Died at Warsaw, August 9, 1890. 

Huber, hoo'ber, (FRANCIS,) a Swiss naturalist, born at 
Geneva in 1750. The taste for nature and the habit of 
observation which he derived from his father were con- 
firmed by the lectures of Saussure. At the age of fifteen 
his sight began to fail, and was before long quite lost 
Soon after the occurrence of this privation he married 
Mdlle. Lullin, and was blessed with domestic happiness. 
Pursuing his researches into the economy and habits of 
bees, by the aid of his servant, he made many interesting 
discoveries, and in 1792 published " New Observations on 
Bees," which excited a great sensation. He was chosen 
a member of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and of 
other similar institutions. He also wrote a " Memoir on 
the Origin of Wax," and a few other treatises. Died in 
1830 or 1831. 

See AUGUSTIN PYRAME DHCANDOLLE, "Notice sur la Vie et lea 
ficrits de F. Huber," 1831- "Monthly Review," in the Appendu 
of vol. Ixxxii , 1817. 

Huber, (JoHANN,) in artist, born in Geneva in 1722, 
was intimate with Voltaire, of whose domestic life he 
drew several pictures. He was noted for skill in cutting 
profiles in paper or parchment, and wrote " Observations 
on the Flight of Birds of Prey," (1784.) Died in 1790. 

Huber, (JOHANN JAKOB,) an eminent Swiss anato- 
mist, born at Bale in 1707, was a pupil of Haller, whom 
he assisted in his " Swiss Flora." He was chosen pro- 
fessor of anatomy at Gottingen about 1737, and became 
professor and court physician at Cassel in 1742. He 
was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and a 
member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. His 
principal work is a "Treatise on the Spinal Marrow,' 
(1739.) Died in 1778. 

See ERSCH und GRUBBR, " Allgemeine Encyklopaecie- ' 

Huber, hoo'ber, (JoHANN NEPOMUK,) a German 
divine, born in Munich, August 18, 1830. He graduated 
at Munich in 1854, and became professor in the Roman 
Catholic faculty there in 1859. He published " Philoso 
phy of the Church Fathers," (1859.) which was placed on 
the Index, and this fact led to a rupture with the Church 
In 1871 he became an " Old Catholic" leader. He pub 
lished many philosophical, historical, and theologica 
works. Died at Munich, March 20, 1879. 

Huber, QOHANN RUDOLF,) an eminent Swiss painter 
born at Bale in 1668, studied several years in Italy. H( 
worked mostly in his native place. He painted portrait. 

World preferred to the Wise," (" Le Monde fol pre- 
ere au Monde sage," 2 vols., 1731-44.) Died at Lyoni 

n 1753. 
See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Huber, (MICHAEL,) a German translator, born at 
"rontenhausen, in Bavaria, in 1727. He lived many 
'ears in Paris, and became professor of French at Leip- 
iic in 1766. He made good French translations of many 
German works, among which were Gessner's poems 
and Winckelmann's "History of Ancient Art," (3 vols., 
781.) Died in 1804. 

Sec QUBRARD, " La France Litte'raire-" 

Huber, (PETER, or PIERRE,) son of Francis, noticed 
jbove, published a " History of the Habits of Indigenous 
Ants," " Observations on Drones," and other zoological 
realises. Died in 1841. 

See " Edinburgh Review" for July, 1812, and October, 1815. 

Huber, (THERESE,) a German novelist, born at Got- 
tingen in 1764, was a daughter of C. G. Heyne, the 
philologist. She was married to John George Forster, 
an eminent author, in 1784, and to Ludwig F. Huber 
Inoticed above) in 1794. Died at Augsburg in 1829. 

Huber, (VICTOR AIM,) a historian and critic, son of 
Louis Ferdinand, noticed above, was born at Stuttgart 
in 1800. He popularized Spanish literature in Germany 
by his "History of the Cid" (1829) and his "Sketches 
of Spain," (4 vols., 1828-35.) For many years he was pro- 
r essor at Marburg and Berlin. Died July 19, 1869. 

Huber, hii'ber, [LaL. HUBE'RUS,] (ULRICH,) a Dutch 
jurist, born at Dokkum in 1636. In 1665 he was chosen 
professor of law at Franeker. He published many able 
treatises on civil law, among which are "De Jure Civi- 
tatis," (1672,) and " Praelectiones ad Pandectas," (1686.) 
From the former Rousseau derived many of the ideas 
or principles of his "Contrat Social." Died in 1694. 

See VITBINGA, "Oratioin Eicessum U. Hubert," 1694: "Nou- 
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" JOCHBR, " Allgemehies Gelehrten- 

Hubert, /Sti'baiR', (FRANCOIS,) a French engraver, 
born at Abbeville in 1744 ; died in 1809. 

Hubert, (MATHIF.U.) an eloquent French preacher, 
born near Mayenne in 1640. He taught belles-lettres in 
various colleges, preached in Paris and the provinces, 
and died in 1717. His Sermons were published in 5 
vols., (1725.) 

HubeniB. See HUBER. (ULRICH.) 

Hub'ner, (EMIL,) a German philologist, a son of R. 
J. B. Hubner, was born at Dusseldorf, July 7, 1834. He 
edited many volumes of Latin inscriptions, and in 1863 
was made professor of classical philology in the University 
of Berlin. He published works on Roman literature, on 
Latin grammar, on the " History of Classic Philology," 
(1876,) and on Greek syntax, (1883.) 

Hubner or Huebner, hfip'ner, JOHANN,) a German 
geographer and teacher, born at or near Zittau in 1668. 
His " Questions on Ancient and Modern Geography" 
(1693) was often reprinted. Died in I73 1 - 

Hubner, (KARL,) a German genre painter, born in 
Konigsberg, June 14, 1814. In 1864 he became professor 
of painting at Dusseldorf, where he died. December 5, 

TINTORET. Died in 1748. 

See NAGLBR, " AUgemeines Kunstler-Lexikon." 
Huber, Au'baiR' or hoo'ber, (Louis FERDINAND,) a 
distinguished litterateur, son of Michael, noticed below, 
was born in Paris in 1764. In 1794 he married Theresa, 
the widow of John George Forster and daughter of the 
eminent philologist Heyne. He became in 1798 editor 
of the "Allgemeine Zeitung" at Stuttgart. He wrote 
eeveral dramas, and a collection of popular tales. Died 
in 1804. 

Huber, (MARIE,) a Swiss authoress and Protestant 
theologian, remarkable for her peculiar religious views, 
which appear to have been a mixture of rationalism and 
mysticism, was born at Geneva in 1695. She wrote, be- 
sides other religious and moral works, " Letters on the 
Religion essential to Man, as distinguished from that 
which is Conventional," (aceesseire, ) ( 1 738,) in which she 
uses a very subtle dialectic, and "The Insane (or Foolish) 

bKIMUl \JCIUl<lll U13H-MH,**! JJMll - f - - 

in 1806, was a pupil of Schadow. He settled at Dresden 
in 1839, and became a professor in the Academy of Arts 
in that city in 1841. His works are admired for grace 
of expression and beauty of colour. Among his master- 
pieces are " Boaz and Ruth," " Christ and the Evan- 
gelists," "The Golden Age," and "Felicity and Sleep. 
Died November 7, 1882. 

Hubner, von, ton hBp'ner, (JOSEPH ALEXANDER,) 
an Austrian diplomatist, born in Vienna in 181 1, was 
ambassador to the French court, and signed the treaty 
of peace at the C ongress of Paris in 1 856. He publ ished 
an excellent work on "Sixtus the Fifth," (1871,) and ' A 
Journey around the World," (1873.) Died July 30, 1692- 

Hub'sch or Huebsch, htSpsh, (HlINKICH.) a German 
architect, born at Weinheim, Baden, in 1795 ; died 1863 

Hue /Siik, (Abbe EVARISTE Rtcis,) a French Catho- 
lic missionary and traveller, born at Toulouse in I 

i, e, T, o, u, y, hng: a, e, A, same, less prolonged ; a, e, i, 6, u, ?, short; a, e, i, Q, obscurt; far, fill, fit; met; 

it; goo. 



He went to China in 1839, learned the Chinese Ian 
guage, and laboured as a missionary. About the ent 
of 1845 he visited Lassa, the capital of Thibet, where h 
was permitted to remain only a few weeks. Havinj 
returned to France in 1852, he published his very curiou 
and amusing "Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China, 1 
(" Souvenirs d'un Voyage dans la Tartarie," etc., 2 vols. 
1852,) which obtained a wide popularity, and was trans 
lated into English by W. Hazlitt, Jr. He afterward 
published "The Chinese Empire," (2 vols., 1854,) am 
" Christianity in China, Tartary, and Thibet," (3 vols. 
1857.) Died in 1860. 

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" "Quarterly Review" fo 
July, 1857 ; " Eraser's Magazine" for April, 1855. 

Hucbald. See HUBALD. 

Huch. See >EPINUS. 

Huchtenburgh, van, vtn huK'ten-buRC/, written 
also Hugtenburg, (JAKOB,) a skilful Dutch landscape 
painter, born at Haarlem in 1639, was a pupil of Berg 
hem. He went in his youth to Rome, where he worket 
with success until his death, in 1669. 

Huchtenburgh, Hugtenburg, or Huchtenburg, 
van, (JAN,) an excellent Dutch painter, brother of the 

Preceding, was born at Haarlem in 1646. He studied in 
taly and Paris with Van der Meulen, acquired a high 
reputation for battle-pieces, and was employed by Prince 
Eugene to paint those actions in which he and Marl- 
borough commanded. He was also a skilful engraver 
Died in 1733. 

See DESCAMPS, " V:e des Peintres Flamands, Hollandais," etc 
Hud'dart, (JOSEPH,) F.R.S., an English navigator 
and hydrographer, born at Allonby in 1741, was for many 
years a captain in the service of the East India Com- 
pany. He was a skilful nautical surveyor, and published 
some valuable charts. Died in 1816. 

Hudde, hud'deh, (JAN,) born at Amsterdam about 
1636, was councillor, treasurer, and burgomaster of his 
native city. He was well versed in mathematics, on 
which he wrote some able treatises Died in 1704. 
See MONTUCLA, "Histoire des Mathe'matiques," 
Hud'des-fprd, (GEORGE,) a humorous English poet, 
who lived about 1800. He wrote several burlesque 
poems, which had some success, viz., " Topsy-Turvy," 
(1790,) "Salmagundi," (1793,) and "Imperial Mush 
rooms," (1805.) 

Huddesford or Hud'ders-ford, (WILLIAM,) D.D., 
an English antiquary, was principal of Trinity College, 
Oxford, and wrote the Lives of Leland, Hearne, and 
Anthony Wood. Died in 1772. 

Huddleston, hud'dels-ton, (ROBERT,) a Scottish an- 
tiquary, born in 1 776, published a new edition of Toland's 
" History of the Druids," (1814.) Died in 1826. 

Hfid'son, (FREDERIC,) an American journalist, born 
at Quincy, Massachusetts, April 25, 1819. He was for 
over thirty years employed on the "New York Herald," 
and published a useful " History of Journalism in the 
United States." Died October 21, 1875. 

Hfid'spn, (GEORGE,) an English " railway-king," born 
in York in March, 1800. He was the great promoter of 
railway construction in England, but finally lost his im- 
mense fortune, and died a poor man in London, December 
14, 1871. 

Hud'spn, (HENRY or HENDRIK,) an eminent English 
navigator, of whose early life nothing is known. In 1607 
he commanded a vessel sent by some London merchants 
to discover a direct route to India by way of the North 
pole or Northern Ocean. Having advanced beyond 80 
north latitude, he was prevented by the ice from making 
farther progress, and returned. He made several other 
unsuccessful attempts in that direction. In the service of 
the Dutch East India Company, he discovered in 1609 
the river of New York which bears his name. He re- 
newed the enterprise in April, 1610, and discovered and 
explored Hudson Bay, in which he passed the winter 
and suffered much for want of provisions. As he was 
returning in 1611, his crew mutinied, and, forcing the 
captain with eight men into a small boat, abandoned 
them to their fate. They were never heard of afterwards. 
A few of the mutineers returned to Ireland. 

See PRBVOST, "Histoire ge'ne'rale des Voyages;" PURCHAS'S 
Collection;" " Life of Henry Hudson," in SPARKS'S "American 

Biography" ,ol x.. (by H. R. CLBVELAND;) " Nouvelle Biognphw 
Generate; J. M. READ, "Historical Inquiries concerning Henry 
Hudson, 1866. 

HQd'son, (HENRY NORMAN,) an Episcopal clergy- 
man, born in Cornwall, Vermont, in 1814, published 
"Lectures on Shakspeare," (2 vols., 1848,) and edited 
the Works of Shakspeare, (u vols.) D. Jan. 16, 1886 

Hudson, (JOHN,) D.D., a learned English critic, born 
in Cumberland in 1662, was for many years a tutor in 
Oxford University, and from 1701 until his death libra- 
rian of the Bodleian Library. He published excellent 
editions of Thucydides, Longinus, Josephus, "^Esop's 
Fables," etc. Died in 1719. 

Hudson, (THOMAS,) an English portrait-painter, born 
in Devonshire in 1701. He was a pupil of Richardson, 
after whose death he was the most fashionable or suc- 
cessful artist in that line in London until he was sur- 
passed by his own pupil, Joshua Reynolds, about 1754. 
Among his works is a portrait of Handel. Died in 1779. 

Hudson, (WILLIAM,) F.R.S., an eminent English bot- 
anist, bom in Westmoreland in 1730, resided in London 
as an apothecary. He was one of the first in England 
that adopted the Linnjean system, and in 1762 published 
an "English Flora," ("Flora Anglica,") which procured 
him admission into the Royal Society. Died in 1793. 

Hue, Au, (FRANgois,) born at Fontainebleau, France, 
ln '757. became a valet to the dauphin. In the reign of 
terror he served the royal family at the risk of his life, 
and was imprisoned. He wrote " The Last Years of the 
Reign and Life of Louis XVI.," (1806.) Died in 1819. 

Huebner. See HUBNER. 

Huebsch. See HUBSCH. 

Hueffer, huffer, (FRANCIS,) a German-English author, 
3orn in 1845. He was educated in London, Paris, Ber- 
in, and Leipsic. He published in 1869 a critical edition 
of the works of Guillaume de Cabestan ; also, "The 

Studies," (1883,) etc Died January 19, 1889. 

HuegeL See HUGEL. 

Huel, /iii'SI', (JOSEPH NICOLAS,) a French philosopher, 
>orn at Mattaincourt in 1690 ; died in 1769. 

Huellmarm. See HULLMANN. 

Huerta. See HORTO. 

Huerta, de la, di la w^R'ta, (VINCENTE GARCIA,) a 
mpular Spanish poet, born at Zafra in 1 729, was the leader 
)f the national school of poetry, in opposition to the par- 
isans of the French models. He produced in 1778 the 
ragedy of " Rachel," (" Raquel,") which was performed 
with great applause in Madrid and in Italy. He wrote 
>ther poems, ("Obras poeticas," 2 vols., 1778,) and was 
he editor of the " Spanish Theatre," (" Teatro Espanol,") 
a selection from the best Spanish dramatists, with notes, 
17 vols., 1788.) Died in 1797. 

Huet, /4u'eV, (FRANCOIS,) a French author, born at 
Villeau, December 26, 1814. He became a professor in 
be University of Ghent, and tried to found a sect called 
be "Neo-Catholic Church." He published books on 
Cartesianism," "The Social Reign of Christianity," 
tc. Died at Paris, July I, 1869. 

HueMu'eV, (PAUL,) a French landscape-painter, born 
n Paris in 1804, gained medals of the first class in 1848 
nd 1855. Died January 9, 1869. 

Huet, (PIERREDANIEL,) an eminent French critic and 
cholar, born at Caen in February, 1630, was educated 
t Paris. In 1652, in company with Bochart, he visited 
he court of Christina of Sweden, which then offered 
are attractions to the learned ; but he soon returned to 
Caen, and passed many years in various studies. He was 
ppointed in 1670 sub-preceptor of the dauphin, and was 
le principal editor of the well-known series of the Latin 
lassies "ad usum Delphini," ("for the use of the dau- 
hin.") In 1674 he became a member of the French 
cademy, and in 1685 Bishop of Avranches. He wrote 
umerous able critical and religious works, (in Latin and 
Drench,) among which the best-known is his " Demon- 
tratio Evangelica," (1679.) This was for a long time i 
tandard work on the Evidences of Christianity. Died 
n 1721. 

Se D'ALKMBERT, " filoge de Huet;" SAINT-MAURICE, " filoje 

e a.-, *; c as s: g hard: g as/V G, H, ^guttural; N, natal; R, triUtd; s as z; th as in this. ( ^=See Explanations, p. 23. \ 




Ac D Huet," 1850; HUET'S Autobiographic Memoirs, entitled 
" Commentarius de Rebus ad eum pertinentibus," 1718, (translated 
into English by JOHN AIKIN, 2 vols., 1810;) "Huetiana, Pans, 
1722 : BRUCKBR, " History of Philosophy :" ABB* FLOTTBS, " Etude 
sur Dauiel Huet," 1857 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Geuerale ; ' Quar- 
terly Review" for August, 1810. 

Huet de FroberviUe, /4u'i' deh fRo'beR'vel', 
(CLAUDE JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French writer, born at 
Komorantin in 1752 ; died in 1838. 

Huette, /m'eV, (Louis,) a French optician, born at 
Rennes in 1756; died in 1805. 

Hufeland, hoo'feh-laiit', (CHRisropH WILHELM,) an 
excellent German physician and medical writer, was 
born at Langensalza (Prussian Saxony) in 1762. He 
became professor at Jena in 1793, and afterwards phy- 
sician to the King of Prussia. In 1809 he obtained the 
chair of special pathology and therapeutics at Berlin. 
He produced in 1796 a celebrated work on the "Art 
of Prolonging Life," (" Makrobiotik, oder die Kunst 
das menschliche Leben zu verlangern,") often reprinted 
and translated. Among his other works are a "System 
of Practical Medicine," (2 vols., 1800-05,) and "Enchiri- 
dion Medicum," (1836; gth edition, 1851.) Died in 1836. 
See F. L. AUGUSTIN, " Hufelands Leben und Wirken fur Wia- 
senschaft, Staat und Menschheit," 1837; STOURDJA, " Hufeland, 
tsquisse de sa Vie et de sa Mort," 1837. 

Hufeland, (GOTTLIEB,) a German jurist, born at Dant- 
zic in 1760, was professor of law at Halle, where he died 
in 1817. He wrote a "Manual of the Law of Nature." 
HiifhageL See HOEFNAEGEL. 

Hug, hooc, (JoHANN LEONHARD,) a German Catholic 
theologian, born at Constance in 1763. His "Intro- 
duction to the Books of the New Testament" is highly 
esteemed, and has been translated into French and Eng- 
lish. Died in 1846. 
Hugbald. See HUBALD. 

Hiigel or Huegel, von, fon hxi'gel, (KARL ALEX- 
ANDER ANSELM,) BARON, a German traveller and natu- 
ralist, was born at Ratisbon in 1796. He performed a 
scientific exploration of Greece, Egypt, India, and other 
parts of Asia, about 1831-36, and brought home large 
collections of objects of natural history, coins, etc. He 
published "Cashmere and the Dominion of the Sikhs," 
(4 vols., 1842,) "The Basin of Cabool," ("Das Becken 
von Kabul," 2 vols., 1852,) and other works. Died, 1870. 
Hugeniua. See HUYGENS. 

Huger, u'jee', (BENJAMIN,) an American general, born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, about 1806, graduated at 
West Point in 1825. He led a division of the army that 
fought against the Union at Fair Oaks, May 31, and at 
Malvern Hill, July I, 1862. Died in 1877. 

Huger, (FRANCIS KINLOCK,) an officer, born in South 
Carolina in 1764. He joined Dr. Eric Bollman in an 
attempt to release La Fayette from the dungeon of 
Olmutz ; but they failed, and were imprisoned. He served 
as a colonel in the war of 1812. Died in 1855. 

Huger, (ISAAC,) an uncle of the preceding, was born 
about 1742. He served as a brigadier-general in the 
Revolution, and rendered distinguished service at the 
sieges of Savannah and Charleston. In the battle of 
Guilford Court-House he commanded the right wing of 
the American army. Died October 17, 1797. 

Hug'gins, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English astronomer, 
was born at London, February 7, 1824. lie is dis- 
tinguished for his observations and discoveries made 
with the spectroscope on the sun and stars. In 1876- 
78 he was president of the Royal Astronomical So- 
ciety, and of the British Association 1891-92. 

Hugh, hu, [Fr. HUGUES, ^ug,J a French prelate, emi 
nent for talents and piety, was chosen Archbishop of 
Besanjon in 1031. Died in 1066. 

Hugh (Huguea) L, Duke of Burgundy, was the son 
of Henry, and grandson of Duke Robert, whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1075. In 1078 he retired into a convent, resign 
ing his dukedom to his brother Eudes. Died in 1093. 

Hugh (Huguea) n., Duke of Burgundy, nephew of 
the preceding, succeeded in 1 102 his father Eudes, who 
went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Died in 1 142. 

Hugh (Hugues) TTT,, Duke of Burgundy, succeeded 
his father, Eudes II., in 1 162. About 1190 he followed 
Philip Augustus of France in a crusade, and when that 

ting turned back, Hugues took command of the French. 
He died at Tyre in 1 192, and left his dukedom to his son, 
Eudes III. 

Hugh (Hugues) IV, son of Eudes III., born in 1212, 
inherited the dukedom in I2l8. He died in 1272, and 
was succeeded by his son Robert. 

Hugh (Hugues) V., Duke of Burgundy, son of Robert 
[I., inherited the title in 1308, and died prematurely in 
1315, leaving the dukedom to his brother, Eudes IV. 

Hugh (Hugues) DE CLUNY, (deh klii'ne',) a French 
monk, born at Semur about 1024, became Abbot of Cluny 
in 1048. He was consulted on important questions by 
several kings and popes. Died in 1 109. 

Hugh (Hugues) D'AMIENS, (dS'me^N',) a French 
prelate and writer, reputed one of the most learned 
theologians of his time, was chosen Archbishop of Rouen 
in 1130. Died in 1164. 

See "Gallia Christiana," tome ii. 

Hugh (Hugues) DE FLAVIGNY, (deh flfven'ye',) a 
French monk, born in 1065, was chosen Abbot of Fla- 
vigny in 1097. He wrote the " Chronicle of Verdun, 1 ' 
which contains valuable historical data. 

Hugh (Hugues) DE FLEURY (deh fluh're') or DE 
SAINTE-MARIE, (deh saNt'mf re',) a French monk, who 
was eminent for his knowledge. He asserted the divine 
right of kings in an able treatise " On Royal Power and 
Sacerdotal Dignity," and wrote a general History. Died 
about 1125. 

Hugh OF LINCOLN, (or of AVALON,) SAINT, was born 
at Avalon, in Burgundy, about 1 135. He became a prior 
of canons regular, but was so attracted by the severities 
of the Grande Chartreuse that he entered that order, in 
spite of his oath not to do so. Sent to England, he 
founded Witham Abbey. In 1186 he was made Bishop 
of Lincoln. Under Henry II., Richard I., and John, 
Saint Hugh had great influence in public affairs. He 
was a man of strong will, ardent piety, and ascetic life, 
but of excellent judgment and kindly feelings. Died in 
London, November 16, 1200. 

Hugh OF PROVENCE, King of Italy, was a son of 
Theobald, (or Thibault,) Count of Provence. Favoured 
by the pope, John X., and by many Lombard chiefs, 
he obtained the crown of Italy in 926 A.D., but was 
expelled by Berenger in 947, and died the same year. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Hugh (Hugues) DE SAINT-CHER, (deh siN'shaiR',) 
a learned French monk and cardinal, was born near 
Vienne. His most important work was a concordance 
of the Bible, said to be the first ever compiled. He 
used the Latin in this work. Died in 1263. 

Hugh (Hugues) DE SAINT-VICTOR, (deh sJN'vek'- 
ton',) a monk, born near Ypres, entered the monastery 
of Saint-Victor, in Paris, in 1118. He wrote theological 
works which had a high reputation. Died in 1140. 

Hugh Capet. See CAPET. 

Hugh the Great, [Fr. HUGUES LE GRAND, hug l?b 
gRftN,] Duke of France and Count of Paris, a powerful 
noble, was the son of Robert, Count of Paris, and the 
father of Hugh Capet. He married a sister of Otho, 
King of Germany, and waged war against Louis d'Outre- 
Mer. Died in 956. 

Hugh the Great, Count of Vermandois, third son 
of Henry I., King of France, born in 1057, was noted for 
chivalrous courage. He departed in 1096 on a crusade, 
and distinguished himself at the siege of Antioch. He 
was killed in battle in 1102. 

See MICHAUD, " History of the Crusades." 

Hughes, huz, (BALL,) a distinguished sculptor, was 
born in London, January 19, 1804, and won a high repu- 
tation there. In 1829 he removed to New York. Died 
in Boston, March 5, 1868. 

Hughes, (DAVID EDWARD,) an inventor, born at 
London in 1831, and brought to the United States in 
childhood. He became successively professor of 
music and of natural philosophy, and is notable for 
his invention of the printing telegraph, patented in 
1855. In 1878 he invented the microphone. Another 
invention was the induction balance. Died in 1900. 

Hughes, (JOHN,) an English poet and essayist, bom 
at Marlborough in 1677, was educated in London, where 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 5, u,y, short; a, e, \,(),otscurt; far, fall, fit; mdt; n&t; good; moon; 





he mostly resided. He filled, besides other civil posts, 
that of secretary to the commissioners of the peace. 
His character and talents secured him the friendship of 
Addison, Pope, and Congreve. He contributed nume- 
rous well-written essays to the "Spectator," "Taller," 
and * Guardian," and once had a fair reputation as a 
poet. His best poem is "The Siege of Damascus," a 
tragedy, which was first performed on the last night 
of the author's life, and was very successful. He made 
good translations from Fontenelle and Vertot. Swift 
having classed him in the ranks of mediocrity, Fope 
answered, " What he wanted in genius he made up as 
an honest man." Addison had so good an opinion of 
his ability that he requested him to write the fifth act of 
" Cato," which, however, he declined. Died in 1720. 

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the English Poets;" " Biographia Bri- 

Hughes, huz, (JoHN,) an eminent Roman Catholic 
prelate, born in Ireland in 1798. He came to America 
in 1817, and preached several years in Philadelphia. He 
became Bishop of New York about 1840, and was raised 
to the rank of archbishop in 1850. He published seve- 
ral sermons and lectures. He was a man of great 
ability, and was particularly distinguished for his skill 
in dialectics. Died in 1864. 

See JOHN R. G. HASSARD, " Life of John Hushes," 1866. 

Hughes, (JoHN,) an English writer and artist, was 
the father of Thomas Hughes, M.P. He published in 
1822 an " Itinerary of Provence and the Rhone," (with 
good etchings by himself,) which was praised by Sir 
Walter Scott. He also wrote some poetical pieces. 

Hughes, (THOMAS,) an English author, social econo- 
mist, and barrister, born near Newbury, October 20, 1823. 
He wrote " Tom Brown's School-Days at Rugby," (1856,) 
"The Scouring of the White Horse," (1858,) "Tom 
Brown at Oxford," (1861,) "Alfred the Great," (1869.) 
"Our Old Church What shall we do with It?" (1878,) 
" Rugby," (1881,) " Vacation Rambles," (1895,) etc. 
He was appointed a Queen's counsel in 1869. He 
was a warm friend of the working-classes, and was 
elected to Parliament by the Liberals in 1865 and 
again in 1868. In 1880 he established a colony in 
Tennessee, which was named Rugby. Died March 
22, 1896. 

Hughes, (THOMAS SMART,) an English historian, 
graduated at Cambridge as M.A. in 1811. He became 
prebendary of Peterborough in 1827, and rector of Hard- 
wick in 1832. He wrote, besides other works, a " His- 
tory of England from the Accession of George III. to 
the Accession of Victoria, 1760-1837," (7 vols., 1836,) a 
continuation of Hume and Smollett. Died in 1847. 

Hugi, hoo'gee, (FRANZ JOSEPH,) a Swiss naturalist, 
born at Grenchen in 1795. Among his works is a 
"Treatise on Glaciers," (1842.) Died March 25, 1855. 

Hugo, ^ii'go', (CHARLES Louis,) a French monk, 
born at Saint-Mihiel in 1667, became Abbe 1 of Estiva]. 
He wrote, besides other works, a " Life of Saint Nor- 
bert," (1707,) and a "History of Moses," (1709.) Died 
in 1739. 

Hugo, (FRANCOIS VICTOR,) a son of Victor Marie, 
noticed below, was born in Paris in 1828. He produced 
version of Shakspeare's Sonnets, (1857.) Died Decem- 
oer 26, 1873. 

Hugo, hoo'go, (GuSTAV,) a German jurist, distin- 
guished for his profound knowledge of Roman law, was 
born at Lorrach, in Baden, in 1764. He studied at 
Gottingen, and became professor of law in that city in 
1792. His principal work, a "Manual of a Course of 
Civil Law," consisting of seven volumes, with different 
titles, ranks among the standard productions of modern 
jurisprudence. Died at Gottingen in 1844. 

See H. EYSSENHARDT, "Zur Erinnerung an G. Hugo," 1845. 

Hu'go, (HERMAN,) a learned Jesuit, born at Brussels 
m 1588, became chaplain to General Spinola. He was 
the author of a treatise on the invention of letters, "De 
prima Scribendi Origine," (1617,) and a few other works. 
Died in 1629. 

Hugo, (J. ABEL,) a French litterateur, brother of 
Victor Hugo, was born about 1798. Among his works 
" e "Picturesque France," (3 vols., 1833,) and "Military 

France," a history of the French armies from 1792 tc 
'^33, (5 vols., 1834.) Died in 1855. 

Hugo, (JOSEPH LEOPOLD SIGISBERT,) a French gen- 
eral and count, born at Nancy in 1774. After serving 
Joseph Bonaparte as marshal of the palace at Naples, 
he fought for him in Spain as general of brigade from 
1809 to 1813, gained several victories, and was raised to 
the rank of general of division. In 1823 he published 
"Memoirs of General Hugo." Died in 1828. 

See JULES NOLLKT-FABERT, " Le GcWral J. L. S. Hugo," 8vo, 
1853; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale." 

Hugo.hii'go', (VICTOR MARIE,) VICOMTE, a celebrated 
French lyric poet and novelist, a son of the preceding, 
was born at Besan9on in 1802. His mother, Sophie 
Trebuchet, was a Vendean royalist, with whose polit- 
ical sentiments he sympathized in his youth. His first 
poem, "On the Advantages of Study," (1817,) obtained 
an honourable mention from the Academic Fran9aise. 
He received prizes for several royalist odes in 1818, and 
married Mdlle. Foucher in 1822. In the same year he 
published the first volume of his "Odes and Ballads," 
which quickly raised him to the first rank among the 
French poets of his time. He produced " Cromwell," 
a drama, (1827,) and a volume of odes, entitled "Les 
Orientales," (1828,) remarkable for richness of imagina- 
tion. The literati of France having ranged themselves 
in two hostile schools, styled the Classic and the Ro- 
mantic, Victor Hugo became the recognized chief of the 
latter, formed mostly of young men. Of his dramas, 
"Hernani" (first acted in 1830) and "Marion Delorme" 
(1831) proved brilliant successes. Among his most suc- 
cessful and popular works are "Notre Dame de Paris," 
a romance, (1831,) "Le Roi s'amuse," a drama, (1832,) 
"Les Miserables," a novel, (1862,) "The Toilers of the 
Sea," (1865,) and poems entitled "The Leaves of Au- 
tumn," (" Les Feuilles d'Automne,") which, says a 
French critic in the "Nouvelle Biographic Generate," 
"contain beauties of the first order." He was admitted 
into the French Academy in 1841, and raised to the rank 
of a peer in 1845. H fi gave his cordial adhesion to the 
republic of 1848, and was elected to the Constituent As- 
sembly by the voters of Paris. He opposed Cavaignac, 
and in 1849 joined the party of advanced democrats, of 
whom he became a leader and distinguished orator. For 
his opposition to the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851, he 
was banished. He retired to the island of Guernsey, where 
he resided until the fall of the empire, when he returned 
to Paris. In 1871 he was elected to the National As- 
sembly, but soon resigned his seat and went to Brussels. 
He was expelled for his sympathy with the Communists 
there, and again returned to Paris. During his exile he 
published several works, among which are " Napoleon 
the Little," (1852,) " Les Contemplations," poems, (1856,) 
and "L'Homme qui rit," a romance, (1869,) translated 
under the title of " By the King's Command." Among 
his later works are "The Terrible Year," a poetical 
record of scenes and incidents during the siege of Paris, 
(1872,) "Ninety-Three," a romance, (1874,) "The Art 
of being a Grandfather," (1877,) "The Pope," (1878,) 
"Torquemada," (1882,) etc. Died May 22, 1885. 

Hu-gp-li'nus, (or hoo-go-le'nus,) an Italian jurist and 
legal writer, born at Bologna; died about 1233. 

Hugtenburg. See HUCHTENBURGH. 

Hugues Capet. See CAPET. 

Huijgens. See HUYGENS. 

HuUlard-BrehoUes, u-e'liR' bRi'ol', (J. I_ Ai 
PHONSE,) a French antiquary, born in Paris in 1817, 
published, with M. E. Ruelle, a " History of the Middle 
Ages," (2 vols., 1843.) Died March 23, 1871. 

Hulaku or Hulakoo. See HOOLAKOO. 

Hulda. See HOLDA. 

Huldericus. See HULDRICH. 

Huldrich, hoolt'riK, [Lat HULDERI'CUS,] (JOHANN 
JACOB,) a Swiss divine, born at Zurich in 1683, was a 
professor of law in the university of that town. He 
published a few religious works, and "Miscellanea Tigu- 
rina," (3 vols., 1722.) Died in 1731. 

Huliii or Hullin, ^ii'lax', (PIERRE AUGUSTIN,) a 
French general, born in Paris in 1758. He became 
general of brigade in 1804, commandant at Vienna in 
1805, and in 1807 general of division. He had the chief 

c as k; 5 as j; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,pMural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as 2. th as in this. 

xplanations, p. 23.) 




command at Paris when the conspirator Malet made his 
daring attempt in 1812, and was shot in the face by 
Malet. He was banished in 1815. Died in 1841. 

Hull, (EDWARD,) a geologist, born in Antrim, Ireland, 
in 1829, published " Physical Geology and Geography 
of Ireland," "Volcanoes, Past and Present," (1892,) 
" Our Coal Resources at the Close of the Nineteenth 
Century," (1897,) etc. 

Hull, (ISAAC,) an American commodore, born in 
Derby, Connecticut, in 1775. He distinguished himself 
in the war with Tripoli, (1804-5,) was promoted to the 
rank of captain in 1806, and at the commencement of the 
war of 1812 was in command of the frigate Constitution. 
In July of the same year, while cruising off New York, 
he fell in with a British squadron, which pursued him in 
hot chase for three days and nights, but which, by his 
skill in seamanship, he managed to escape. On August 
19 following, he captured, after a close action of thirty 
minutes, the British frigate Guerriere, Captain Dacres, 
with the loss of only fourteen in killed and wounded, 
while that of the Guerriere was seventy-nine. This was 
the first naval action after the declaration of war ; and 
in acknowledgment of Captain Hull's distinguished ser- 
vices Congress presented him with a gold medal. He 
subsequently commanded the United States squadron 
in the Pacific and in the Mediterranean. Died in Phila- 
delphia in 1843. 

Hull, (THOMAS,) an English actor and poet, born in 
London in 1728, composed and altered numerous plays. 
His most popular poem is "Richard Plantagenet,' a 
legendary tale, (1774.) Died in 1808. 

Hull, (WILLIAM,) an officer in the American Revolu- 
rion, born in Derby, Connecticut, in 1753. He joined 
the Revolutionary army at Cambridge at the head of a 
company of volunteers in 1775. He took part in many 
of the battles of the war, and for his gallant services in 
conducting the expedition against Morrisiana he was 
honoured with a vote of thanks by Congress. After the 
war he became a major-general in the Massachusetts 
militia, and in 1805 was appointed by Jefferson Governor 
of the Territory of Michigan. On the breaking out of 
the second war with Great Britain, in 1812, he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the Northwestern army ; and 
in August of the same year he surrendered with 2000 
troops to the British under General Brock, at Detroit 
For this act he was tried by court-martial, in 1814, and 
sentenced to be shot President Madison approved the 
sentence, but remitted its execution in consideration of 
General Hull's age and services in the Revolution. He 
published a defence of himself before the court-martial, 
(1814.) Died in 1825. 

Hullah, (JOHN PYKE,) an English composer and 
popular teacher of music, was born in 1812. He com- 
posed the music of Dickens's comic opera " The Vil- 
lage Coquettes," (1836.) About 1840 he introduced a 
new system of instruction in vocal music, which was 
very successful. He was professor of vocal music in 
King's College, London, from 1844 tc 1874. Died 1884. 
Hullin. See HULIN. 

Hfill'man'del, (CHARLES JOSEPH,) an excellent lith- 
ographer, born in London in 1789. He made several 
improvements in the art of lithography, and invented 
the process of lithotint He published, in 1824, "The 
Art of Drawing on Stone." Died in 1850. 

Hullmarm or Huellmann, huVman, (KARL DIE- 
TRICH,) a German historian and antiquary, born at Erde- 
born in 1765, became a professor at Bonn. He published, 
besides other works, a " History of the Origin of Ranks 
or Orders (Stdndt) in Germany," (3 vols., 1808,) and a 
" History of the Commerce of the Greeks," (1839.) 
Died in 1846. 

Hulls, (JONATHAN,) an English mechanician and in- 
ventor, obtained in 1736 a patent for a "machine for 
carrying ships out of, or into, any harbour against wind 
and tide." This machine was to be moved by steam- 
power, but failed because he did not use the proper 
means to transfer the motion from the piston to the 

Hulme, (F. EDWARD,) an art writer, born at 
Hanley, in Staffordshire, in 1841. He became a pro- 

fessor of drawing at King's College, London, and 

Birth and Development of Ornament," (1893,) etc. 
Hulot, /Sii'lo', (HENRI,) a French lawyer, born in 
Paris in 1732, translated into French fifty books of Jus- 
tinian's Pandects, (7 vols., 1803.) Died in 1775. 

Hulse, hulss, (Rev. JOHN,) born at Middlewich, Eng- 
land, in 1708, founded the Hulsean Lecture of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, in which he had graduated. Died 
in 1790. 

Hulaemann, ho61'seh-man',(JOHANN,) a learned Ger- 
man Lutheran divine, born at Essen in 1602, was professor 
of divinity at Leipsic. Died in 1661. 

Hulaius, hul'se-us, (ANTOON,) a Protestant scholar 
and theologian, born in 1615, became professor of divinity 
and Oriental languages at Leyden. Died in 1685. 

Hulsius, (HENDRIK,) a theological writer, son of the 
preceding, was born at Breda in 1654; died in 1723. 

Hulst, van der, vtn der hulst, (PlETER,) a Dutch 
painter, born at Dort in 1652, was successful in painting 
flowers, fruits, etc. He studied or worked in Rome. 
Died in 1708. 

Hultsch, hSolch, (FRIEDRICH OTTO,) a German 
Died in Phila- \ scholar, born at Dresden, July 22, 1833. He was edu- 
cated at Leipsic. His chief work is " Greek and Roman 
Metrology," (1862.) He also published critical editions 
of several Greek authors, chiefly mathematical. His 
edition of Pappus is of special importance, since more 
than half of the text had never before been edited. 

Hultz, hdolts, (JoHANN,) a German architect, of whom 
; little is known. The completion of the great tower of 
the cathedral of Cologne is ascribed to him. It was 
finished in the first half of the fifteenth century. 

Humann, /m'man', (JEAN GEORGES,) a French finan 
cier, born at Strasburg in 1780, became minister of 
finance in 1832 ; died in 1842. 
Humayun. See HOOMAYOON. 
Hum'bert I., (in Italian, TJmberto, oom-beR'to,) 
King of Italy, was born March 14, 1844. He was the 
son of King Victor Emmanuel and of Queen Adelaide 
of Austria. At the battle of Custozza, in 1866, he acted 
as a lieutenant-general. In 1868 he was married to his 
cousin-german, Maria Margaret of Savoy, and in 1878 
! became king. Though popular as a sovereign, he 
was assassinated by an anarchist, July 29, 1900. He 
was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III. 

Humt>? rt, CARDINAL, an eminent French Benedic 
tine monk, born in Burgundy ; died about 1063. 

Humbert, /fcuN'baiR', (JEAN,) a Swiss Orientalist, 
born at Geneva in 1792, published, besides other works, 
an "Arabian Anthology," with French versions, (1819.) 
Died in 1851. 

Humbert, (JOSEPH AMAULE,) a French general, bom 
of humble parents at Rouvray, in Lorraine, about 1760. 
Having a fine figure, a pleasing address, and great au- 
dacity, he was rapidly promoted, and in 1795, as general 
i of brigade, served under Hoche against the Vendean 
royalists. In 1798, as general of division, he commanded 
the army of about 1500 men which invaded Ireland, 
where, after gaining a victory over General Lake, he was 
forced to surrender to Lord Cornwallis. In 1802 he was 
employed in the expedition to Hayti under Leclerc, at 
whose death he returned to France in company with 
Pauline, the widow of Leclerc, and sister of Bonaparte. 
By aspiring to her hand he offended the First Consul. 
He consulted his safety by emigrating to the United 
States, where he lived in obscurity. Died -.t New Or- 
leans in 1823. 

See THIKRS, "History of the French Revolution;" " Nouvelle 
Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Humboldt, hum'bolt, von, [Ger. pron. fon hoom'- 
illustrious German savant and traveller, born :i Berlin 
on the I4th of September, 1769. He was a son of Major 
von Humboldt, who served as adjutant or aide-de-ramp 
to the Duke of Brunswick in the Seven Years' war. In 
1786 he entered the University of Frankfort-on-;he-Oder, 
where he studied natural science and political economy. 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon; 




He hecame a pupil of Heyne, Blumenbach, and Eich- 
horn, at Gottingen, in 1788. In 1790 he travelled in 
France, Holland, and England, and published a treatise 
"On the Basalts of the Rhine." He studied mineralogy 
under Werner at Freiberg in 1791, and was appointed 
director-general of the mines of Anspach and Baireuth 
in 1792. He published in 1792 a work on subterranean 
plants, " Specimen Florae subterraneae Fribergensis." At 
an early age he cherished a passion to visit far-distant and 
unexplored regions of the globe. With this view he re- 
signed his office about 1 796, and passed some time at Jena, 
where he formed friendships with Goethe and Schiller. 
His reputation way extended by a treatise " On the Irri- 
tability of Muscles and Nervous Fibres," (1797.) Several 
o>f his projects for undertaking a voyage of discovery 
were frustrated by the wars that followed the French 
Revolution. At length, in June, 1799, he joined Aime 
Bonpland in a voyage to South America. They spent 
about four years in the exploration of the northern 
part of South America, especially those portions which 
are drained by the Oronoco and the Rio Negro. They 
ascended the Magdalena as far as they could by water, 
and penetrated by land to Quito. In June, 1802, they 
ascended Chimborazo to a point nineteen thousand feet 
or more above the level of the sea, the highest point of 
the Andes ewr reached by man. They passed nearly a 
year in the exploration of Mexico, visited the United 
States, and returned to Europe in July, 1804, with rich 
collections of plants, animals, and minerals. Humboldt 
became a resident of Paris, where he remained about 
twenty years, the greater part of which he spent in digest- 
ing and publishing the results of his observations. In 
this task he was assisted by Bonpland, Cuvier, Olrmanns, 
Arago, Kunth, and others. Between 1807 and 1817 they 
published, in French, a "Journey to the Equinoctial 
Regions of the New Continent," (3 vols.,) "Astronomical 
Observations and Measurements by the Barometer," (2 
vols., 1808-10,) a "View of the Cordilleras, and Monu- 
ments of the Indigenous Peoples of America," (1810,) a 
" Collection of Observations on Zoology and Compara- 
tive Anatomy," (2 vols.,) a " Political Essay on the 
Kingdom of New Spain," (2 vols., l8n,) and "General 
Physics and Geology." He made an important con- 
tribution to botanical geography by his Latin work " On 
the Geographical Distribution of Plants according to 
the Temperature and Altitude," (1817.) His botanical 
collections were classed and described by S. Kunth in a 
work entitled " Nova Genera et Species Plantarum quas 
in Peregrinatione ad Plagam aequinoctialem Orbis novi 
collegerunt A. Bonpland et A. de Humboldt," (7 vols., 
1815-25.) An English translation of his " Personal Nar- 
rative of Travels" was made by Helen Maria Williams, 
(5 vols., 1814-21.) In 1810 he was chosen a member of 
(he French Institute in place of Cavendish. He removed 
to Berlin in 1826, and received, with the title of coun- 
cillor, many marks of royal favour. At the request of 
Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, and at his expense, Hum- 
boldt, Ehrenberg, and Rose made in 1829 a scientific 
exploration of Asiatic Russia. Among the results of this 
extensive expedition was an excellent work by Hum- 
boldt, entitled " Central Asia : Researches on the Chains 
of Mountains and the Comparative Climatology," (3 
vols., 1843.) He was sent to Paris on several political 
missions by the King of Prussia between 1830 and 1848. 
He published a" Critical Examination of the Geography 
of the New Continent," (5 vols., 1835-38.) When he 
was more than seventy-four years old, he composed his 
celebrated work entitled " Kosmos ; Entwurf einer phy- 
sischen WcHbeschreibung," (" Cosmos ; Essay of a Phys- 
ical Description of the Universe,") the first volume of 
which appeared in 1845, and the fourth in 1858. "The 
first volume," says the author, "contains a general view 
of nature, from the remotest nebulae and revolving 
double stars to the terrestrial phenomena of the geo- 
graphical distribution of plants, of animals, and of races 
of men, preceded by some preliminary considerations 
on the different degrees of enjoyment offered by the 
study of nature and the knowledge of her laws, and or 
the limits and method of a scientific exposition of the 
physical description of the universe." "The author of 
.the remarkable book before us," says the "Edinburgh 

as k : <; as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, Y.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 


Review" for January, 1848, "is assuredly the person 11 
all Europe best fitted to undertake and accomplish such 
a work. Science has produced no man of more rich and 
varied attainments, more versatile in genius, more inde- 
fatigable in application to all kinds of learning, more 
energetic in action, or more ardent in inquiry, and, we 
may add, more entirely devoted to her cause in every 
period of a long life. At every epoch of that life, from 
a comparatively early age, he has been constantly before 
the public, realizing the ideal conception of a perfect 
traveller ; a character which calls for almost as great a 
variety of excellences as these which go to realize Cicero's 
idea of a perfect orator. . . . Above all things is neces- 
sary :, genial and kindly temperament, which excites no 
enmities, but, on the contrary, finds or makes friends 
everywhere. No man in the ranks of science is more 
distinguished for this last characteristic than Baron von 
Humboldt. We believe that he has not an enemy." 
The " Kosmos" has been translated into French by H. 
Faye and Ch. Galusky, (1848-57,) and into English by 
Mrs. Sabine. He received from the French government 
the title of grand officer of the legion of honour, and 
was a member of all the principal Academies of the 
world. Among his other works is "Aspects of Nature," 
("Ansichten der Natur," 1808; 3d edition, 2 vols., 1849.) 
He died in Berlin, May 6, 1859, in his ninetieth year. 

See JULIETTE BAUER, " Lives of the Brothers Humboldt," Lon- 
don, 1852: H. KLENCKB or KLETKK, "A. von Humboldt; ein oio- 
graphisches Denkmal," 1853 ; Review of the " Kosmos" in the " Lon- 
don Quarterly Review," vol. batvii. ; R. H. STODDARD, " Life of 
Alexander von Humboldt," New York, 1859: AGASSII, "Eulogy on 
Humboldt" in the "Living Age" for October J, 1869; PRUVS VAJ1 
DER HOBVEN, " A- von Humboldt, Interpres Naturae," 1845 ; " Quar- 
terly Review" for January and July, 1816, October, 1817, April, 1819, 
July, 1821, December, 1845, and January, 1854 ; " Edinburgh Re- 
view" for June, 1815 ; " Eraser's Magazine" for February, 1848. 

Humboldt, von, (KARL WILHELM,) BARON, a cele- 
brated German philologist and statesman, born at Pots- 
dam on the 22d of June, 1767, was a brother of the 
preceding. His early education was directed by Joachim 
Campe, a distinguished philanthropist. About 1788 he 
entered the University of Gottingen, where he studied 
philology under G. Heyne. Among the intimate friends 
of his youth was George Forster, the traveller. In July, 
1789, he visited Paris, and hailed with enthusiasm the 
advent of the new regime. He afterwards studied at 
Jena, and there formed an intimate and lasting friendship 
with the poet Schiller, who encouraged and directed him 
in his literary pursuits. Humboldt became also the friend 
and literary counsellor of Goethe. About 1791 he mar- 
ried Caroline von Dachenroden. Among his early works 
was an excellent " Essay on the Greeks," (1792.) In 1799 
he produced an admirable critical essay on Goethe's 
" Hermann and Dorothea," which established his repu- 
tation as a critic. He was appointed minister to Rome 
by the King of Prussia about 1802, and soon after that 
date produced a poem entitled " Rome," (" Rom.") He 
returned to Prussia in 1808, and was appointed minister 
of public instruction about the end of that year. lie 
took a prominent part in the foundation of the University 
of Berlin. About iSiohe resigned his office, and was sent 
as ambassador to Vienna. While thus employed in the 
public service, he devoted his leisure time to the study of 
languages, in many of which he was profoundly versed. 
He acquired distinction as a diplomatist, and induced 
Austria to join the coalition against Napoleon in August, 
1813. He represented Prussia at the Conference of 
Chatillon and the Congress of Vienna, 1814. Talley- 
rand's opinion of him is said to have been expressed in 
these words : " Europe does not possess three statesmen 
of such power," ("L'Europe n'a pas trois hommes d'e"tat 
de cette force.") He was sent as ambassador to London 
about 1816, and was appointed minister and privy coun- 
cillor at Berlin in 1819. He advocated a liberal constitu 
tion, and, when he found that the king was determined to 
adopt a reactionary policy, he resigned his office about 
the end of 1819, after which he took no part in political 
affairs. He composed numerous poems, the most of 
which remained in manuscript until his death, and many 
treatises on language, philology, etc. Among his prin- 
cipal works are an " Essay on the New French Consti- 
tution," (1792,) a metrical translation of the "Agamem- 
non" of jEschylus, (1816,) which is highly commended, 

ee Explanations, p. 23. ^ 




" Researches on the Aborigines of Spain by Means of 
the Basque Language," (1821,) and a " Memoir on Com- 
parative Linguistic." He was one of the greatest philoso- 
phers and critics of his time, and has been called the 
creator of comparative philology. The interesting corre- 
spondence between Schiller and Wilhelm von Humboldt 
was published in 1830. In the latter part of his life he 
devoted his attention to the study of the languages of 
barbarous tribes of America and Asia. He died at 
Tegel, near Berlin, April 8, 1835, leaving unfinished an 
extensive and excellent work, entitled "On the Kawi 
Language in the Island of Java," (" Ueber die Kawi 
Sprache auf der Insel Java,") which was published in 
1836. His works were collected and edited by his 
brother Alexander, under the title of " Wilhelm von 
Humboldts Gesammelte Werke," (4 vols., 1841-52.) 

See GUSTAV SCHLBSIER, " Wiihelm von Humboldts Leben;' 
KLENCKB, "W. von Humboldts Leben," (translated into English 
by JULIBTTB BAUER in 1852;) SCHLBSIER, " Erinnerungen an Wil- 
helm von Humboldt," 2 vols., 1843-45; ROBERT HAYM, "Wilhelm 
von Humboldt Lebensbild und Charakteristik," 1856 : " Foreign 
Quarterly Review" for January, 1842; "Quarterly Review" for 
April, 1868. 

Hume, (Rev. ABRAHAM,) an English antiquary, born 
about 1815. He became incumbent of a parish in Liver- 
pool about 1846, and distinguished himself as a promoler 
of education. He wrote, besides other works, "The 
Learned Societies and Printing-Clubs of the United 
Kingdom," (1847.) Died in 1884. 

Hume, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish poet and minister, 
born about 1560, preached at Logie. He published a 
volume of " Hymns or Sacred Songs," which were ad- 
mired, especially the " Day Estival." Died in 1609. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Hume or Home, (DAVID,) of Godscroft, a Scottish 
minister and writer, supposed to have been born about 
1560. He preached some years in France. He wrote 
some Latin poems, " Apologia Basilica," (" Apology or 
Defence of the King," 1626.) and "The History of the 
House and Race of Douglas and Angus," (1644.) 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. 

Hume, (DAVID,) an eminent English historian and 
philosopher, born in Edinburgh on the 26th of April, 
1711. He was a younger son of Joseph Hume or Home, 
who, though related to the Earl of Home, was not 
wealthy. In his Autobiography he says, " My studious 
disposition, my sobriety, and my industry gave my family 
a notion that the law was a proper profession for me ; 
but I found an insurmountable aversion to everything 
but the pursuits of philosophy and general learning ; 
and, while they fancied I was poring upon Voet and 
Vinnius, Cicero and Virgil were the authors which I 
was secretly devouring." For the sake of economy, he 
went to France in 1734 or 1735, and spent about two years 
at Rheims and La Fleche, where he wrote his " Treatise 
on Human Nature." This was published in London in 
1738, but was treated with discouraging neglect He 
says himself, " It fell from the press without reaching 
such distinction as even to excite a murmur among the 
zealots." Mackintosh calls this work " the first systematic 
attack on all the principles of knowledge and belief, and 
the most formidable, if universal skepticism could ever 
be more than a mere exercise of ingenuity." He passed 
several ensuing years in Scotland in his favourite studies, 
and issued in 1742 the first part of his "Essays, Moral, 
Political, and Literary," which was moderately successful. 
These contain new, ingenious, and suggestive ideas on 
commerce, political economy, and other subjects. 

In 1746 he was appointee secretary to General Saint 
Clair, with whom he passed two years on the continent 
Returning to his brother's residence in Scotland, he 

The latter of these was received with favour abroad and 
at home, while the other was scarcely noticed. About 
this time he commenced his most celebrated work, the 
" History of England," the first volume of which (com- 
prising the reigns of James I. and Charles I.) was pub- 
lished in 1754. He describes its reception in these 
terms: "I was assailed by one cry of reproach, disap- 
probation, and even detestation : English, Scotch, and 

Irish, Whig and Tory, churchman and sectary, free- 
thinker and religionist, patriot and courtier, united their 
rage against the man who had presumed to shed a gene- 
rous tear for the fate of Charles I. and the Earl of Straf- 
ford ; and after the first ebullitions of their fury were 
over, what was still more mortifying, the book seemed 
to sink into oblivion. Mr. Millar told me that in a 
twelvemonth he sold only forty-five copies of it." The 
subsequent volumes, however, were better appreciated, 
and the whole work became very popular and raised 
the author to affluence. The last volume was published 
in 1761. His style is generally admired, as graceful, 
natural, and perspicuous. But the value of his history 
is materially lessened by his partiality and inaccuracy. 
He was, as a skeptic, prejudiced against religion, and 
in civil government was inclined to favour prerogative. 
He is not profoundly versed in the philosophy of history, 
or in the progressive development of the British con- 
stitution. " He was far too indolent," says Alison, " tc 
acquire the vast stores of facts indispensable for correct 
generalization on the varied theatre of human affairs." 
Macaulay compares him to "an accomplished advocate, 
whose insidious candour only increases the effect of his 
vast mass of sophistry." 

Respecting his merits as a political economist, Lord 
Brougham says, " Of the ' Political Discourses' it would 
be difficult to speak in terms of too great commendation. 
They combine almost every excellence which can belong 
The great merit, however, of 
originality." In 1763 Hurae 
accepted the office of secretary to the Earl of Hertford, 
ambassador to Paris, and having returned in 1766, much 
delighted by the caresses of the Parisians, he was em- 
ployed two years as under-secretary of state. In 1769 he 
retired from office, and, with an income of jioooa year, 
took up his residence in Edinburgh, where he died in Au- 
gust, 1776. Besides the works above named, he wrote the 
"Natural History of Religion," (1755,) and "Dialogues 
concerning Natural Religion," (1783.) He was never 
married. His personal character appears to have been 
amiable and respectable on the score of morality. " The 
Life of Mr. Hume, "says Mackintosh, "written by himself, 
is remarkable above most, if not all, writings of that sort 
for hitting the degree of interest between coldness and 
egotism which becomes a modest man in speaking of 
his private history. Few writers, whose opinions were 
so obnoxious, have more perfectly escaped every per- 
sonal imputation." 

See HUMB'S "Autobiography," 1777; DAVID DALRYMPLB, " Life 
of D. Hume," 1787 ; JOHN HILL BURTON, "Life and Correspond- 
ence of D. Hume," 2 vols., 1846; T. E. RITCHIE, "Account of the 
Life and Writings of D. Hume," 1807 ; MACKINTOSH, " Progress of 
Ethical Philosophy," I vol. 8vo; BRENNER, "Das Genie des Herrn 
Hume," etc, 1774; BROUGHAM, " Lives of Men of Letters of the 
Time of George HI." 

Hume, (DAVID,) an able Scottish lawyer, born in 
1756, was a nephew of the preceding. He was professor 
of Scottish law in the University of Edinburgh, and a 
jaron of the court of exchequer. He wrote a valuable 
legal text-book, entitled " Commentaries on the Law of 
Scotland respecting the Description and Punishment of 
Crimes," (1797.) Died in 1838. 

Hume, (FERGUS,) an English novelist, born in 

1896,) etc. 


Hume, (HUGH CAMPBELL,) third Earl of Marchmont 
x>m in 1708, was a grandson of Patrick, the first Earl. 
He acted a prominent part in Parliament as an opponent 
of Walpole, and was keeper of the great seal of Scot- 
"and from 1764 to 1794. Died in 1794, without male 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Hume, (JAMES DEACON,) an English financier, born 
at Newington in 1774, obtained in 1790 a clerkship in the 
London custom-house. Having given proof of ability 
and energy in responsible positions, he was employed 
in 1823 in the arduous task of simplifying and reducing 
to order the multitude of discordant statutes by which 
the transactions of the custom-house were complicated 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, 4, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon; 



and perplexed. For this important service he received 
from government a present cf five thousand pounds, and 
in 1829 he was appointed assistant secretary of the board 
of trade. He resigned in 1840, and died in 1842. 

Hume, (JOSEPH,) M.P., a British statesman of the 
Radical partv, was born at Montrose, Scotland, in 1777. 
Having studied surgery, he entered as surgeon the ser- 
vice of the East India Company in 1797. He learned 
the native languages of India, and, by combining the 
functions of interpreter and paymaster with those of 
army-surgeon, he acquired a handsome competence, and 
returned home in 1808. By a careful study of the na- 
tional resources and the condition of the people, he pre- 
pared himself for the task of a legislator and reformer, 
and entered Parliament in 1812. From 1818 to 1830 he 
represented Montrose in Parliament, where he gained 
great distinction by his industry and independence and 
by his important services to the working-classes. He 
was for many years pre-eminent in the House as a finan- 
cial reformer and a sturdy opponent of monopolies and 
high taxes. He declined political preferment on several 
occasions, and continued to serve in the House of Com- 
mons until his death, in 1855. 

Hume, (MARTIN ANDREW,) an English historical 
writer, born at London in 1847. He has published 
"Chronicle of Henry VIII.," (1889,) "Courtships 
of Queen Elizabeth," (1896,) "Spain: its Greatness 
and Decay," (1898,) etc., and edited the "Calendar 
of Spanish State Papers." 

Hume, (Sir PATRICK,) Earl of Marchmont, a 
Scottish patriot, was born in 1641. He was perse- 
cuted in the reign of Charles II., and escaped to 
Holland in 1684. Having returned in 1688, he was 
made lord chancellor in 1696, and Earl of March- 
mont. Died in 1724. 

Hume, (PATRICK,) a Scottish critic, who taught school 
in London. He published in 1695 " Annotations on Mil- 
ton's Paradise Lost," which was the first attempt to 
illustrate that author, and was commended by Bishop 
Newtcn. His critical labours have been appropriated 
by later commentators. According to "Biackwood's 
Magazine," Hume is "the father of that style of com- 
parative criticism which has been so much employed 
during these later days in illustrating the works of our 
great poet." 

Humerus, hoo'ml-roos, (?) (LARS JOHANSSON,) a 
Swedish poet, known as " Lucidor the Unfortunate," 
born in Stockholm about 1642. He was educated at 
Upsala, where in 1668 he became a professor, but in 1669 
he went to Stockholm and wrote verse for his living. 
He was murdered August 13, 1674, "The Flowers of 
Helicon" (" Helicons Blomster") is considered his poet- 
ical monument, but his hymns are his best work. With 
great faults of taste and style, he was by far the best 
Swedish writer of his times. He is called " Lars Jo- 
hansson" in many bibliographies. 

Humes, humz, (THOMAS WILLIAM,) D.D., an Amer- 
ican educator, born at Knoxville, Tennessee, April 22, 
1815. He graduated at East Tennessee College in 1836, 
held an Episcopalian rectorship, 1846-61, was president 
of East Tennessee University, 1865-79, and of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, 1879-83. Died January 16, 1892. 

Humieres, d 1 , dii'me-aiR', (Louis de Crevant 
deh kReh-voN',) Due, a French general and courtier of 
Louis XIV., was created marshal in 1668, and com- 
manded the right wing at the victory of Cassel, in 1677. 
He commanded the army in Flanders which was de- 
feated by Waldeck in 1689. Died in 1694. 

Hummel, hoom'mel, (joaANN ERDMANN,) a German 
painter, born at Cassel about 1770. He worked in Ber- 
lin, and became in 1809 professor of perspective, etc. in 
the Royal Academy of that city. Died in 1827. 

Hummel, hoom'mel, (JOHANN NEPOMUK,) an excel- 
lent composer and pianist, born at Presburg, Hungary, 
in 1778. About the age of eight he became a pupil of 
Mozart in Vienna, and at the age of sixteen he was ac- 
counted one of the rr.ost skilful performers in Germany. 
He entered the service of Prince Esterhazy in 1803, and 
became chapel-master to the King of Wurtemberg in 

1816. He was chapel-master to the Duke of Weimar 
from 1818 until his death, during which period he 
performed with applause in London, Paris, and Saint 
Petersburg. Among his best works are concertos and 
sonatas for the piano. Died in 1837. 

Sec Fins, " Biographic Universelle des Musiciens ;" " Nouvelle 
Biographic Ge"nerale." 

Hummelius, hoom-ma'le-us, or Hummel, (JOHANN,) 
a German mathematician, born at Memmingen in 1518, 
was professor at Leipsic. Died in 1562. 

Hum'perdinck. (ENGELEERT,) a musical com- 
poser, born at Siegberg, near Bonn, in 1854. His 
musical fairy play, " Hansel und Gretel," (1893,) 
was phenomenally successful. It was followed by 
" Schneewittchen," "Die Lieben Geislein," etc. 

Humphrey, hum'fre,* (HEMAN,) D.D., an American 
divine, born in Simsbury, Connecticut, in 1779. He 
graduated at Yale in 1805. He was six years minister 
in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. He became president of 
Amherst College in 1823, and was succeeded in that 
office by Dr. Edward Hitchcock in 1845, when he re- 
moved to Pittsfield. He wrote several valuable works, 
among which are a "Tour in France, Great Britain, and 
Belgium," (2 vols., 1838,) " Domestic Education," (1840,) 
and " Letters to a Son in the Ministry," (1845.) Died 
in 1859. 

Humphrey, hum'fre, (LAWLENCE,) an English Cal- 
irinistic divine, born at Newport-Pagnel about 1527. 
In 1555 he retired to Zurich to escape persecution, and 
returned after the death of Queen Mary. He becime 
professor of divinity in Oxford in 1560, and Dean of 
Winchester in 1580. He published several able theo- 
logical works. Died about 1590. 

Humphreys, hum'frez,* (ANDREW A.,) an American 
general, born at Philadelphia in 1810, graduated at West 
Point in 1837. He served against the Seminole Indians 
in Florida, and subsequently in the engineer department 
of the army, and on the coast survey and the hydro- 
graphic survey of the delta of the Mississippi. During 
the civil war he held important positions in the Union 
army, commanded a division at the battle of Gettysburg, 
July 1-3, 1863, and a corps in the battles near Petersburg 
in 1865. In 1866 he was appointed chief of engineers of 
the army. Retired June 30, 1879 ; died Dec. 27, 1883. 

Humphreys, (DAVID,) an American poet, born in 
Derby, Connecticut, in 1753. He entered the army 
about 1776, and became in 1780 a colonel and aide-de- 
camp to General Washington. In 1784 he went to 
Europe with Jefferson, as secretary of legation. He 
a'ded Barlow and other poets in " The Anarchiad," and 
wrote other works, among which are a " Poem on the 
Happiness of America," and an " Address to the Armies 
of the United States," (1772.) He was sent as ministei 
to Portugal in 1790, and to Spain in 1797. Died in 1818. 

See GRIS^VVOLD, "Poets and Poetry of America;" DUVCKINCK, 
" Cyclopaedia of American Literature," vol. i. ; " National Portrait- 
Gallery of Distinguished Americans." vol. ii. 

Humphieys, hum'frez, (HENRY NOEL,) a British 
antiquary and numismatist, born at Birmingham in 1810. 
He published "The Coins of England," (1847,) "Ten 
Centuries of Art," (1851,) etc. Died June 13, l&g. 

Humphreys, (JAMES,) an eminent lawyer and juridi- 
cal writer, born in Montgomeryshire, Wales. He pub- 
lished a valuable work on "English Laws of Real 
Property," (1820.) Died in 1830. 

Humphreys or Humphrey, (PELHAM,) an English 
composer and musician, born in 1647. He composed 
anthems and songs. Died in 1674. 

Hunauld, ^ii'no', (FRANjcis JOSEPH,) a learned 
French physician, born at Chateaubriant in 1701, resided 
in Paris. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences, 
and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1730 
he became professor of anatomy in the Jardin des Plantes. 
He wrote dissertations on osteology, etc. Died in 1742- 

See QuiRARD, " La France Litte'raire." 

Hund, hoont, (WiGUL^EUS,) a German genealogist 

* This name is pronounced differently in different parts of th 
United States : some families writing their names HUMPHREY or 
HUMPHREYS always omit the initial h in pronunciation. 

liislcr LU II1C JVIH^ Ol vv UI Lemuel g HI nUMrtinnra ctiw<iy:> uuiik me luiiioi n 

\rd; gasro, H, K.,gufforal; N, nasal; R,trilltd; sasz; thasinMw. (J^ = See Explanations, p. 23.' 

; 9as.r; 



born in 1514, became aulic councillor at Munich in 1540. 
Died in 1588. 

See J. T. K8HLER, " Leben und Schriften Hunds," 1750. 

Hundeshagen, hoon'des-ha'gen, QOUANN CHRIS- 
TIAN,) a German writer on forests, was born at Hanau 
in 1783. Among his works is an " Encyclopaedia of the 
Science of Forests," (2 vols., 1821.) Died in 1834. 

Hundeshagen, (KARL BERNHARD,) a theologian, son 
of the preceding, was born in Hesse-Cassel in 1810. He 
became professor at Heidelberg in 1847, and published 
"German Protestantism: its Past and Present," (1846.) 
In 1867 he became a professor at Bonn, where he died, 
June 2, 1872. 

Hundhorst See HONTHORST. 
Hundt, hoont, (MAGNUS,) a German naturalist and 
writer, born at Magdeburg in 1449. He taught physics 
in the University of Leipsic. Died in 1519. 

Hun'e-ric or Hun'nj-ric, [Gr. 'Ovupiw,} second 
King of the Vandals of Africa, was the eldest son of 
Genseric, whom he succeeded in 447 A.D. ; hut he did 
not inherit his father's abilities. He married the daugh- 
ter of the emperor Valentinian III. His reign was 
extremely cruel and tyrannical. As an Arian, he perse- 
cuted the Catholics in particular. He died in 484, and 
left three sons, of whom Hilderic was the eldest; but 
Gondamond, a nephew of Huneric, was proclaimed his 

See GIBBON, "Decline nd Fall of the Roman Empire,' 
Hunfalvy, (JOHN,) (in Hungarian, HUNFALVY JANOS, 
hoon-folvye' yi'nosh,) a brother of Paul, noticed below, 
was born at Gross-Schlagendorf, June 8, 1820. In 1846 
he was made historical professor at Kasmark. His works 
include " Universal History" and various books on Hun- 
gary. In 1870 he was appointed professor of geography 
in the University of Pesth. Died in 1888. 

Hunfalvy, (PAUL,) (in Hungarian, HUNFALVY PAL,) 
an eminent philologist, born at Nagy-Szalok, Hungary, 
March 12, 1810. He was educated at Pesth, and in 1842 
became law-professor at Kasmark. Among his publica- 
tions are one on the Finnish language, entitled " Chresto. 
mathia Fennica," (1861,) " Ethnography of the Magyars,' 
(1876,) and many other works, chiefly relating to the non- 
Aryan races and languages of Europe. Died in 1891. 
Hun'gerford, (MARGARET WOLFE,) nee Hamil- 
ton, an Irish novelist, born in 1855. Under the 
pseudonym of The Duchess she published a large 
number of novels of a light society character. Diec! 
June 24, 1897. 

Hu-m'a-deB or Hun'ya-dei, [Hun. HUNYADY 
hoon'yody ; Fr. HUNIADE, h'u'ne-id',] (JOAN'NES COB- 
VI'NUS,) a brave Hungarian general, who about 1440 
was cliosen Vaivode of Transylvania. Soon after I^adis 
laus. King of Poland, was killed at the battle of Varna 
by the Turks, (1444,) Huniades was made captain-gen 
eral of his army and Governor of Hungary. His chiel 
exploit was the successful defence of Belgrade agains 
Mahomet II., in 1456. He died of wounds received in 
this action. His son, Matthias Corvinus, was electee 
King of Hungary'. 

Hun'nis, (WILLIAM,) chapel-master to Queen Eliza 
beth, wrote several volumes of psalms and hymns, (pub- 
lished from 1550 to 1588.) 

Hunnius, hoon'ne-us, (^fccroius,) a Lutheran theo 
logian, noted for intolerance, was born at Winnenden, in 
Wurtemberg, in 1550. He was professor at Wittenberg 
and wrote, besides other works, " Calvinus Judaizans,' 
('593-) Died in l6 3- 

Hunnius, (NlKOLAUS,) an able Lutheran theologian 
on of the preceding, was born at Marburg in 1585. H 
was superintendent of all the churches of Lubeck frorr 
1623 to 1643. He wrote against Popery, Calvinism, an 
Socinianism. Died in 1643. 

See L. HHLLHR. " N. Hunnius, sein Leben und Wirkcn," 1843. 

Ilunold, hoo'nolt, (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICK,) a Ger 
man litilratntr, who wrote under the pseudonym o 
MENANTES, born near Arnstadt in 1680. His work 
include romances, tales, and poems. Died in 1721. 

Hunt, (ALFRED WILLIAM,) an eminent English lane 
scape-painter, born at Liverpool in 1830. He graduate 

ith honours at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and 
on great distinction as a follower of Turner and an 
pponent of the naturalistic school of landscapists. 
)ied May 3, 1896. His wife MARGARET, a daughter of 
ames Raine, was bom at Durham in 1831. She wrote 
isny novels, and made a translation of Grimm's " Tales" 
ith the original notes. 

Hunt, (ARABELLA,) an English musician and vocalist, 
'ho taught singing to Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne. 
Jne of Congreve's best-known noemr. was addressed to 
r. Died December 26, 1705. 

Hunt, (EDWARD B.,) a.i American military engineer, 
wrn in Livingston county, New York, in 1822. He 
;raduated at West Point in 1845, was employed as 
'ngineer on several forts and light-houses, invented a 
ubmarine battery, and gained the rank of captain in 
859. Died in 1863. 

Hunt, (FREDERICK KNIGHT,) an English editor, born 
n Buckinghamshire in 1814. After writing for the " II- 
ustrated London News," etc., he was chief editor of the 
London "Daily News" from 1851 until his death. He 
wrote " The Book of Art," and " The Fourth Estate ; or, 
Contributions to the History of Newspapers," etc., (1850.) 
Died in 1854. 

Hunt, (FREEMAN,) an editor, born in Quincy, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1804. He became in 1839 the editor and 
owner of the " Merchants' Magazine," issued monthly in 
tf ew York. He published, besides other works, " Lives 
of American Merchants," (2 vols., 1856.) Died in 1858. 
Hunt, (GEORGE WARD,) an English pol'tician, born 
.n 1825. He was elected a member of Parliament for 
the county of Northampton in 1857, as a Conservative. 
He was re-elected, and gained distinction by a bill to 
counteract the cattle-plague of 1866. He became chan 
cellor of the exchequer about March I, 1868, and re- 
signed in December of that year. Died July 2S, 1877. 

Hunt, (HARRIOT K.,) an American physician, born at 
Boston, Massachusetts, in 1805. In 1835 she began to 
practise medicine, but by reason of her sex could obtain 
no medical degree until 1853, when she received the 
doctorate from the Woman's Medical College of Phila- 
delphia. She was noted as an able speaker on woman's 
rights, health-reform, etc. Died January 2, 1875. 

Hunt, (HENRY,) M.P., an English Radical, born in 
Wiltshire in 1773, acquired popularity with his party by 
his intrepid audacity and by his inflammatory harangues. 
He often presided at the meetings against the corn-laws. 
In 1820 he was arrested at Manchester, while addressing 
a political meeting, and punished with a fine and several 
years' imprisonment He was returned to Parliament 
for Preston in 1831, defeating the Earl of Derby, his op- 
ponent, and witnessed the triumph of the Reform bill, 
for which he had toiled and suffered. Died in 1835. 

Hunt, (ISAAC,) a native of the West Indies, was edu 
cated in Philadelphia He took the royalist side in the 
Revolution, remved to England, and became a preacher 
at Paddington about 1780. He published "The Right? 
of Englishmen." He was the father of Leigh Hunt. 

Hunt, (JAMES HENRY LEIGH,) a popular English 
poet and littfratmr, born at So'ithgate, near London, in 
1784, was the son of Isaac Hunt, noticed above, ami 
Mary Shewell, of Philadelphia. He left school at the age 
of fifteen, and acted as clerk in the War Office until 1808, 
when he formed a partnership with his brother John 
to issue "The Examiner," a journal of liberal politics, 
which attained under his editorship a high reputation for 
literary merit. In 1812 the brothers were condemned 
to pay each a fine of five hundred pounds, and to be 
imprisoned two, for a satirical article in which the 
prince-regent was styled an " Adonis of fifty." While 
in prison, he wrote "Rimini," (1816,) one of his most 
admired poems, "The Descent of Liberty," and "The 
Feast of the Poets." At this period he was intimate with 
Byron, Moore, Shelley, and Keats. From 1818 to 1822 he 
edited " Th? Indicator," a series of periodical essays, ad- 
mired for genial humour, easy style, and brilliant fancy. 
In 1822 he was associated with Byron and Shelley as an 
editor of " The Liberal," a political and literary journal ; 
and for this object he resided with Byron in Pisa and 
Genoa. But Shelley was drowned, Byron and Hunt 
became estranged, and after the issue of four numbers 

a. e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y. short: a, e, i, o, otiscure; fir. fill, fat; m8t; not; good; moon: 




"The Liberal" was discontinued. Hunt returned to 
England about 1824, and published "Recollections of 
Byron," (1828,) which gave great offence to Byron's 
friends. He was editor of "The Companion" and the 

London Journal," and wrote for several periodicals. 
Among the multifarious productions of his versatile 
genius are a popular poem entitled " Captain Sword 
and Captain Pen," (1835,) "Stories from the Italian 
Poets," "Men, Women, and Books," (1847,) "Imagina- 
tion and Fancy," and his "Autobiography," (3 vols., 
1850.) A pension of two hundred pounds was granted 
him in 1847. Died August 28, 1859. Professor Wilson, 
of Edinburgh, speaks of Hunt as " the most vivid of poets 
and most cordial of critics." (" Recreations of Christo- 
pher North.") 

See his "Autobiography," 1850; HAZLITT, "Spirit of the Age," 
&nd his " Table- Talk ;" LORD JKFFRBV, critique in the " Edinburgh 
Review" for June, 8i6, (vol. xxvi. ;) E. P. WHIPPLE, " Essays and 
Reviews;" W. G ?FORD, critique in the "Quarterly Review" for 
January, 1816, (vol. xiv. ;) " Brief Biographies," by SAMUBL SMILES. 
For a full account of the writings of Leigh Hunt, see a " List of 
the Writings of William Hazlitt and Leigh Hunt," by ALEXANDER 
IRELAND, London, iSbS; "North British Review" for November, 
1850, and November, 1860; "Quarterly Review" for January, 1816. 

Hunt, (JEREMIAH,) an English dissenting minister, 
born in London in 1678, preached for many years at 
Pinners' Hall. Died in 1744. 


Hunt, (RICHARD MORRIS,) a distinguished American 
architect, born in Brattleborough, Vermont, October 31, 
1829. He was several years in the Boston High School. 
In 1842 he went to Europe, and studied architecture 
in Paris and Geneva. He subsequently visited various 
parts of Europe, and also Asia Minor and Egypt, for the 
purpose of becoming better acquainted with the archi- 
tecture of different countries. He was architect of 
the Lenox Library, New York, the Naval Observatory, 
Washington, the Administration Building at the Co- 
lumbian Exposition of 1893, and other important 
structures. Died July 31, 1895. 

Hunt, (ROBERT,) an English author and philosopher, 
born at Devonport in i8oy. His youth was passed in 
poverty, from which he was relieved by William Allen, 
the chemist, who procured him a situation in London, 
In 1832 he opened a druggist's shop in Penzar.oe, naving 
previously been a diligent student of chemistry and other 
sciences. He published his discoveries of the chemical 
action of the solar rays in an interesting work entitled 
"Researches on Light," (1844,) and in 1849 he gave to 
the world " The Poetry of Science." His " Panthea ; or. 
The Spirit of Nature," (1849,) is designated by a writer 
in the "North British Review" as "a work of a very 
peculiar character, in which philosophy and poetry are 
finely blended, and where great truths and noble senti- 
ments are expressed in language full of beauty and elo- 
quence." Among his later productions are " Elementary 
Physics," (1851,) and "Memoirs of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Great Britain," (1855.) He had a high reputation 
as a lecturer on science. He was the editor of three 
editions of Ure's " Dictionary of Arts," etc., and of the 
supplementary volume published in 1878. Died in 1887. 

Hunt, (THOMAS,) D.D., an English scholar, born in 
1696, became in 1747 professor of Hebrew in Oxford 
University. He wrote "Observations on the Book of 
Proverbs." Died in 1774. 

Hunt, (THOMAS STERRV,) a distinguished American 
chemist and geologist, born in Norwich, Connecticut, in 
1826. He studied medicine for some time in his native 
town, and afterwards became assistant chemist to Pro- 
fessor Silliman at Yale College. About 1847 he became 
connected with the geological survey of Canada, and 
professor of chemistry at Quebec. He was professor 
of chemistry at McGill University 1862-68, and of 
geology in the Massachusetts Institute 1872-78. He 
contributed largely to the " Proceedings" of learned 
institutions, and to the " American Journal of Science." 
While acting as a juror to the International Exhibition 
at Paris in 1855, Mr. Hunt had conferred on him the 
cross of the Legion of Honour ; and in 1859 he was 
elected an honorary member of the Royal Society of 
London. Died February 12, 1892. 

Hunt, (THORNTON,) an English journalist, the eldest 
ion of Leigh Hunt, was born in 1810. He wrote, besides 
other works, "The Foster-Brother," (1845.) Died 187^. 

Hunt, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an English painter in water 
colours, born in London in 1790. His subjects are simple 
and homely, such as a " Peasant Boy" in various moods 
and phases, a " Farm-House Beauty," flowers, fruits, 
and other objects of still life. His works are admirable 
for colouring and perfection of finish. Died in 1864. 

Hunt, (WILLIAM HOLMAN,) an eminent historical 
painter, one of the chief founders of the pre-Raphaelite 
school of England, was born in London about 1827. He 
began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1846. About 
1850 he and several other artists assumed the name of 
" Pre-Raphaelite Brethren," proposing to restore the art 
of painting from the degenerate style of Raphael and his 
coevals. His works are very minutely finished, and are 
close imitations of nature. Among his master-pieces are 
"Our English Coasts," (1853,) "The Awakening Con- 
science," (1854,) "The Light of the World," (1854,) and 
" The Shadow of Death," (1873.) " Hunt's ' Light of the 
World,' "says Ruskin, "is, I believe, the most perfect 
instance of expressional purpose with technical power 
which the world has yet produced." Later works are 
" The Triumph of the Innocents," (1885,) and " May 
Day, Magdalen Tower," (1891.) 

Hunt, (WILLIAM MORRIS,) an American artist, born 
at Brattleborough, Vermont, in 1824. He entered Harvard 
College in 1840, but left in his senior year for a tour in 
Europe. He spent a winter in Italy and two years in Dus- 
seldorf, after which he studied with Couture and Millet. 
From 1855 to 1862 he painted at Newport, Rhode Island, 
when he removed to Boston. In 1868 he opened an art 
school for ladies. His studio was burned in the great fire 
of 1872. In 1878 he painted two large pictures on the 
walls of the Assembly Chamber at Albany, but his health 
failed, and he died at the Isles of Shoals in 1879. 

Hunter, (ANNE,) wife of the great surgeon John 
Hunter, and sister of Sir Everard Home, was born in 
Scotland in 1742. She wrote "My Mother bids me 
braid my Hair," and other songs, set to music by Haydn, 
Her poems, published in 1802, were praised by " Black- 
wood's Magazine." Died in 1821. 

Hunter, (CHRISTOPHER,) an English physician and 
antiquary, born in Durham in 1675; died in 1757. 

Hunt'er, (DAVID,) an American general, born in 
Washington, District of Columbia, in 1802, graduated at 
West Point in 1822. He became a colonel in May, 1861, 
served in the battle of Bull Run, July 21, was appointed 
a major-general of volunteers about August, and took 
command of the army and department of Missouri in 
November, 1861. About the 1st of April, 1862, he was 
appointed commander of the army at Port Royal, or 
Hilton Head. In May ensuing he issued an order that 
the " persons heretofore held as slaves in South Carolina, 
Georgia, and Florida are declared forever free." This 
order was annulled by the President as premature. He 
was made brigadier-general and major-general in 1865, 
and was retired July 31, 1866. Died February 2, 

Hunter, (HENRY,) D.D., a Scottish divine and author, 
born at Culross in 1741, was a man of superior talents. 
From 1771 until his death he was pastor of a Scottish 
church in London. He was the author of a popular work 
styled "Sacred Biography," (1783-1802,) and translated 
Lavater's "Essays on Physiognomy," Saint-Pierre's 
"Studies of Nature," and other French works. His 
translation of Lavater, finely illustrated, sold for forty 
guineas a copy. Died in 1802. 

Hunter, (HUMPHREY,) a patriot of the Auerican 
Revolution, born in Ireland in 1755. About 1760 his 
widowed mother emigrated with her family to Mecklen 
burg, North Carolina. He entered the Revolutionary 
army in 1776, and rendered distinguished service at 
the battle of Eutaw Springs. He was ordained in 1789, 
and from 1805 till his death, in 1827, was pastor of the 
Presbyterian church at Steele Creek, North Carolina. 

Hunter, (JoHN,) an eminent British anatomist and 
surgeon, born at Long Calderwood, near Glasgow, in 
1728, was the youngest often children. After receiving 

; 5 as*; gAarJ; gasy; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMw. 

xplanations, p. 23.) 




I very defective education, he worked a few years with a 
cabinet-maker in Glasgow. In 1748 he went to London, 
where he was employed by his brother William as an 
assistant in the dissection-room. Having pursued the 
study of anatomy with ardour and remarkable success, 
he was received in 1754 as a partner in his brother's 
school, and lectured regularly for about five years. In 
1760, for the sake of his health, he exchanged this em- 
ployment for that of army-surgeon, and at the peace 
of 1763 returned to London. In 1767 he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, and soon after surgeon of 
Saint George's Hospital. He was eminent for surgical 
skill, and acquired greater celebrity by his researches 
in comparative anatomy, physiology, and natural history, 
on which he wrote several treatises. His museum is said 
to have cost .70,000. Died in 1793. He is admitted 
to be the greatest British anatomist of the eighteenth 
century, and was noted for originality, independence, 
and estimable moral qualities. Among his best works 
are a " Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gun- 
Shot Wounds," and another on "Certain Parts of the 
Animal Economy." 

See EVERARD HOME, "Life of John Hunter;" JESSB FOOTS, 
"Lite of J. Hunter," 1794: JOSEPH ADAMS, " Memoirs of the Life 
nd Doctrines of J. Hunter," 1816; CHAMBERS. "Biographical 
Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne^- 

Hunter, (JOHN,) a British naval officer, born at Leith 
01 1738, obtained the rank of vice-admiral. Died in 1821. 

Hunter, (JOHN,) a Scottish critic, born at Closebum 
In r/47, was for many years professor of humanity in 
Saint Andrew's, and published good editions of Horace, 
0797.) Virgil, (1800,) and Juvenal, (1806.) Died in 1837. 

Hunter, (JOHN KELSO,) a Scottish artist, born near 
Dundonald, December 15, 1802. He was bred a shoe- 
maker, but in spite of many discouragements won recog- 
nition as a good painter, chiefly of portraits. He pub- 
lished "Retrospect of an Artist's Life," (1868,) "Life- 
Studies of Character," "Memorials of West-Country 
Men and Manners," etc. Died February 3, 1873. 

Hunter, (Rev. JOSEPH,) an English antiquary, born 
at Sheffield in 1783. He was for many years minister 
of a congregation of dissenters at Bath. He published 
several valuable works, among which are a "History 
and Topography of the Deanery of Doncaster," (2 vols., 
1828,) and " Illustrations of trie Life and Studies of 
Shakspeare," (2 vols., 1845.) He was assistant keeper 
of the public records. Died in 1861. 

Hunter, (ROBERT,) an English officer and writer, was 
appointed Governor of New York in 1710, and acted as 
Governor of Jamaica from 1728 until his death. He 
wrote a " Letter on Enthusiasm," ascribed to Swift and 
Shaftesbuiy. Died in 1734. 

can statesman, born in Essex county, Virginia, April 21, 
1809. He graduated at the University of Virginia, 
studied law, and commenced its practice in his native 
town in 1830. He voted for Jackson in 1832, and was 
e'.ected to the legislature of Virginia in 1833. He was 
chosen a representative to Congress in 1837. His first 
speech in this body was in favour of the independent 
treasury and against a national bank. He also took 
strong grounds in opposition to the protective policy of 
Mr. Clay, and in all his subsequent career was an able 
advocate of free trade. In 1839 he was chosen Speaker of 
the House, and for his dignified and impartial discharge 
of its duties received, at the close of the term, in 1841, 
t unanimous vote of thanks. He favoured the election 
of James K. Polk, and supported his policy with regard 
to Texas and the tariff. The warehousing system, which 
was first incorporated in the tariff bill, was originated 
and drawn up by Mr. Hunter. He was elected in 1847 
to the United States Senate, in which he served through 
two full terms, and was elected for a third term ending 
in 1865. He supported the Douglas Kansas-Nebraska 
bill in 1854, and the admission of Kansas under the 
Lecompton Constitution in 1858. He was secretary of 
Btate of the Southern Confederacy from July, 1861, to 
February, 1862, and was one of the two Senators who 
represented Virginia in the Senate at Richmond from 
February, 1862, to 1865. Died July 18, 1887. 

Hunter, (WILLIAM,) a distinguished anatomist and 

physician, born at Long Calderwood, near Glasgow, in 
1718, was a brother of John Hunter, noticed above. He 
received a liberal education in the University of Glasgow, 
and formed a professional connection with Dr. Cullen, 
who afterwards became so eminent as a medical writer. 
In 1741 he removed to London, where he acquired a 
high reputation as a lecturer on anatomy and a medical 
practitioner. He formed a partnership with his brother 
John in 1748. Having obtained a large and lucrative 
practice, he was appointed in 1764 physician-extraordi- 
nary to the queen. In 1767 he was chostn a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, to whose " Transactions" he contrib- 
uted. About 1770 he founded in London an anatomical 
museum, to which were attached a classical library, and 
a cabinet of rare medals, which cost ^20,000. The 
most important of his publications is the " Anatomy of 
the Gravid Uterus," (1774.) He died in 1783. 

Hunter, (WILLIAM,) a British surgeon, born at Mont- 
rose, was employed in the service of the East India 
Company in Bengal. He published an " Account of 
Pegu," (1785,) " Caverns near Bombay," a " Hindostanee 
Dictionary," and several medical treatises. He was 
eminent as an Orientalist, and from 1794 to 1808 was 
secretary of the Asiatic Society. Died in 1815. 

Hunter, (Sir WILLIAM WILSON,) a British pub- 
licist, born July 15, 1840. He was educated at Glas- 
gow, Paris, and Bonn, and was sent to India in the 
civil service in 1862. He served with great honour 
in Orissa during the famine of 1866, and in 1871 was 
made director-general of statistics for India. Among 
his works are "The Annals of Rural Bengal," 
"Orissa," "Statistical Account of Bengal," (20 vols., 
1876; prepared under his supervision,) "The Indian 
Empire," (1882,) " Imperial Gazetteer of India," 
(1884,) "The Rulers of India," (edited 1890-95,) 
and "The Old Missionary," (1895.) 

Hunt'ing-dpn, (SELINA,) COUNTESS OF, an English 
lady, eminent for her piety and munificence, was the 
daughter of the Earl of Ferrers. Her maiden name was 
SHIRLEY. She was born in I7o7,and in 1728 was married 
to Theophilus Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon. After her 
husband's death, about 1746, she lived in fellowship 
with the Calvinistic Methodists, chose Whitefield for her 
chaplain, and was noted for her zeal and devotion. 
She founded at Trevecca a seminary for preachers, built 
chapels, and spent large sums for religious purposes, 
Her sect was known as the "Countess of Huntingdon's 
Connection." Died in 1791. 

Hunt'ing-fprd, (GEORGE ISAAC,) D.D., an English 
theologian, born at Winchester in 1748. He was made 
Bishop of Gloucester in 1802, and of Hereford in 1815. 

painter, born in New York in 1816. He became about 
1835 a pupil of Professor Morse at New York, and in 

and historical subjects. He was elected president of the 
National Academy of Design in 1862. Among his works 
are " Lady Jane Grey and Feckenham in the Tower," 
and "Henry VIII. and Catherine Parr." He was 
president of the National Academy of Design 1877- 

Huntington, (FREDERICK D.,) D.D., an American 
divine and author, born in Hadley, Massachusetts, in 
1819. He graduated at Amherst in 1839, studied divinity 
at Cambridge, and from 1842 to 1855 was minister of the 
South Congregational Church in Boston. He became 
preacher and professor of Christian morals in Harvard 
University. Formerly a Unitarian, he entered the Epis- 
copal Church in 1859, and became Bishop of Central New 
York in April, 1869. He published " Sermons for the 
People," (1856,) "Sermons on the Christian Year," 
(1881,) and other works. 

Huntington, (JEDEDIAH VINCENT,) an author, a 
brother of Daniel, noticed above, was born in New York 
in 1815. He became an Episcopalian priest about 1840, 
and afterwards joined the Roman Catholic Church. H 

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; m8t; n&t; good; moon 




wrote, besides other works, Poems, (1843,) an ^ "Lady 
Alice," a novel, (1849.) Died March 10, 1862. 

Huiitington, (ROBERT,) D.D., an English Orientalist, 
born at Deerhurst in 1630. From 1670 to 1680 he was 
chaplain to a factory at Aleppo, and collected many valu- 
able manuscripts in the Levant. He was chosen Bishop 
of Raphoe in 1701, and died in the same year. He wrote 
a " Letter on the Porphyry Pillars in Egypt," (published 
In the "Philosophical Transactions," No. 161.) 

Huntington, (SAMUEL,) president of the American 
Congress, was born in Windham, Connecticut, in 1732. 
He distinguished himself in the Colonial Council of 
1775 by his opposition to the aggressive policy of Great 
Britain, and in 1776 took his seat in Congress and signed 
the Declaration of Independence. In 1779 he succeeded 
John Jay as president of the Congress of the Confedera- 
tion, ana was again chosen to the same office in 1780. 
He again served in Congress in 1783, and was shortly 
after appointed chief justice of Connecticut In 1786 he 
was elected Governor of the State, as the successor of 
Roger Griswold. and was annually re-elected to the same 
office till his death, in 1796. 

See GOODRICH, " Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Inde- 

Huntington, (WILLIAM,) an English Methodist 
preacher, born in Kent in 1744, was originally a poor 
labourer. He became a popular preacher among the 
Calvinistic Methodists in London, and published many 
tracts and controversial works. Died in 1813. 

See notice in the "Quarterly Review" far January, 1821, (by 

Huut'ley, (ELIAS DEWITT,) D.D., LL.D., a Meth- 
odist clergyman, born at Elmira, New York, April 19, 
1844. He graduated at Geneva College in 1866, was 
president of Lawrence University, 1879-83, and after- 
wards was chosen chaplain of the United States Senate. 

Hun'ton, (PHILIP,) an English nonconformist divine, 
born in Hampshire, was appointed provost of Durham 
College in 1657. He wrote a "Treatise on Monarchy," 
(1644,) which gave great offence to the High-Church 
party. Died about 1682. 

Hunts'man, (BENJAMIN,) an English artisan, born in 
Lincolnshire 'in 1704, is said to have been the inventor 
of cast steel. He lived in Sheffield. Died in 1776. 

Hunyadea. See HUNIADES. 

Hunyady. See HUNIADES. 

Huot, Aii'o', (JEAN JACQUES NICOLAS,) a French 
naturalist, born in Paris in 1 790, published a "Complete 
Manual of Mineralogy," (2 vols., 1841,) and revised and 
continued the " System of Universal Geography," which 
Malte-Brun left unfinished. The last two volumes of 
this were written by M. Huot Died in 1845. 

Hupfeld, h<56p'i?lt, (HERMANN,) a German theolo- 
gian and Orientalist, born at Marburg in 1796, became 
professor of theology at Halle in 1843. He published, 
besides other works, " De Vera Festorum apud Hebraeos 
Ratione," (2 vols., 1852,) and a version of the Psalms, 
(1855.) He was an excellent Hebrew scholar. Died at 
Halle in April, 1866. 

Huppazoli, oop-pad-zo'lee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian, 
noted for longevity, born at Casal in 1587, was at one 
time a merchant, and in 1669 was appointed Venetian 
consul at Smyrna. He was abstemious in his habits, 
and retained the use of his faculties to the last. Died 
in 1702. 

Hurault. See CHIVERNY. 

Hurd, (RICHARD,) D.D., an eminent English writer 
and critic, born at Congreve in 1720, was educated at 
Cambridge, and became a friend of Warburton. He was 
appointed Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1775. and 
translated to the see of Worcester in 1781. The arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury was offered to him, but was 
declined. Among his works, which are very numerous 
and able, are "Dialogues, Moral and Political," " Letters 
on Chivalry," (1762,) "Commentary on Horace's Ars 
Poetica," " Lectures on the Prophecies," and a " Life of 
Warburton," (1794.) "Hurd has perhaps," says Hal- 
lam, "the merit of being the first who, in this country, 
aimed at philosophical criticism : he had great ingenuity, 
a good deal of reading, and a facility in applying it ; but 

he did not feel very deeply, was somewhat of a coxcomb, 
and assumes a dogmatic arrogance which offends the 
reader." (" Introduction to the Literature of Europe. 1 *) 
Died in 1808. 

See FRANCIS KILVERT, " Memoirs of Bishop Hurd," 1860; "Life 
of R. Hurd," by himself, in an edition of his Works, 8 vols., 1811 1 
"North British Review" for May, 1861. 

Hur'dia, (Rev. JAMES,) an English poet, born In 
Sussex in 1763, was a friend of the poet Cowper. In 
1784 he became tutor to the Earl of Chichester's son, 
and in 1793 professor of poetry at Oxford. He wrote 
"The Village Curate," (1788,) "Sir Thomas More," a 
tragedy, and other poems. Died in 1801. 
See " Retrospective Review," vol. i.. 1820. 
Hur6, /Sii'Ra', (CHARLES,) a French Jansenist writer, 
born at Champigny-sur-Yonne in 1639, was for many 
years an eminent professor of languages in the Univer- 
sity of Paris. He published an approved " Dictionary 
of the Bible." Died in 1717. 

Huret, /m'r4', (GREGOIRE,) a French engraver, born 
at Lyons in 1610. His work is easy and mellow, and 
his heads expressive. Died in 1670. 

Hurl'bert, (WILLIAM HENRY,) a journalist, born at 
Charleston, South Carolina, July 3, 1827. He graduated 
at Harvard College in 1847, an d at the Harvard Divinity 
School, was for a short time a Unitarian minister, and 
afterwards studied in Germany and at the Dane Law 
School. He became a journalist of New York, and for 
many years was one of the editors of the " World"^iews- 
paper. He published "Gan-Eden," (1854,) "General 
McClellan and the Conduct of the War," (1864,) and 
other works. Died in Italy, September 4, 1895. 

Hurltmt, (STEPHEN A.,) an American general, born 
at Charleston, South Carolina, about 1815, commanded 
a division of General Grant's army at Shiloh, April 6-7, 
1862. With the rank of major-general, he directed a 
corps of General Sherman's army in the raid to Meridian 
in February, 1864. Died March 28, 1882. 

Hurl'stone,(FREDERiCK YEATES,) an English painter 
of history and portraits, was born in London in 1801. 
Soon after 1830 he joined the Society of British Artists, 
of which he became president. Among his works are 
" The Spanish Beauty" and " The Last Sigh of the Moor." 
His portraits are much admired. Died in 1869. 

Hurst, (JOHN FLETCHER,) D.D., LL.D., an American 
Methodist bishop, born near Salem, Maryland, August 
17, 1834. He graduated at Dickinson College in 1854, 
studied divinity in Halle and Heidelberg, and in 1858 
became a preacher. He had charge (1866-69) f a 
Methodist theological institution in Germany. In 1871 
he became professor of historical theology in the theo- 
logical seminary at Madison, New Jersey, and in 1873 was 
appointed its president. He was elected a bishop in 
1880, and chancellor of the American University in 
1891. Among his numerous works are " History of 
Rationalism," (1866,) " Outlines of Bible History," 
(1875,) "Outlines of Church History," (1878,) and 
" History of the Reformation," (1884,) besides sev- 
eral theological works translated from the German. 

Hurtault, AuR'to', (MAXIMILIEN JOSEPH,) a French 
architect, born at Huningue in 1765. He was appointed 
architect of the Fontainebleau Palace, in which he re- 
stored the gallery of Diana. Died in 1824. 

Hurter, hooR'ter, (FRIEDRICH EMANUEL,) a German 
historian, born at Schaffhausen in 1786, published a 
"History of Pope Innocent III.," (4 vols., 1834-42,) 
and a " History of the Emperor Ferdinand II. and his 
Family," ( Eltern,) (9 vols., 1850-57.) Died in 1865. 

Hus'bands, (HERMAN,) a native of Pennsylvania, 
became a 'leader of the " Regulators" in North Carolina 
in 1768, and fought against Governor Tryon in 1771 
Died about 1794. 

Huschke, hoosh'keh, (EMANUEL GOTTLIEB,) a Gei- 
man philologist, born in 1761, published a good edition 
of Tibullus, (1819,) and other works. Died in 1828. 

Huschke, (GEORG PHILIPP EDUARD,) a German 
jurist, born at Miinden in 1801, published "Studies on 
Roman Law," (1830,) and other works. Died in 1886. 

Hus'kls-spn, (WILLIAM,) an English statesman and 
financier, born in Worcestershire in 1770, went to Paria 

,- casj; ghard; gas/; G, H, Vi,guttural; N, nasal R. trilled; sas0,' th as mthis. (JJ^=See Explanations, p. 2 



lii 1 783, where he lived with one of his uncles and learned 
the French language. Sympathizing with the Revolution, 
oe was present at the storming of the Bastille, and he 
became a prominent member of the "Socie'te de 1789." 
In 1790 he was employed as secretary to Lord Gower, 
then ambassador at Paris, with whom he returned 
to England in 1792. Having attracted the favourable 
notice of Pitt, he was appointed in 1795 under-secre- 
tary in the department of war and the colonies, and the 
next year was returned to Parliament for Morpeth. He 
was secretary of the treasury from 1804 until the deitb 
of Pitt, and again from 1807 until 1809, when, as a 
friend of Canning, he resigned with him. In Parliament 
he represented successively Harwich, Chichester, (18:2- 
23,) and Liverpool, (1823-30.) He gained distinction 
by his knowledge of finance and commerce, and by his 
methodical and luminous reports. In 1823, under the 
auspices of Canning, he became president of the board 
of trade, treasurer of the navy, and a member of the 
cabinet From the death of Canning (l82j) to 1829 he 
acted as colonial secretary. In the latter part of his life 
he inclined to the policy of the Liberal party in respect 
to electoral reform, the corn-laws, and other restrictions 
on commerce. He resigned in May, 1829, because he 
differed from the Tory ministry. At'the opening of the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway he was killed by an 
engine, September 15, 1830. 

See " Speeches and Biography," by WRIGHT, 3 vols., 1831 : Wit 
FBBDAN, Men I have known," London, 1866; "Nouvelle Bio- 
graphic Ge'ne'rale." 

Huss, (JOHN,) [Ger. JOHANN Huss, yo'hin hooss ; Lat 
JOHAN'NES Huss,] a celebrated reformer of the Church, 
was born at Husinec, (or Hussinetz,) in Southern Bohe- 
mia, in 1369. Being appointed in 1402 preacher at the 
Bethlehem Chapel in Prague, he became a zealous advo- 
cate of the doctrines of Wickliffe, whereby he incurred 
the censure of the Catholic clergy. As rector of the Uni- 
versity of Prague, he had the works of Wickliffe trans- 
lated into Bohemian ; but they were soon after burned by 
order of Archbishop Sbinko. In 1412 he denounced the 
papal bull issued by John XXIII. against Ladislaus, 
King of Naples, and with his coadjutor, Jerome of Prague, 
condemned the sale of indulgences. He was excommu- 
nicated the next year, upon which he wrote his work " On 
the Church," exposing the abuses of popery. Cited 
before the Council of Constance in 1414, and provided 
with a pass by the emperor Sigismund, he was arrested 
on his arrival, and, as he adhered firmly to his opinions, 
he was burned by order of the treacherous emperor. 

See E*MILB DB BONNECHOSB, " Les ReTormateure avant la Re- 
forme," a vols., 1847; " J. Huss et Hieronymi Pragensis Historia et 
Monumenta," Nuremberg, 1558; J. COCHLBS, "Historia Hussi- 
tarum," 1549: HODGSON, " Reformers and Martyrs," Philadelphia, 
1867 ; AUGUST NKA.XDBR, " Ziige aus dem Leben des unvergesslichen 
J. Huss," Berlin, 1819: WM. GIUIN, " Lives of John Wickliffe and 
of the Most Eminent of his Disciples, Lord Cobham, J. Huss," etc., 
1765: GEORG LOMMBL, " J. Huss," 1847; HBLFKRT, " Huss und 
Hieronymus von Prag," 1853; "North Ameri-an Review" for Octo- 
ber, 1847, (by H. W. TORRBY.) 

Hussein Pasha, hoos'sln' pi'shl', a famous Turkish 
admiral, born about 1750, was a favourite of Selim III., 
who in 1789 appointed him capudan-pasha. He pos- 
aessed superior talents, and served his master with fi- 
delity in reforming the discipline and management of 
the navy. He commanded the fleet which in i8ot co- 
operated with the English against the French on the 
coast of Egypt. Died in 1803. 

Hussein' Pasha, (or Pacha,) last Dey of Algiers, 
born at Smyrna about 1773. At the death of AH Pasha, 
in 1818, he was proclaimed his successor. To avenge 
an insult received by the French consul, the French 
government sent in June, 1830, an army which, after 
several days' fighting, forced Hussein to capitulate. He 
vas deposed, and died in 1838. 

See A. NETTEMENT, " Histoire de la ConquSte d'Alger," 1857. 
Htts'sey, (GILES,) an English painter, born in 1710, 
studied in Italy, and settled in London in 1742. He 
excelled in portraits, and attempted to apply to his art 
the hypothesis of harmonic proportions. Died in 1788. 
Husson, /fcii'soN', JEAN HONOR ARISTIDE,) a skil- 
ful French sculptor, born in Paris in 1803. He gained 
the grand prize of Rome in 1830. Among his works 
are " Dante and Virgil," a bas-relief, (1836,) a statue of 

Voltaire, (1839,) and a marble statue of " Haidee," (1850.) 
Died in 1864. 

Hu'stpn, (LORENZO Dow,) a Methodist minister, born 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1820, preached in Kentucky, and 
edited several papers. 

Hutch'e-spn, [Lat HUTCHESO'NUS,] (FRANCIS,) a 
metaphysician, born in the north of Ireland in 1694, was 
educated at Glasgow, and was ordained as a Presbyterian 
minister. While employed as principal of an academy 
in Dublin, he published about 1725 an excellent work, 
entitled an " Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of 
Beauty and Virtue," which was followed by an " Essay 
on the Passions and Affections," (1728.) In 1729 he was 
appointed professor of moral philosophy iri the Uni- 

r*\*.. nf f^}-*frtn*wt T\taf1 \T\ till Htc fTTA^fr*Ct ttK^rl^ "A 

of the modern school of philosophy in Scotland." He 
adopted the opinions of Lord Shaftesbury in moral philos- 
ophy, and maintained that disinterested affections and a 
distinct moral faculty are essential parts of human nature. 

Hutch'ins, (CHARLES LEWIS,) an American clergy- 
man, born at Concord, New Hampshire, August 5, 
1838, graduated at Williams College in 1861, and at the 
General Theological Seminary in New York. He be- 
came a presbyter of the Episcopal Church, and in 1877, 
1880, and 1883 was the secretary of its general conven- 
tion. His church and Sunday-school hymnals and col- 
lections of church music are widely known. 

Hutch'ins, (Rev. JOHN,) born at Bradford-Peverel, in 
England, in 1698, wrote the " History and Antiquities 
of the County of Dorset" Died in 1773. 

Hutch'ins, (THOMAS.) an American geographer, born 
in Monmouth county, New Jersey, about 1735. He was 
appointed geographer to the United States by Congress, 
and published, besides other works, a " Topographical 
Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
North Carolina," (I7?8.) Died in 1789. 

Hutch'in-spn, (ANN,) a religious enthusiast, born in 
Lincolnshire, England, about 1600. She was the wife of 
William Hutchinson, whom she accompanied to Boston 
in 1636. She taught many doctrines which were con- 
demned as heretical by the Synod of 1637. Mrs. Hutchin- 
son herself was banished, and in 1642 removed to what 
is now Westchester county, New York. The next year 
her house was set on fire by the Indians, and she and all 
her family, consisting of sixteen persons, (except a child 
taken captive,) either perished in the flames or were 
killed by the savages. 

See "Life of Anne Hatchinson," by GBORGB E. EU.IS, in 
SrAKKs's " American Biography," voL n., ad series. 

Hutchinson, (H. N.,) an English popular science 
author, born at Chester in 1856. He published " Au- 
tobiography of the Earth," (1890,) "Extinct Mon- 
sters," (1892,) " Prehistoric Man and Beast," (1896,) 
" Marriage Customs in Many Lands," (1897,) etc. 

Hutchinson, (JOHN, )CoLONEL, an English Puritan 
and regicide, born at Nottingham in 1616. In 1638 he 
married Lucy Apsley. (See HUTCHINSON, LUCY.) In 1642 
he obtained the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army 
of Parliament, and next year was appointed governor 
of the town and castle of Nottingham, which he bravely 
defended in a long siege against the royalists. He was one 
of the judges who condemned Charles I., and afterwards 
was a member of the council of state. He was hostile 
to the government of Cromwell. After the restoration 
he was included in the act of amnesty, but, on a ground- 
less suspicion of a treasonable conspiracy, was confined 
in the Tower and Sandown Castle from 1662 to his death 
in 1664. His character was excellent, and free from the 
austere errors to which the Puritans were mcst inclined. 

See " Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson," by his wife, 1806. 

Hutchinaon, (JOHN,) an English writer, born at 
Spennithorne in 1674, was the founder of the Hntchin- 
sonian or mystical school of biblical interpretation. He 
was employed as steward by the Duke of Somerset, and 
afterwards as his riding-purveyor. His first work, called 
" Moses' Principia," was designed to refute the argu- 
ments of Newton's " Principia." He published, also, a 
" Treatise on Power, Essential and Mechanical," " Glory 

i. e, 1, 5, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y; short; a, e, i, p, ohcurt ; ftr, fall, fit: m?t; not; good; moon: 




or Gravity, Essential and Mechanical," " The Hebrew 
Writings Complete," " Moses sine Principle," and other 
works. His leading idea is that the Hebrew Scriptures 
contain the elements of natural philosophy as well as 
of religion. His views excited much controversy, and 
were adopted by Bishop Home, Parkhurst, and other 
eminent divines. Died in 1737. 

See JULIUS BATES, "Defence of John Hutchinson's Teneta," 
1751 : FLOYD, " Bibliotheca Biographica." 

Hutchiiison, (JOHN HELY,) an Irish statesman and 
lawyer, born in 1715, resided in Dublin, and became 
secretary of state. Died in 1794. 

Hutchiiison, (JOHN HELY,) a British general, born 
in 1757, was the second son of the preceding. He 
entered the army in 1774. Having gained distinction in 
the Irish rebellion, he was made major-general in 1796. 
In 1800 he went to Egypt as second in command under 
Sir Ralph Abercrombie. When the latter was killed, in 
March, 1801, Hutchinson succeeded to the command, 
and obliged the French army under Menou to capitulate 
at Alexandria in the same year. He was rewarded for 
these services by the title of Baron Hutchinson. In 
1825, on the death of his brother, he inherited the title 
of Earl of Donoughmore. Died in 1832. 

Hutchinson, (LUCY,) an English authoress of great 
merit, was the daughter of Sir Allan Apsley, lieutenant 
of the Tower of London, in which Tower she was born 
in 1620. She was married in 1638 to Colonel John 
Hutchinson, noticed above, after having received a liberal 
education. She shared the counsels and dangers of her 
husband in the civil war, attended him in prison, and 
wrote Memoirs of his life, (1806,) which are greatly 
admired. " We have not often met with anything," says 
Lord Jeffrey, " more interesting and curious than this 
volume. ... It challenges our attention as containing an 
accurate and luminous account of military and political 
affairs from the hand of a woman, and as exhibiting the 
most liberal and enlightened sentiments in the person 
of a Puritan. The views which it opens into the char- 
acter of the writer and the manners of the age will be to 
many a still more powerful attraction." 

See " Memoirs of Eminent Englishwomen," by LOUISA S. Cos- 
TBLLO, London, 1844; "Edinburgh Review" for October, 1808, 
(vol. xiii. ;) "Monk's Contemporaries," by GUIZOT, London, 1865. 

Hutchinson, (RICHARD HELY,) Earl of Dor.ough- 
inore, born in Dublin in 1756, was the eldest son of John 
H. Hutchinson, noticed above. He served in the army 
during the Irish rebellion of 1798, and in 1800 was raised 
to the peerage, as Earl of Donoughmore. In 1805 he 
obtained the rank of major-general. In Parliament he 
advocated with zeal and constancy the claims of the 
Catholics. He was created a peer of the United King- 
dom in 1821. Died in 1825. 

Hutchinson, (ROGER,) an early English Reformer, 
became Fellow of Saint John's College, Cambridge, in 
1543. He left theological works, which were published 
in 1842. Died in 1555. 

Hutchinson, (THOMAS,) a royal governor of Massa- 
chusetts, was born in Boston in 1711. He became a 
judge of probate in 1752, and chief justice of Massachu- 
setts in 1760. His course in relation to the Stamp Act 
rendered him very unpopular. He succeeded Bernard 
as governor in 1769, and pursued a policy which tended 
to provoke a revolt in the colonies. When the tea was 
brought to Boston in 1773, the inhabitants, in town- 
meeting, resolved that it should not be landed, but be 
returned to its owners. Hutchinson, however, refused to 
grant the ships a pass. The result was the destruction 
of the tea by citizens in the disguise of Indians. In 1 772, 
Dr. Franklin, colonial agent in London, had sent over 
to Massachusetts confidential letters written by Hut- 
chinson to England, which showed that his whole policy 
had been characterized by duplicity and evasion, that, 
professing to be the friend of the colony, he had secretly 
advised the sending of troops to Boston, and other 
obnoxious measures. He retired to England in 1774. 
Died near London in 1780. His principal works are a 
" History of the Province of Massachusetts Bay from 
1628 to 1749," (2 vols. 8vo, issued in 1764-67,) and a 
" Collection of Original Papers relative to the History 
of Massachusetts Bay," (1769.) The " North American 

Review" calls his work " a mine of wealth to all future 
historians and antiquaries." " It is written," says Kan- 
croft, "with lively inquisitiveness and lawyer-like criti- 
cism, though without a glimpse of the great truths which 
were the mighty causes of the revolution he describes." 

See ALLEN'S "American Biographical Dictionary." 

Huth, hoot, (GEORG LEONHARD,) a German natu- 
ralist, born at Nuremberg in 1705 ; died in 1761. 

Hutin, H'tan', (CHARLES,) a French painter and 
sculptor, born in Paris in 1715, worked mostly at Dres- 
den, where he died in 1776. 

Hutten, von, fon hoot'ten, [Lat HUTTE'NUS,] (Ub- 
RICH,) a German poet and humanist, was born near Fulda 
in 1488. He studied at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and 
afterwards at Pavia, in Italy. About 1520 he repaired 
to Mentz, where he published a succession of severe 
attacks on the Roman clergy, and soon after became 
acquainted with Luther, whose cause he openly espoused. 
Owing to the persecution he now encountered, he was 
obliged to take refuge in Switzerland, where he died in 
1523. He possessed rare talents, but lacked discretion 
and morality. He was probably one of the authors of 
the famous " Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum," consisting 
of satires on the monks and the clergy, (1516.) 

SeeScHUBART, " Leben Ulrich von Hutten's," 1791; BURCKHARD, 
" Commentarius de Fatis et Mentis Ulrici Hutteni," 1717-23; 
STRAUSS, " Ulrich von Hutten," 1858 ; BAYLE, " Historical and Criti- 
cal Dictionary;" WAGHNSEIL, "U. von Hutten nach seinem Leben," 
etc., 1823; ZELLER, " U. de Hutten, sa Vie, ses CEuvres, son Temps," 
Paris, 1849; GERVINUS, " Geschichte der Deutschen National- Lite- 
ratur;" "Nouvelle Biographic Gi'ne'rale ;" " Fraser's Magazine" 
for August, 1849. 

Huttenus. See HUTTEN. 

Hutter, hotit'ter, (ELIAS,) a German linguist, born at 
Ulm about 1555. He published an edition of the Bible 
in Hebrew, and a Polyglot Bible. Died about 1602. 

Hutter, [Lat HUTTE'RUS,] (LEONHARD,) a German 
theologian, a brother of the preceding, was boru at Ulm 
in 1563. He was noted for his rigour and excessive zeal 
for Lutheranism. He was professor of theology at Wit- 
tenberg from 1596 until 1616. Among his numerous work* 
is a " Compendium of Theological Subjects," (" Compen- 
dium Locorum theologicorum," 1610.) Died in 1616. 

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary ;" J. G. NEU- 
MANN, " Programme de Vita L. Hutteri," 1706. 

Hutterus. See HUTTER. 

Hut'tpn, (CHARLES,) LL.D., an eminent English 
mathematician, born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1737, 
was employed for some years as a teacher in his native 
place. Here he published treatises on arithmetic and 
mensuratioa From 1773 to 1806 he was professor of 
mathematics in the Military Academy at Woolwich. In 
1774 he was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society, which 
he also served as foreign secretary and enriched with 
able scientific memoirs. He acquired celebrity by nu- 
merous works, among which are " Mathematical Tables," 
(1785,) " Elements of Conic Sections," a "Mathematical 
and Philosophical Dictionary," (1795,) a "Course of 
Mathematics," (1798,) etc. From 1804 to 1809 he assisted 
Shaw and Pearson in abridging the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions." He was eminent for benevolence, modesty, 
and simplicity of character. In 1807 his services were 
rewarded by a pension of ^500. Died in 1823. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ; ' " Gen- 
tleman's Magazine" for 1823. 

Hut'ton, (GEORGE CLARK,) D.D., a Scottish divine 
of the United Presbyterian Church, was born at Perth, 
May 16, 1825. He was trained at the University of 
Edinburgh, and was ordained in 1851. Among his books 
are "Law and Gospel," (1860,) "Divine Truth and its 
Self- Evidence," (1853,) "The Rationale of Prayer," 
(1853,) etc. 

Hut'tpn, (JAMES,) M.D., a philosopher and geologist, 
distinguished as the author of the Plutonian theory of 
geology, was born in Edinburgh in 1726. He gradu- 
ated as M.D. at Leyden in 1749. About 1768 he became 
again a resident of Edinburgh, where he published, be- 
sides other works, a " Dissertation on the Philosophy 
of Light, Heat, and Fire," (1794,) and "Theory of the 
Earth," (1795.) His geological theory excited much 
discussion and opposition, being attacked by Kirwan and 
defended by Professor Playfair, who wrote "Illustra- 

as k; v as s; g hard: g as/: G, H, ^guttural; N, tuual; R. trilled; szsz: th as in this, i J=See Explanations, p. 2 




tions of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth," (1802.) 
Died in 1797. 

Hutton, ( LAURENCE,) an American author, born 
at New York in 1843, engaged in authorship after 
1871, and became literary editor of " Harper's Maga- 
zine" in 1886. He published several works relating 
to the stage, " Literary Landmarks of London," and 
similar works upon other European cities, etc. 

Hutton, (MATTHEW,) an English prelate, born in 
1529, was made Bishop of Durham in 1589, and Arch- 
bishop of York in 1594. He wrote a work on Predes- 
tination. Died in 1605. 

Hutton, (WILLIAM,) an English antiquary and authoi, 
born of poor parents at Derby in 1723. He received a 
defective education. At the age of fifty-six he commenced 
his career as an author. His chief works are a " History 
of Birmingham," (1781,) a "History of Derby," (1700,) 
"Edgar and Elfrida," a poem, "The Roman Wall," 
(1801,) and an instructive volume of "Autobiography," 
(1816.) His daughter CATHERINE wrote " the Miser 
Married," a novel. He died in 1815. 

See his " Autobiography ;" " Pursuit of Knowledge ander DiflS 
culties," vol. i. 

Huv, /m'vi', (JEAN JACQUES MARIE,) a French 
architect, born at Versailles in 1783. He succeeded 
Vignon as architect of the grand church La Madeleine, 
which he finished. He was admitted into the Institute 
in 1838. Died in 1852. 

See CHARLES LENOKMAND, " Notice sur J. J. M. Huve," 1853. 

Hux'ham, (JOHN,) an English physician, born at 
Halberton' in 1694, studied under Boerhaave at Leyden, 
and practised with success at Plymouth. He wrote 
several popular books on medicine, one of which is an 
"Essay on Fevers," (1750.) Died in 1768. 

Hux'ley, (THOMAS HENRY,) F.R.S., an eminent 
English physiologist and naturalist, born at Ealing, 
Middlesex, in 1825. He was in his youth a surgeon 
in the royal navy. About 1848 he produced a treatise 
"On the Anatomy and Affinities of the Family of the 
Medusae." He succeeded E. Forbes as professor of 
palaeontology in the School of Mines about 1854, and 
became professor of physiology at the Royal Institution. 
Among his principal works is a " History of the Oceanic 
Hydrozoa," (1857,) "Man's Place in Nature," (1863,) 
" Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy," 
(1864,) " Protoplasm ; or, The Physical Basis of Life," 
(1869,) "Lay Sermons, Addresses, and Reviews," (1870,) 
"Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals," 
(1871,) "Critiques and Addresses," (1873,) "American 
Addresses," (1877,) and "Essays on Controverted 
Questions," (1892.) In 1872 he was elected lord 
rector of Aberdeen University, and in 1892 was made 
a member of the privy council. Mr. Huxley was a 
very popular lecturer, and stood in the foremost rank 
among physiologists and naturalists. He favoured the 
Darwinian theory. Died June 29, 1895. 

Huydecoper, hoi'deh-ko'per, (BALTHASAR,) a Dutch 
poet and excellent critic, born at Amsterdam in 1695. 
He produced "Arsaces," (1722,) and three other trage- 
dies, a good metrical version of the Satires, Epistles, and 
"Ars Poetica" of Horace, (1737,) and other poems. 
His " Essays, Philological and Poetical, or Observations 
on Vondel's Dutch Version of Ovid's Metamorphoses," 
(1730,) are highly commended. "All that he has done 
in this department," says the " Biographic Universelle," 
"is classical." Died in 1778. 

Huygena or Huyghens, hi'gens, [Dutch pron. almost 
hoi'Hens ; Lat. HUGE'NIUS,] (CHRISTIAN,) a celebrated 
Dutch astronomer and geometer, born at the Hague, 
April 14, 1629. He inherited the title of Lord of Zuy- 
lichem. About the age of sixteen he went to Leyden, 
where he studied law and mathematics under Vinnius 
and Schooten. Soon after leaving the university, he 
began to distinguish himself by his admirable scientific 
discoveries and mechanical inventions. In 1651 he pub- 
lished his "Theorems on the Quadrature of the Hyper- 
bola," etc., and in 1656 discovered a satellite of Saturn 
with a telescope of his own construction. In 1657 he 
rendered important service to science and society by 

improving the clock, being the first to apply the pendu- 
lum to the measurement of time. Two years later he 
published, in his " System of Saturn," a description of 
Saturn's ring, which he had discovered with a telescope 
of twenty-two feet focal length. These and other 
successes had rendered him pre-eminent among the 
contemporary savants and philosophers of all nations. 
Newton was then a young student preparing to rival 
or surpass him. The years 1660 and 1661 were passed 
by Huygens in France and England. In 1663 he was 
chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. From 
1665 to 1681 he resided in Paris, whither Colbert had 
invited him in order to add Mat to the newly-founded 
Academy of Sciences. In this period he demonstrated 
the law of the impact of bodies, (1669,) wrote an elegant 
treatise on Dioptrics, and published his great work 
entitled " Horologium Oscillatorium," (1673,) dedicated 
to Louis XIV. Besides the theory of the pendulum, 
this work contains several very important mechanical 
discoveries, among which are the fact that the cycloid 
is the curve all the arcs of which, measured from the 
lowest point, are synchronous, and the theory (without 
demonstration) of the centrifugal force in circular mo- 
tion, by which he made a near approach to those laws 
ol gravitation afterwards proved by Newton. He has 
the credit of inventing the spiral spring which is used 
to regulate the balance of watches, which invention was 
also claimed by Hautefeuille. In 1681 Huygens returned 
to Holland, where he spent some years in constructing 
a planetarium, and telescopes of enormous dimensions, 
one of which had a focal length of two hundred and ten 
feet In 1690 appeared (in French) his "Treatise on the 
Cause of Gravity," and a "Treatise on Light," which is 
esteemed one of his greatest works. It contains argu- 
ments in favour of the undulatory theory, which was first 
proposed by him and is now generally adopted. Died 
In 1695. He left a work styled " Cosmotheoros," (printed 
in 1698,) in which he advances bold speculations or con- 
jectures on the constitution of the planets, which he 
believed to be inhabited. Huygens was never married. 
He loved retirement, and maintained a good character 
as a man. He kept up a friendly correspondence with 
Leibnitz and Newton, the latter of whom called him 
" Summus Hngenius." 

See "Vita Hugenii," prefixed to his "Opera Varia," 1724 ; COM- 
DORCKT, "filoge de Huygens;" ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine 
Encyklopaedie ;" MONTUCLA, "Histoiredes Mathematiques ;" DB- 
LAMEKE, "Histoire de I'Astronomie modeme;" P. H. PEERLKAMP, 
"Annotatio in Vitam C. Hugenii." 1821; M. LBMANS, "Lebens- 
beschrijving van C. Huiigens:" DR. F. HOEFER, article in the 
"Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale." 

Huygens or Huijgens, (CONSTANTIJN,) Seigneur of 
Zuylichem, (or Zulichem,) born at the Hague in 1596, was 
the father of the preceding. He acted with credit as 
secretary to three successive princes of Orange, the last 
of whom was William III. of England. He wrote Latin 
epigrams, and other poetical performances, which were 
received with favour. Died in 1687. 

See his Autobiography, in verse, entitled " De Vita propria Ser- 
mones;" BAYLI, " Historical and Critical Dictionary," (in Z ;) LONO- 
FBI.LOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" SCHINKBL, " Bijdrage to. 
de Kennis van net Karakter van C Huijgens," 1843; "Fraser'i 
Magazine" for May, 1854. 

Huyghens, Hoi'Hens, (GOMARUS,) a Dutch Roman 
Catholic theologian, born in Brabant in 163 1 ; died in 1 702, 

Huyn, hoo'in, (LuiSE,) a German writer, born at 
Coblentz, November 6, 1843. Her works are mostly 
religious (Roman Catholic) tales, written under the 
pseudonym of M. LUDOLFF. 

Huyot, Au'yo', (JEAN NICOLAS,) a French architect, 
born in Paris in 1780. He passed several years in the 
Levant, exploring the ruins of Ephesus, Thebes, Athens, 
and other cities. Died in 1840. 

Huysman, hois'man, sometimes written Housemau, 
(CoRNELis,) an eminent Flemish landscape-painter, born 
at Antwerp in 1648. He worked mostly at Malines, 
(Mechlin.) His colouring is praised by Descamps, who 
also observes that he had a great talent for painting 
mountains. Among his works is " The Disciples Going 
to Emmaus." Died in 1727. 

Huysman or Houseman, (JACOB,) a Flemish paintet 
of history and portraits, born at Antwerp in 1656 ; died 
in London in 1696. 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long: 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fit; mJt; n6t; good; m<5on 





Huysum, van, vjn hoi'sum, (JACOB,) brother of Jan, 
noticed below, was born at Amsterdam about 1680. He 
excelled in flower-painting, and copied several of his 
brother's works with accuracy. Died in London in 1740. 

Another brother, JUSTUS, born in 1684, excelled in 
battle-pieces, but died prematurely in 1706. 

Huyautn, van, (JAN,) a celebrated Dutch painter, 
born in Amsterdam in 1682, was a pupil of his father, 
Justus. His favourite subjects were flowers and fruits, 
in which he is thought to be unrivalled. His works unite 
tasteful composition, richness and harmony of colour, 
freedom of touch, and exquisite finish. His pictures 
were often adorned with insects, dew-drops, birds' nests, 
ttc. He had a peculiar art of preparing his colours, 
which he always kept secret. Died in 1749. 

Huysum, van, (JUSTUS,) THE OLD, a Dutch land- 
scape-painter, born at Amsterdam in 1659, was the father 
of the preceding. Died in 1716. 

Hazard, M'ziR', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a noted French 
veterinary physician, born in Paris in 1755. was a member 
of the Institute. He wrote numerous able and popular 
works on the veterinary art and rural economy, and he 
had collected a library of forty thousand volumes per- 
taining to his speciality. Died in 1839. 

See PARISET, " filoge de Huzard ;" BARON SILVESTRH, " Notice 
ur Huzard." 

Hvergelmir. See NIDHOGG. 

Hvitfeld, hvit'feld, (ARILD,) a Danish historian, 
born in 1 549. In 1 586 he attained the dignity of senator, 
and afterwards was chancellor of the kingdom. He wrote 
a "Chronicle of the Kingdom of Denmark," which is 
considered authentic. Died in 1609. 

See KRAFT og NYHRUP, " Litteraturlexicon for Danemark." 

Hwiid, hweed, (ANDREAS CHRISTIAN,) a Danish critic, 
born at Copenhagen in 1749, was educated for the church, 
and was skilled in Oriental languages. He published a 
" Life of Cyrus the Great and the Younger," and several 
commentaries on Scripture. Died in 1788. 

Hyacinthe. See HYACINTHUS. 

Hyacinthe, e'i'saNt', (CHARLES LOYSON,) PERE, an 
eminent French pulpit orator, born at Orleans about 
1828. He became a Carmelite monk, preached for some 
time in Lyons, and removed about 1865 to Paris, where 
his conferences in the church of Notre-Dame attracted 
much attention. In September, 1869, he published, in 
a letter to the general of his order, a protest against the 
ultramontane doctrines and practices of the Roman 
Church, called forth by the Encyclical letter by which 
the pope had convened a general council. This protest 
caused a great commotion in the religious world, and 
drew down upon its author the major excommunication. 
In 1871 he was a member of the Old Catholic Congress 
at Geneva, of which Dollingerwas the chief, and in Sep- 
tember, 1872, he was married in London. In 1873 he 
became curate of the Old Catholic Church in Geneva, 
but resigned in 1874, when he went to Paris and estab- 
lished there the Gallican Church. 

Hy-a-cin'thus, [Gr. '"fwaveof; Fr. HYACINTHE, e'i'- 
saNt',] a beautiful Spartan youth, beloved by Apollo, by 
whom he was accidentally killed in a game of discus. 
The poets feigned that Apollo changed him into the 
flower called Hyacinth. 

Hy'a-dei, [Gr. 'Yo<5ec,] Anglicised as HY'ADS, nymphs 
of classic mythology, and daughters of Atlas. According 
to the poetic legend, they were changed into stars, and 
now form part of the constellation of Taurus. When 
they rose and set with the sun, it was regarded as a sign 
of rainy weather. 

Hy'att, (ALPHEUS,) JR., an American naturalist, born 
at Washington, D.C., April 5, 1838, studied at the 
Maryland Military Academy, at Yale College, and at the 
Scientific School of Cambridge, Massachusetts, where 
he graduated in 1862. In 1881 he became professor of 
zoology and palaeontology in the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. His principal works are " Memoirs on 
the Pol yzoa," (1868,) and "Guides for Science Teaching," 
besides many important scientific papers. His special 
studies have been upon the lower forms of animal life. 

Hy'att, (JOHN,) a Calvinistic Methodist preacher, 
born in 1767, officiated in the Tabernacle, London. He 
published several volumes of sermons. Died in 1826. 

Hyb're-as, [TfSptof,] an eminent Greek orator, a 
native of Caria, flourished about 40 B.c, 

Hyde, (ANNE,) a daughter of Lord Clarendon, was 
born in 1637. She was married about 1660 to the Duke 
of York, afterwards James II. She was the mother of 
Queen Mary and Queen Anne. Died in 1671. 

See " Memoirs of Eminent Englishwomen," by LOUISA STIABT 




Hyde, (LAWRENCE,) M.P., son of Sir Nicholas Hyde, 
distinguished himself by his successful efforts in pro 
moling the escape of Charles II. after the battle of Wor- 
cester. The king passed one night in the house of 
Lawrence Hyde's tenant, and thence was conducted by 
Hyde to the sea-shore. Died in 1682. 

Hyde, (LAWRENCE,) first Earl of Rochester, was the 
second son of Edward, Earl of Clarendon. He was 
in ultra Tory, and was the leader of the High-Church 
party in the reign of Charles II. He became first com- 
missioner of the treasury in 1679. At the accession 
of James II., in 1685, he was appointed lord treasurer, 
(prime minister.) Though extremely subservient to the 
policy of the king, he was removed from office in Decem- 
ber, 1686, because he would not turn Roman Catholic. 
After the flight of James II., Hyde gave his adhesion to 
William III. Died in 1711. 

See MACAULAY, " History of England," vol. i. chaps, ii. and iv., 
ol. ii. chaps, vi., ix., and x. 

Hyde, (Sir NICHOLAS,) an English judge, born in 
1572, was the father of Lawrence Hyde, and uncle of the 
first Earl of Clarendon. He was appointed chief justice 
of the king's bench in 1626, and presided when Sir John 
Eliot was unjustly condemned to prison. Died in 1631. 

Hyde, (THOMAS,) D.D., a learned English divine, born 
In Shropshire in 1636, became Archdeacon of Gloucestei 
in 1678, professor of Arabic at Oxford in 1691, and regius 
professor of Hebrew in 1697. He excelled in Oriental 
languages, and was interpreter of the same to Charles 
II., James II., and William III. From 1665 to 1701 he 
was principal librarian of the Bodleian Library. He pub- 
lisheda treatise on Chinese weights and measures, (1688,) 
and one on "Oriental Games," (1694.) His principal 
work, a " History of the Religion of the Ancient Per- 
sians and Magi," in Latin, (1700,) displays a vast erudi- 
tion, and for a long time had a great reputation. " The 
variety and novelty of its contents," says Hallam, "gave 
this book a credit which in some degree it preserves; 
but Hyde was ignorant of the ancient language of Persia, 
and is said to have been often misled by Mohammedan 
authorities." ("Introduction to the Literature of Eu- 
rope.") He wrote other works, and compiled dictiona- 
ries of the Persian and Turkish languages. Died in 1703. 

See " Biographia Britannica ;" WOOD, " Athena; Oxonienses." 

Hyde de Neuville, hed deh nuh'vel', (JEAN GUIL- 
LAUME,) a French politician, born in the department of 
Nievre in 1776. He was an active royalist during the 
republic and the empire. After the restoration he acted 
with the ultra royalists as a deputy in 1815, and was 
minister to the United States of North America from 1816 
to 1821. He was minister of the marine in the Mar- 
tignac cabinet for a short time in 1828. Died in 1857. 

Hyder, the German of HYDRA, which see. 

Hyder-Alee or Hyder- Ali, hl'der S'lee, [sometimes 
written, in French, HAIDER-ALI,] a celebrated Hindoo 
prince, born about 1718, entered the army of the Rajah 
of Mysore. His military talents procured his promotion 
to the command of an army, with which he captured Ban- 
galore and fought against the Mahrattas. About 1759, by 
a bold and successful coup tfttat, he obtained the chief 
power in Mysore, leaving his former master the title of 
rajah and a pension. The English, alarmed by his en- 
croachments, formed a league with the Mahrattas against 
him, (1766.) In the war that ensued, Hyder gained such 
advantages that the English sued for peace and entered 
into alliance with him, (1769.) In 1771 he was defeated 
by the piratical Mahrattas, the English having failed 
to aid him according to the treaty. Having made an 
alliance with the French and the Mahrattas against the 
English, he suddenly invaded the Carnatic in 1780, took 
several fortresses, defeated some detachments, and rav- 

f. as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, Vi, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23. < 




ged the country almost to the walls of Madras. In 
1782 he was defeated by Sir Eyre Coote at Porto Novo, 
and died in the same year, leaving his throne to his son, 
Tippoo Sahib. Hyder was a Mussulman. He is reputed 
the most able enemy the British have had to contend 
with in India. 

See MF.HK HUSSKIN ALI KHAN K.IRMAIN, " History of Hyder Ah',' 


'i Chute de i'Empirede Mysore," etc, 2 vols.. 1801. 

Hy'dra, [Gr. T6pa; Fr. HYDRE, edR ; Ger. HYDER, 
nee'der; It. IDRA, ee'dRa,] a monster which infested the 
Lernean marsh and was destroyed by Hercules. It was 
said to have had nine heads. (See HERCULES.) 

Hydre. See HYDRA. 

Hy-ge'ia or Hy-gl-ei'a, [Gr. "Tyicui; Fr. HYGIE, 
e'zhe', or H'YGEE, e'zhi',] written also Hygea or Hygia, 
the goddess of health, in Greek mythology, said to be the 
daughter of Asclepias. She was represented as holding 
a cup in one hand, and in the other a serpent, drinking 
from the cup. 

Hygie or Hyg6e. See HYGEIA. 

Hy-gi'nus [Fr. HYGIN, e'zhiN'] became Bishop of 
Rome in 138 A.D., and died in. 142. He is supposed to 
have been a Greek. 

Hy-gi'nus or Higinus, (CAius JULIUS,) a Roman 
grammarian, born in Spain or Alexandria. Originally 
a slave, he was set free by Augustus Cxsar, who gave 
him charge of the Palatine Library. He wrote a " Com- 
mentary on Virgil," and other esteemed works, which 
are lost Other works bearing his name are extant, viz., 
" Mythological Fables," and " Poeticon Astronomicon," 
but are supposed to have been written by a Hyginus 
who lived at a later date. 

See BUNTB, " Dissertatio de C. J. Hygini Vitt et Scriptii," 1846 


Hylander, hii-lan'der, (ANDERS,) a Swedish Orien- 
talist, born at Tunhem in 1750; died in 1830. 

Hylaret, yie'Ii'r^', (MAURICE,) a French monk and 
preacher, born at Angouleme in 1539, was a partisan ol 
the League. Died in 1591. 

Hy'las, [Gr. TfAof,] a favourite of Hercules, whom he 
accompanied in the A rgonautic expedition. The Naiads, 
enamoured with his beauty, drew him into the water, so 
that he was lost to Hercules forever. 

Hyll, hil, (?) (ALBAN,) an English physician, who prac- 
tised in London with a high reputation. He wrote a 
"Commentary on Galen." Died in 1559. 

Hyl'lus, [Gr. T/Uof,] a son of Hercules and Dejanira, 
was persecuted by Eurystheus, and after the death of 
his father was the leader of the Heracli'dae. Aided by 
the Athenians, he invaded Peloponnesus, and defeated 
Eurystheus, whom he killed with his own hand. 

Hy'mgn or Hy meuaeus, him-e-nee'us, [Gr. '"tuiiv or 
"T/ievawf ; Fr. HYMEN, e'men', or HYMENEE, e'ma'ni',] 
the god of marriage of the Greeks and Romans, was 
represented as a handsome youth, crowned with flowers, 
and holding a nuptial torch in his hand. According to 
one tradition, he was a son of Apollo and one of the 
Muses. Another account makes him the son of Bac- 
chus and Venus. 

Hymir, hl'mir, written also Eymer, [supposed to be 
derived from Autnr, the " sea,"] the name of a great giant 
mentioned in the Norse mythology as the owner of a 
huge kettle, a mile deep, which Thor carried off, having 
nrst placed it over his head, so that he was entirely 
hidden by it. It was the same giant with whom Thor 
went a fishing and caught the World-serpent 

See THORPH, " Northern Mythology," vol. i. ; MALLET, " North- 
ern Antiouities," vol. ii. Fable XXVII 

Hy m'nl-a, [Gr. "fpiia ; Fr. HYMNIE, em'ne',] a sur- 
name of Diana, under which she was worshipped in 

Hymnie. See HYMNIA. 

Hynd'fprd, (JOHN CARMICHAEL,) EARL OF, a Scot- 
tish diplomatist, born in 1701. In 1741 he was employed 
with credit as ambassador to the Prussian court, and 
in 1744 was sent in the same capacity to Russia. After 
successful efforts to terminate the war of the Austrian 
succession by a treaty of peace, he acted as envoy to 

Vienna in 1752. In 1764 he was appointed lord vice- 
admiral of Scotland. He died in 1767. 

Hyiid'man, (HENRY MAYERS,) an English social- 
ist, born in 1842. He wrote "England for All," 
(iS8i,) "Historic Bases of Socialism in England," 
(1883,) "The Indian Famine," (1887,) "The Com- 
mercial Crises of the Nineteenth Century," (1892,) etc. 

novelist, born at Bibury in 1866. His works include 
"The New Eden," (1892,) "Honour of Thieves," 
(1895,) "The Adventures of Captain Kettle," (1898,) 
"Through Arctic Lapland," (1898,) etc. 

Hyp.itia, hl-pa'sh^-a, [Gr. Tirana; Fr. HYPATIE, 
e'pi'te',) a celebrated female philosopher and mathema- 
tician, born at Alexandria in the latter part of the fourth 
century. She was the daughter of Theon, and displayed 
even greater talents than this famous mathematician in 
the study of philosophy and the sciences. She pursued 
her studies with great assiduity, often studying late in the 
night. After having improved herself by travelling and 
attending lectures at Athens of the most distinguished 
teachers of philosophy, she returned to Alexandria, 
where she was invited by the magistrates of the city 
to tench philosophy. She favoured the Neo-Platonic 
philosophy. She had many celebrated disciples, some 
of whom embraced Christianity and cherished through 
life feelings of friendship for her, although she con- 
tinued to worship the heathen deities of Greece. She 
was noted for her virtue, her beauty, her simplicity of 
dress, her accomplishments, and her strength of mind. 
Orestes, the prefect of Alexandria, admired her wisdom, 
and often availed himself of her counsels. Cyril, the 
Christian patriarch, and his fanatical monks, appear to 
have regarded Hypatia as the principal supporter of the 
old religion ; and at last their frenzy reached such a point 
that they tore her from her chariot as she was going to 
her school, and murdered her. This occurred in March, 
415 A.D. The works of Hypatia were destroyed when 
the Mohammedans burned the library of Alexandria. 
Among these were a "Commentary on Diophantus," 
an "Astronomical Canon," and a "Commentary on the 
Conies of Apollonius of Perga." The titles of all her 
other works are lost 

See TILLBMONT, " Me"moires ;" WBRNSDORP, " Quatre Disserta- 
tions sur Hypatie :" CHARLES KINGSLEY'S historical romance entitled 
" Hypatia." 

Hy'per-bo're-ans, a fabled race whom the Greeks 
placed (as their name indicates) in the far North, " beyond 
the North wind." They enjoyed perpetual youth, and 
lived in an earthly paradise separated from the rest of 
the world by the Khipean Mountains. 

Hyp6ride. See HYPERIDES. 

Hy-per-i'deS, [Gr. 'YnrpciAiK or "fmpifyf ; Fr. HYP<- 
RIDE, e'pi'red',] a famous Athenian orator, was the 
son of Glaucippus, and a pupil of Plato. He was iden- 
tified with the party that opposed Philip of Macedon. 
After the battle of Chaerone a, (338 B.C.,) he proposed 
to recall the exiles, to liberate the slaves, and to take 
other vigorous measures, which were adopted, and pro- 
cured peace on favourable terms. Having refused to 
touch the gold with which Harpalus corrupted other 
orators of Athens, he was chosen to conduct the prose- 
cution against Demosthenes for his share in that trans- 
action. Hyperides was put to death by Antipater in 
322. Cicero ranks him next to Demosthenes ; and other 
ancient critics agree that his eloquence was of the highest 
order. Important portions of four of his orations were 
discovered in papyrus in 1847 ar >d 1856. 

Hy-pfr-i'on, (or hl-pee're-pn,) [Gr. Tirepiuv,] in 
Greek mythology, the name of a Titan, a son of Uranus 
and Ge, (or Terra,) and the father of Aurora and Helios. 
In Homer, Hyperion is a name of the sun. 

Hy-pe'rl-ua, [Dutch pron. he-pa're-us,] (ANDR4 GE- 
RARD,) an eminent Protestant theologian, born at Ypres 
in 1511. He was professor of theology at Marburg from 
1542 to 1564. Among his works are " De Formandis 
Concionibus sacris," (" On the Composition of Ser- 
mons," 1555,) and " De Theologo seu de Ratione Studii 
theologici," (" On the Theologian, or on the Method of 
Theological Study," 1556.) Died in 1564. 

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; moon; 



Hy-perm-nes'tra, JGr. Tirtp/ivf/orpa; ft. HYPERM- 
NESTRE, e'peRm'nestR'] one of the DANAIDES, which 

Hyp'sl-clei, ['Yi/*otX>7c,] a Greek mathematician of 
an uncertain epoch, issuppcsed to have lived at Alex- 
andria in the second century. He wrote a treatise 
" On the Right Ascension of the Constellations of the 
Zodiac," which is extant. He is regarded by some as 
the author of the fourteenth and fifteenth books of the 
" Elements" of Euclid. According to Delambre, he 
lived about 146 B.C. 

Hjfp-sip'y-le, [Gr. 'T^iTt''/^,] a queen of Lemnos, 
who, according to tradition, saved the life of her father 
when the other women of the island killed their husbands 
and male relations. She was afterwards sold into slavery 
by the Lemnian women. 

See LRMFRIERB'S "Classical Dictionary." 

Hyrcan. See HVRCANUS. 

Hyr-ca'nus [Gr. Tpitavof ; Fr. HYRCAN, eRTcoN'j J, 
(JoHN,) high-priest of the Jems, was the son of Simon 
Maccabeus, whom he succeeded in 135 B.C. After the 
death of Antiochus Sidetes, 130 B.C., he conquered the 
Idumeans and destroyed the city of Samaria. Though 
educated as a Pharisee, in the latter part of his life he 
favoured their rivals the Sadducees. He died in the 
year 103, leaving his office to his son Aristobu'lus. 

See JOSKPHUS, " History of the Jews :" Apocryphal Book of 

Hyrcanus H.. high-priest of the Jews, succeeded his 

father, Alexander Jannaeus, in 76 B.C. His brother Aristo- 
bu'lus having usurped the regal power, Hyrcanns, who 
was a weak prince, appealed to the Roman Pompey, 
who restored him to the throne and priesthood. An- 
tigonus, son of Aristobulus, with the aid of the Parthians, 
deposed Hyrcanus about 38 B.C., and was soon after 
supplanted by Herod, who married Mariamne, the grand- 
daughter of Hyrcanus, and put the latter to death, 30 B.C 

Hyrtl, hSeVt'l, (JOSEPH,) an able anatomist, born at 
Eisenstadt, Hungary, in 1811. He became professor of 
anatomy in Vienna in 1845. He published, besides other 
works, a "Text-Book of Human Anatomy," (2 vols., 
1847,) which has been adopted by the German univer- 
sities as a standard. Died July 17, 1894. 

Hys'lpp, or HIs'lop, (JAMES,) a Scottish poet, born 
near Sanquhar, July 13, 1798. He became a school- 
master in the navy, and died near the Cape Verde 
Islands, December 4, 1827. He is still remembered for 
his sweet and graceful verses. 

Hystaspe. See HYSTASPES. 

Hys-tas'peS, jGr.'To-TooTr^f ; Fr. HYSTASPE, es'ttsp'; 
Persian, GUSHTASP,] a satrap of Persia, and the father 
of Darius I., lived about 550 B.C. He is said to have 
been the first who introduced into Persia the learning 
of the Indian Brahmans. According to one account, he 
was the chief of the Magians, which accords with the 
Persian tradition that Gushtasp patronized the religion 
of Zoroaster. (See GusHrAsp.) 

Hywell See HOV.'ELL THE GOOD. 


I-ao'hn8, IGr. 
BACCHUS, which see. 

& surname or synonym of 

I-am'be, [Gr. 'la/t/ij),] a servant-maid of Metanira, 
Queen of Eleusis, was said to be a daughter of Pan. By 
her jokes or tricks she amused Ceres when the latter 
was in distress. Iambic poetry is supposed to have 
derived its name from her. 

lamblichus. See JAMBLICHUS. 

I-ap'e-tus, (Gr. 'lairerof; Fr. JAPET, zhJPpS',] in classic 
mythology, a Titan, and a son of Uranus. He was the 
father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius. 
He is by some considered to be the same as the Japhel'a 
of Scripture. lapetus was regarded by the anciert 
Greeks and Romans as the ancestor of the human race,* 
and, according to Scripture, the descendants of Japheth 
inhabited the "isles of the Gentiles," (Genesis r. 5,) 
which would seem to signify the numerous islands along 
the coasts of Europe and Asia Minor, and probably 
also the adjacent portions of the two continents ; in other 
words, all that part of the world with which the early 
Greeks were acquainted. 

I-a'sI-on [Gr. 'lam'uv] or I-a'sI-us, a fr.buluus son of 
Jupiter and Electra, (or of Minos and Corythus.) He 
is said to have been beloved by Ceres, who bore him a 
son, Plutus, the god of 

Ibarra, e-nar'ra, (JOAQUIN,) a Spanish printer, born at 
Saragossa in 1725, carried on business in Madrid. He 
was distinguished for the perfection of his publications, 
especially fur his editions of " Don Quixote," (1780,) and 
a Spanish version of Sallust, (1772.) Died in 1785. 

ITsas, a Syrian priest of the fifth century, ac'.cd a 
prominent part in the disputes about Nestorianism, He 
was chosen Bishop of Ldessa in 436 A.D. At the Coun- 
cil of Ephesus, in 449, he was deposed on the charge of 
favouring the Nestorians ; but he was reinstated by the 
Council of Chalcedon in 451. Died in 457. 

Ib'bet-spn, (Mrs. AGNES,) an English botanist, born 
in London in 1757. She investigated the structure of 
plants, and wrote botanical papers which were inserted 
in Nicholson's "Journal" and the " Philosophical Maga- 
rine," (1809-17.) Died in 1823. 

Ibbetson, (JULIUS C/ESAR,) an English landscape- 

See Hnrace, lib. i., Carmen 3, in which the phrases "Gens hu- 
mana" and " lapeti genus" are used almost synonymously, 
t See note on page 35. 

painter, born at Jcarborough, copied and imitated with 
success the works of Berghem. He wrote an " Accidence 
or Gamut of Oil-Painting for Beginners." Died in 1817. 

Ib'bpt, (BENJAMIN,) an English divine, born near 
Swaffham, in Norfolk, in 1680. He became chaplain 
to George I. in 1716, and prebendary of Westminstei 
in 1724. He delivered the Boyle lectures in 1713-14. 
Died in 1725. Two volumes of his sermons were pub- 
lished in 1726. 

6ee DR. S. CLARKE, " Life of Benjamin Ibbot." 

Iberville, d', de"b?R'vel', (LEMOINE or LEMOYNE,) 
a Canadian navigator, born at Montreal in 1642, distin- 
guished himself in many actions against the English. 
He commanded a vessel sent by the French government 
to explore the mouth of the Mississippi, which he dis- 
covered in March, 1699. He ascended the river, and 
built a fort on its border. Died at Havana in 1706. 

Ibi, ee'bee, (SiNlBALDO,) an Italian painter, a pupil 
of Perugino, was born at Perugia, and flourished between 
1505 and 1528. 

IBN, ib'n, an Arabic word signifying "son," and 
torming a part of many names; as, IBN-HANBAL, the 
"son of Hanbal," etc. It is often written Btn; as, ALI- 
BEN-Aiif-TAuB, for AI.EE-!BN-ABEE (-An!) -TALIB. 

Ibn- Abeet(- Ab!)-Yakoob,(or -Y'akflb,) Ib'n a'bee 
ya'koob' (Abool-Faraj, a'bool far'aj,) otherwise called 
An-Nadeem (-Nadim)-Mohammed-Ibn-Ishak, an- 
na-deem' mo-ham'med Ib'n is-hik', an Arabian writer, 
chiefly known as the author of a valuable catalogue of 
books in the Arabic language, with brief and excellent 
notices of their authors. Nothing is known of his life, 
except that he wrote in the latter part of the tenth century. 

Ibn-AI-Atseer, (-Atsyr,) Ib'n al at-seeR', (Abool- 
Hassan-Alee, or Aboul (-Abfll) -Hassan- All, a'b6ol 
has'san J'lee,) surnamed Az-ED-DEEN, (AzzEDDYN,) (i.e. 
the " Splendour of Religion,") an Arabian historian, born 
in Mesopotamia about 1160, became a citizen of Mosul. 
I le excelled in the science of prophetic traditions, and 
had great knowledge of history, as appears by his 
Complete Chronicle from the origin of the world to 
his own time. Died in 1233. 

See HAJI-KHALFAH, " Lexicon Bibliographicum ;" VON HAMMM- 
PURGSTALL, " Literaturgeschichte der Araber." 

Ibn-AI-Atseer (or -Al-Atsyr)-Nasr- Allah, Ib'n al- 
It-seeR' nas'r dl'lah, written also Alatyr and Alatlr, an 
Arabian writer, a brother of the preceding, was born at 

. <;as.i,- g/iarJ; g as/; G, H, K,. guttural; n, nasal; R, trilled; gas z; th asm this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Jezeereh-Benee-Omar, on the Tigris, in 1 162. He visited 
the court of Saladin, who engaged him as vizier to his 
son and heir, Melik-Afdhal. He was eminent for his learn- 
ing, and wrote a treatise on Prosody, and other works. 

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary." 

Ibn-Bajah. See AVENPACE. 

Ibn-Batuta. See BATOOTAH. 

Ibn-Doreid, Ib'n do'rad', (or do'nd',) a celebrated 
Arabian poet, born at Bassorah in 838 A.D. He culti- 
vated various kinds of poetry with distinguished success. 
Died at Bagdad in 933. 

Ibn-Hanbal, Ib'n han'bal, (Ahmed, an'med.) the 
founder of the fourth sect of orthodox Mohammedans, 
was born at Bagdad (or, as some say, at Meru) in the 
year of the Hejrah 164. He attained a great reputation 
for virtue and knowledge of the traditions of Mohammed. 
He received many traditions from Shafei, with whom he 
was intimate. For his refusal to acknowledge the Koran 
to have been created, he was scourged and imprisoned 
by the caliph M6tassem. He died at Bagdad in A.D. 
855. The sect became very numerous after his death. 
They are called Hanbalites. 

Ibn-HankaL See HAUKAI, 

Ibn-Ishak, (cr -lahaq,) Ib'n is-hlk', an Arabian his- 
torian, who, at the request of the caliph Al-Mansoor, 
wrote a life of Mohammed the prophet He is an elo- 
quent but not a trustworthy writer. Died in 768 A.D. 

See SPRENGER, "Life of Mohammad," p. 69 et teq. 

Ibn-Khakan, (or -Khacan.) See AL-FATH. 

Ibn-Khaldoon, (-Khaldoun or -Khaldftn,) Ib'n 
Kal'doon' (Walee-ed-Deen- (or Waly -Eddyn-) 
Aboo-Zeid-Abd-er-Rahman, wa'lee ed-deen' S'boo 
zid abd-er-r Jh'man,) a celebrated Arabian historian, born 
at Tunis in 1332. He removed to Cairo, where he distin- 
guished himself by his uprightness as a judge, and was 
chosen chief of the Cadees (Cadis) of the sect of Malek- 
ites in 1384. Afterwards, while on a journey to Syria, 
he was made prisoner by Taimoor, (the famous Tamer- 
lane,) by whom he was treated with great kindness and 
respect His principal work is a valuable " History of 
the Arabs, Persians, and Berbers, with Preliminary 
Observations," which was recently published in France. 
"We cannot but conceive, in reading this," says Sil- 
vestre de Sacy, "a very high idea of his judgment, 
sagacity, and erudition, and of the great variety of his 
knowledge." Died in 1406. 

See his Autobiography, published in the " Journal Asiatiquc" of 
1844 ; SILVESTRR DB SACY, " Chrestomalhic Arabe :" CASIRI, Bibli- 
otheca Arabico-Hispana." 

Ibn-KhaHikan, Ib'n Kal'le-kln', written also Ebn- 
Khalican or -Khilcan, (Shems-ed-Deen (or-Eddin) 
Abool- (Aboul- or Abfil-) Abbas-Ahmed, shims 
ed-deen' a'bool Jb'bJs' aH'med,) a celebrated Arabian 
historian, born at Arbela in 121 1. He became grand 
Cadee (Cadi) of Damascus about 1261. His chief work 
is a "Biographical Dictionary of Famous Moslems," 
which contains over eight hundred articles. An English 
translation of it was beg-jn by Mr. Slane, the first volume 
of which was published in 1841. Died in 1282. 

Ibn-Kotcybah or Abdallah-Ibn-Koteybah, ab- 
dll'lah Ib'n ko-ta'bah or ko-ti'bah, written also Cotey- 
bah and Qotay tiah, an Arabian historian and critic, born 
at Bagdad in 828 A.D. ; died in 889. 

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary." 

Ibn-Maimoon, (-Maimfln or -Maimoun.) See 

Ibn-Rosched, (or -Roahd.) See AVERROES. 

Ibn-Sina See AviCE.N.NA. 

Ibn-Tofail, (-TofayL) See ABOO-BF.KR-!B.\-TOFAIL 

Ibnul-Abbar. See KODHAEE. 

Ibn-Yoonaa, (-Younas or -Yftnas,) Ib'n yoo'nas, 
sometimes spelled Ibn-Younis, (Alee- (or Ali-) Ibn- 
Abderrahman, i'lee Ib'n abd-er-rah'man,) one of the 
most eminent Arabian astronomers, was born in 979 A.D. 
He made at Cairo a series of observations, the results of 
which he published in a work called the "Table of Ibn- 
Yoonas." Died in 1008. 

Ibn-Zohr. See AVENZOAR. 

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) written also Ibrahym, ti..- 
Arabic name of the patriarch ABRAHAM, which see. 

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,*) ib-rS-heem', thirteenth caliph 
of the Omeyyad dynasty, was the son of Waleed (Walid) 
I. He began to reign in Damascus in 744 A. D., and a 
few months after was deposed by Merwan. The Arab 
historians disagree respecting his subsequent fate, 

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) L, (Aboo-Abdallah, i'tx58 
Ib-dal'lah,) founder of the dynasty of Aglabides in Africa, 
was the son of Aglab, and a native of Arabia. About 
800 A.D. he was appointed Governor of Africa by Haroun- 
al-Raschid. After the death of the latter, (808,) IbrSheem 
assumed the royal power. Died about 813. 

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) L, a Turkish Sultan, brother 
of Amurath IV., was proclaimed in 1640, at the age of 
twenty-three. His cruelty and other vices excited against 
him a powerful and successful conspiracy, by which he 
was deposed and strangled in 1648 or 1649. He wa 
succeeded by his son, Mahomet IV. 

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) U., Emperor of Hindostan, the 
son of Iskander, iiegan to reign in 1517, being the third 
of the Afghan dynasty. He was a very unpopular rulei. 
In 1526 the Mogul Baber invaded India, a battle was 
fought at I-aniput, where Ibraheem was defeated and 
killed, and the Mogul dynasty was established in India. 

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) a favourite of Sultan Solyman 
II., was a Genoese by birth, and was taken to Constan- 
tinople by pirates in his infancy. He became grand 
vizier about 1523, and signalized his courage in the war 
against Hungary in 1527. He was put to death, at the 
instigation of the Sultana, in 1535. 

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) born at Aleppo, was the most 
eminent among the Ottoman jurists. His fame rests upon 
a great work styled the " Confluence of the Seas," (" Mul- 
t.-.ka al-Abhar, ') which is a complete code of laws. Died 
in 1549. 

Ibraheem, (Ibrahim,) Pasha of Egypt, the son of 
Mehemet Alee, (Ali,) was born in Rumelia in 1789. He 
conquered the Wahabees, in Arabia, about 1818. In 
1824 he commanded an army and fleet which Mehemet 
Alee sent against the Greeks. Having landed in the 
Morea with 10,000 men in 1825, he took several towns 
and committed many atrocities. The success of the allies 
at Navarino and the French invasion of the Morea forced 
him to retire to Egypt in 1828. In a war waged between 
the Viceroy of Egypt and the Sultan, Ibraheem took 
Aleppo and defeated the Turks in a great battle at 
Konieh, in Syria, in 1832. His victorious progress was 
arrested by the intervention of the European powers in 
1833. Died in 1848. 

See LABAT, " L'lSgypte, ancienne et moderne." 

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) Bey, a famous Mameluke 
chief, born in Circassia about 1735. He went to Egypt 
in his youth, and entered the service of Mohammed Bey. 
After the death of the latter.Ibraheem shared with Moorsd 
Bey the sovereignty of Egypt. When Bonaparte invaded 
Egypt in 1798 and defeated Moored, Ibraheem retired 
to Syria. In 1800 he took part against the French at 
Cairo, etc., and, after they evacuated Egypt, was again 
Governor of Cairo, until supplanted by Mehemet Alee. 
Died in 1816. 

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) Effendi, (eT-f?n'dee,) a learned 
Turk, who was born about 1640, and filled considerable 
offices at Constantinople. He was converted to Chris- 
tianity, was baptized in 1671, retired to Venice, and as- 
sumed the name of Paul Antonio Effendi. He translated 
several books of the Bible into Arabic. Died in 1697. 

Ibraheem (Ibrahim) Khan-Ogli,(o'glee,) was grand 
vizier of Turkey when Mahomet I. died, in 1421. He 
tcok measures to secure the succession of Mahomet's 
sen, Amurath II., who was then absent from the capital. 
To reward this service, Amurath gave him the title of 
Klian, with hereditary privileges which made his family 
the rrst in the empire. 

* The Arabic texts are by no means un'f rrn in regard to the 
penultima of this name; it is often made sVcrjt but. if we mistake 
not, more frequently long, as given above. It is proper, however, to 
remark that a single instance of the insertion of the Alif (the sign of 

generally correct, merely proves lhat the insertion is not deemed 
Absolutely indispensable. Its omission may be compared to the 
neglecting to dot one's rs in writing English, a fault, undoubtedly, but 
null often committed by writers otherwise remarkable for accuracy. 

i, e, T, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, san-e, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; m?t; n5t; good; moon; 



Ibrahim. See IBRAHEEM. 

Ibrahym. See IBRAHEEM. 

Ibsen, ib'sen, (HENRIK,) a Norwegian poet and 
dramatist, born at Skien, March 20, 1828. He began 
life as an apothecary. His "Catiline," (1850,) a drama, 
was an ill-written production. In 1851 lie went to the 
University of Christiania, and afterwards was director 
of theatres, first at Bergen and then at Christiania. 
In 1864 he left Norway, in anger because it failed to 
help the Danes in their war wilh Prussia, and resided 
abroad till 1892. His " Warriors in Helgeland," 
(1858,) and "Rival Kings," (1864,) placed him in 
the first rank of Scandinavian national dramatists, and 
his "Love's Comedy," (1862,) was the first step to- 
wards his satirical social dramas. He produced other 
historical dramas, but first attracted world-wide atten- 
tion by "A Doll's House," (1879.) This keen ar- 
raignment of modern social custom; was followed by 
"Ghosts," (1881,) "The Wild Duck," (i"4,) "The 
Lady from the Sea," (i88,) "The Master Builder," 
(1892, ) " John Gabriel Borkwan," (1896,) and others, 
psychological in their interest, but vividly realistic in 
language, and which gave rise to a storm of contro- 
versy among critics. 

Ib'y-OOB, ['ISii/tof,] a Greek lyric poet, born at Rhe- 
gium, in Italy, flourished about 560 B.C., and passed part 
of his life at Samos. His poems, which were chiefly 
love-songs, are lost, except a few fragments. He was 
the fifth lyric poet of the Alexandrian canon, and had 
a high reputation. He is said to have been killed by 
robbers. His death has furnished the subject of one 
of the finest of Schiller's minor poems, "Die Kraniche 
des Ibycus." 

I9a. See ISA. 

Icard, e'kiR', (CHARLES,) a French Protestant min- 
ister and writer, born in Languedoc in 1636. He was 
driven into exile by persecution in 1682, and settled at 
Bremen in 1688. 

Icare. See ICARUS. 

I-ca'rl-us, [Gr. 'luapiof ,] also called Icarus, an Athe- 
nian, to whom Bacchus is said to have taught the cultiva- 
tion of the vine. He was killed by some shepherds, to 
whom he had given wine and who suspected that he had 
poisoned them. The legend adds that he was changed 
into the constellation Bootes. 

Icarius, a Lacedaemonian, the father of Penelope. 
He urged her to remain at Sparta after she was married 
to Ulysses ; but she preferred to follow her husband. 

Ic'a-rus, [Gr. 'kopec; Fr. ICARE, e'kjR',] son of Da?- 
dalus.'with whom, according to the Greek mythology, 
he was imprisoned in the Labyrinth of Crete. Having 
attempted to fly by means of artificial wings made with 
wax, they were melted by his approaching too near the 
sun, and he fell into the sea, near the island of Samos, 
which received from him the name of the Icarian Sea. 

Iccius, ik'she^js, a Roman philosopher, lived about 
30 B.C., and was a friend of Horace, who addressed to 
him an epistle and an ode. 

Icher, e'shaiR', (PIERRE,) a French physician and 
Hellenist, born at Montpellier in 1658; died in 1713. 

I-cill-us, (Lucius,) a Roman tribune, who was affi- 
anced to the celebrated Virginia. He was elected tribune 
of the people in 456 B.C., and favoured the cause of the 
plebeians. He was one of the leaders of the successful 
revolt against the Decemviri about 450 B.C. 

See NIBBUHR, " History of Rome." 

Ic-ti'nus, ['I/cru-of,] a celebrated Grecian architect, 
who flourished about 450 B.C. He built several grand 

and King of Jerusalem. She was eminent for wisdom 
and piety. Died in 1113. 

See BAILLBT, " Vies des Sainta." 

Idace. See IDACIUS. 

Idacius, e-da'she-us, [Fr. IDACE, e'dtss',1 a Spanish 
chronicler, born at Lamego about the end of the fourth 
century. He became Bishop of Chaves, (Accuse Flavise,) 
in Portugal. He was author of a " Chromcon" of the 
period from 379 to 468 A.D., which was printed in Paru 
by Sirmond in 1619. 

See N. ANTONIO, "Bibliotheca Hispana Nova." 

I'daa, [Gr. 'loaf,] a son of Aphareus, took part in the 
Argonautic expedition, and was renowned for valour. 
Idas and his brother Lynceus having quarrelled with 
the Dioscu'ri, Idas killed Castor, and was in turn killed 
by Pollux. 

Iddesleigh, (EARL OF.) See NORTH COTE, (WAL- 

Ide. See IDA. 

Ideler, ee'deh-ler, (CHRISTIAN LUDWG.) a Prussian 
astronomer and linguist, born near Perleberg in 1766. 
He was appointed in 1816 tutor to the princes William 
Frederick and Charles, and in 1821 became professor at 
the Berlin University. He was the author of " Historical 
Researches on the Astronomical Observations of the 
Ancients," (1806,) "On the Calendar of Ptolemy," and 
other similar treatises. He was a member of the French 
Institute, and the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. Died 
in Berlin in 1846. 

Ideler, (Junus LUDWIG,) a physician, a son of the 
preceding, was born at Berlin in 1809. He published 
" Meteorology of the Ancient Greeks and Romans," 
(1832,) "Hermapion, or Rudiments of the Hieroglyphic 
Literature of Ancient Egypt," (1841,) and other anti- 
quarian treatises. Died in 1842. 

Ideler, (KARL WILHELM,) a Prussian physician, born 
in 1795, lived in Berlin. He is known as a writer on 
i mental maladies. Died at Kumlosen, July 29, 1860. 

Ides, ee'dfs, (EVERARD ISBRANTZ,) a German travel- 
ler, born in Holstein about 1660. He was sent to Pekin 
by Peter the Great in 1692 to negotiate a treaty of com- 
merce, and returned in 1694. A narrative of his journey, 
published in 1704, is a work of some merit 

Idman, id'man, (NILS,) a Swedish philologist, pub- 
lished in 1778 " Researches on the Finnish People, and 
the Relations between the Finnish Language and the 

Idomeneus, [Gr. 'lotyifra'if,] a Greek historian, born 
at Lampsacus, lived about 300 B.C. He was a friend and 
disciple of Epicurus. His works are not extant 

See Vossius, "De Historitis Gratis." 

idtina, e-doo'na, or Idun, sometimes written Idun 
na, [etymology doubtful,] in the Norse mythology, the 
goddess of immortality, who keeps a casket of apples, of 
which if the gods partake they never grow old. (See 
THIASSI.) Iduna is said to be the wife of Bragi, the god 
of poetry, who in one sense may be said to possess the 

lefremoff or lefremov. See YEFREMOF. 

lenichen. See JENICHEN. 

lermak. See YERMAK. 

lezdedjerd. See YEZDEJERD. 

Iffland, ifflant, (AUGUST WILHELM,) a celebrated 
German actor and dramatist, born at Hanover in 1759. 
He became director of the National Theatre at Berlin in 
1796, and in 1811 was appointed director-general of the 

Arcadia. The most memorable monument of his genius .' 


this edifice, which is probably the most perfect speci- 
men of Grecian architecture in any age. Its length was 
227 feet and its breadth about 100. (See CALLICRATES.) 

See PAUSANIAS, book viii. 

Icwara. See ISWARA. 

I'da, [Fr. IDE, ed,] Countess of Boulogne, born about 
1040, was the mother of Godfrey of Bouillon, crusader 

theory as" in the practice of his art" Died in 1814. 

Igdrasil, (Yggdrasil.) See ODIN. 

Iglesiaa de la Casa, e-gla'se-is di li ki'8.1, (Jos,l 
a Spanish poet, born at Salamanca in 1753 ; died in 179'- 

See LONGFELLOW'S "Poets and Poetry of Europe." 

Ignace. See IGNATIUS. 

Ignarra, en-yar'ri, (NICCOL6,) an Italian antiquaij 

eas/S; fasj; %Aanf; gas/;G, H, K,guttural; y, nasal; ^,trilled; sasz; thasinMu. (J^'See Explanations, p. 23.) 




nd priest, born near Naples in 1728, was a good clas- 
sical scholar. He became professor of divinity in the 
Royal University of Naples in 1771, director of the royal 
printing-office in 1782, and preceptor of the prince Fran- 
cis de Bourbon in 1784. He wrote, besides other works, 
an esteemed commentary "De Palaestra Neapolitans *' 
(1770.) Died in 1808. 

See CASTAL: i, " Igname Vita," prefixed to his '* Opuscoli," 1807. 

Ignatieff, ig-na'te-Sf, (NIKOLAI PAVLOVITCH,) a Rus- 
sian general and diplomat, born at Saint Petersburg, 
January 29, 1832. He entered the army, was rapidly 
promoted, and was afterwards sent upon various im- 
portant diplomatic errands. In 1858 he obtained from 
China the cession of extensive territories, and from 1859 
to 1863 he was full ambassador at Peking. He was 
(1864-77) Russian envoy to Turkey, and in 1878 he 
negotiated the treaty of San Stephano, and was after- 
wards minister of the interior. 

Ignatius, ig-na'she-us, [Gr. 'I/rariof; Fr. IGNACS, 
en'ytss'; Ger. IGNAZ, ig-nats'; It IGNAZIO, en-yat'se-o.J 
surnamed THEOPH'ORUS, one of the earliest Christian 
Fathers, and one of the most eminent among the imme- 
diate successors of the apostles, is supposed to have 
been a native of Syria. About 67 A.D. he became bishop 
or minister of the church of Antioch by the appointment 
of Saint Peter, or, according to some writers, of Saint 
John. He had filled this station acceptably about forty 
years, when the emperor Trajan began a persecution 
of the Christians. Ignatius was brought before Trajan 
at Antioch, and, refusing to renounce his religion, was 
condemned, and suffered martyrdom at Rome in 107, 
being exposed to wild beasts in the amphitheatre. His 
epistles to the Ephesians, Trallians, Magnesians, Romans, 
Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and to Polycarp are extant, 
and are regarded by many able critics as precious memo- 
rials of the primitive Church; but not a few scholars 
reject them entirely. There are eight other Ignatian 
ep'stles which are generally conceded to be spurious. 
In one of his epistles we find the words, " Now I begin 
to be a disciple ; I weigh neither visible nor invisible 
things, that I may win Christ !" 

See CAVE, " Historia Literaria ;" PHAKON, " Vmdidae Ignatianz," 
Cambridge, 1672: W. CURBTON, " Vindiciz Ignatianx, or the Genu- 
ine Writings of Saint Ignatius vindicated from the Charge of Heresy," 
8vo, 1846 ; CottTLosQUET, " Vie de Saint-Ignace, Eveque d'Antioch," 
1857 ; Mas. JAMESON, " History of Sacred and Legendary Art." 

Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople, born in 799 
A.D., was the son of the emperor Michael Curopalates. 
When the latter was deposed, Ignatius entered a monas- 
tery, and became eminent for piety and wisdom. In 846 
he was raised to the dignity of patriarch. Eleven years 
after, he was banished and cruelly treated for his opposi 
tion to Bardas, an uncle of Michael III., who appointed 
in his place the ambitious Photius. The schism between 
the Greek and Roman Churches began while Photius 
was in office, and has continued ever since that time. In 
867 the emperor Basilius reinstated Ignatius, who as- 
sembled in 869 an oecumenical council at Constantinople, 
which condemned Photius and his party. Died in 877 

See DAVID NICETAS, "Vita S. Ignatii," 1604. 

Ignatius Loyola. See LOYOLA. 

Igor (ee'gor) I., third Grand Duke of Russia, a son 
of Rurik, was born about 875, and succeeded Oleg ir 
912 A.D. He led an expedition against Constantinople in 
941, and compelled the Greek emperor to sue for peace, 
which was granted by a treaty in 945. Igor was killed 
in an ambuscade in 945. After his death his widow Olga 
was converted to Christianity. 

See SOLOVIHP, " Histoire de Russie." 

Igor II., or Igor Olgovitch, Grand Prince of Russia, 
began to reign at Kief about 1145. His claim was con 
tested by Iziaslaf, who defeated him in 1146. Igor was 
confined in a convent, and assassinated in 1 147. 

See KARAMZIN, "Histoire de Russie." 

Ihre, ee'reh, (JoHAN,) a Swedish scholar, eminent in 
philology, born at Lund in 1707, graduated with the 
highest honour at Upsal in 1730. After visiting France, 
England, etc., he returned to Upsal and became professor 
of poetry and of theology in the university of that place. 
In 1 738 he obtained the chair of belles-lettres and political 

science, which he occupied about forty years, acquiring 
great celebrity as i lecturer and author. In 1769 he 
published his " Swedish Glossary," (" Glossarium Suio- 
gothicum,") a monument of his immense learning and 
critical sagacity, containing a philosophic treatise on the 
filiation of languages, besides remarks on the origin 
and affinity of Swedish words. He also wrote several 
hundred excellent academical dissertations, and is justly 
ranked among the best critics of the eighteenth century. 
In 1759 he was decorated with the order of the Pola) 
Star. Died in 1780. 

See FLODERUS, "Parentaiion ofver J. Ihre," 1781 ; CEZBLIUS 
" Biographiskt- Lexicon dfver namnkunnige Svenska Man." 

Hire, (THOMAS,) a Swedish writer, father of the pre. 
ceding, born at Wisby in 1659 ; died in 1720. 

See T. RUDBN, " Trognas Strid och Seger, Likpredikan ofver T 
Ihre," 1720. 

Iken, ee'ken, (CONRAD,) a German theologian, born 
at Bremen in 1689. He became professor of theology at 
Bremen, and wrote, besides other works, " Antiquitatei 
Hebraicae," (1730.) Died in 1753. 

Iken, (HEINRICH FRIEDRICH,) a German religious 
writer, born at Neuenkirchen in 1791; died in 1820. 

Ildefonse. See ILDEFONSO. 

Il-de-fon'so, [LaL ILDEFON'SUS ; Fr. ILDEFONSE, 
41-deh-foNs',] SAINT, a Spanish prelate, born at Toledo 
in 607 A.D., was a pupil of Saint Isidore. He became 
Archbishop of Toledo in 658. He wrote, besides several 
theological treatises, a continuation of Saint Isidore's 
work "De Viris illustribus." Died in 669. 

See Cm LA, "Vita Ildefonsi :" GREGORIO MAYANS, " Vida de S 
Ildefonso," 173-,. 

Hepooshin or Uepouschic, il-e-poo'shen, a Rus- 
sian poet of the present age, lived near Saint Petersburg 
He wrote pastoral poems. 

Ilgen, il'gen, (KARL DAVID,) a distinguished philolo- 
gist, born in Prussian Saxony in 1763. He became in 

mina convivialia Graecorum.") Died in 1834, 

See F. C. KRAPPT, "Vita CD. Ilgeni," 1837; R, STERN, " Nar 
ratio de C. D. Ilgenio." 1839 ; " ll^emana: Erinnerungen an Dr. C 
D. Ilgen," Leipsic, 1853. 

nia. See RHEA SILVIA. 

I-lith-jM'a or Eileithyia, |Gr. FJXfi9Dwj,J written 
also Eleithy'ia and Eleutho, a Greek goddess, who 
presided over birth. Though originally distinct from 
Diana, (Artemis,) she seems later to have become identi- 
fied with her. (See LUCIVA.) 

Dive, I'liv, ? (JACOB,) an English printer, who became 
noted by his fictitious" Book of Jasher," (1751,) which he 
pretended to have translated from Alcuin. Died in 1763. 

Ulescas, el-yes'kas, (GONSALVO,) a Spanish monk, 
wrote a " History of the Popes," (1570.) Died in 1580. 

Blgen, il'gen, (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH,) a German 
Protestant divine, born at Chemnitz in 1786, wrote sev- 
eral works, and edited a journal at Leipsic. Died in 1844. 

Ulyricus. See FRANCOWITZ. 

Umoni, il-mo'nee, (IMMANUEL,) a Finnish physician, 
born in 1797, wrote " Contributions to the History of the 
Nosology of the North," (3 vols., 1846-53.) Died in 18561 

Ilus, [Gr. 'l?.oc,| the founder of Ilium, (Ilion,) or Troy, 
was a son of TROS, (which see.) 

Imad-ed-Deen, (-Eddyn or -Eddin.) e-mid' ed- 
deen', (i.e. the " Pillar of Religion,") (Mohammed, 
mo-ham'me'd, ) surnamed AL-KATEB, was born at Is- 
pahan in 1125 A.D. He went in 1167 to Damascus, 
where he became the secretary of Noor-ed-Deen. Afier 
the death of Noor-ed-Deen, he enjoyed the favour of the 
famous Saladin, whose victories he celebrated in an ode, 
and whom he served as private secretary until the death 
of that prince. ImSd-ed-Deen wrote a " History of the 
Conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin," and " Memoirs of 
the Moslem Poets of the Sixth Century of the Hejrah.'- 
Died in 1201. 

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, " Biographical Dictionary." 

Imad-ed-Dowlah, (or -Eddaulah.) e-mSd'ed-dflw'- 
lah, (i.e. "Pillar of the State,") (Alee-Abool-Hasaan 
Alee-Ibn-Booyah, J'lee a'bool has'san a'lee Ib'n boo' 
yah,) King of Persia, was the founder of the dynasty of 

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far. fall, fit; met; not; RcSoil; moon. 



Uouides, and began to reign in 933 A.D. Pie conquered 
the Caliph of Bagdad, and died in 949, leaving the throne 
to his nephew, Adhad-ed-Dowlah. 

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary;" WEIL, "Ge- 
chichte des Chalifen." 

Imberdis, aN'beVdess', (ANDRE,) a French writer, 
born at Ambert about 1810, published a " History of the 
Religious Wars in Auvergne during the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries," (2 vols., 1841.) Died in 1878. 

Imbert, ax'baiR', (BARTHELEMY,) a French poet, born 
at Mimes in 1747. He produced at the age of twenty 
"The Judgment of Paris," a graceful poem, which was 
much admired. The plan was ingenious, and the style 
natural and elegant. Died in 1790. 

See QUHRARD, "La France Litte'raire." 

Imbert, (GUILLAUME,) a French litifratcur, born at 
Limoges about 1743 ; died at Paris in 1803. 

Imbert, (JEAN,) a French jurist, born at La Rochelle 
about 1522, published " Institutiones Forenses," (1542,) 
often reprinted. Died about 1600. 

Imbert, (JOSEPH GABRIEL,) an eminent French 
painter, born in Marseilles in 1654, was a pupil of Le- 
brun and of Van der Meulen. At the age of thirty-four 
he took the monastic vows, after which he painted only 
sacred subjects. His chief work is a " Calvary." Died 
in 1740. 

Imbouati, em-bo-na'tee, (CARLO GIUSEPPE,) an Ital- 
ian bibliographer, born at Milan, wrote "Bibliotheca 
Latino-Hebraica," (2 vols., 1696.) Died after 1696. 

Imhof or ImhoS, im'hof, (GusTAV WILLEM,) born 
in Amsterdam in 1705, was appointed Governor of Cey- 
lon in 1736. Having gained general confidence by hi3 
conduct and capacity, he became about 1742 Governor- 
General of the Dutch East Indies. Died in 1750. 

Imhof, von, fon im'hof, (JAKOB WILHELM,) a Ger- 
man genealogist, born at Nuremberg in 1651. He was 
well versed in the history of the royal and noble families 
of Europe, and wrote many works on genealogy, among 
which is one in 2 vols., (1684.) Died in 1728. 

See KOELHR, " Lebensgeschichte Imbofs." 

Im-ho-tep, a god of the ancient Egyptians, supposed 
to be the god of science, and chiefly honoured at Mem- 
phis. He was the son of Ptah and Pakht. 

Imilcon. See HIMILCO. 

Im'I-son, (JOHN,) an English mechanician, wrote a 
valuable work entitled "The School of Arts," which 
passed through several editions. In 1807 Professor J. 
Webster published an improved edition, with the title 
of "Elements of Art and Science." Died in 1788. 

Im'lah, (JOHN,) a Scottish song-writer, born at Aber- 
deen, November 15, 1799. He published "May-Flow- 
ers," a volume of lyrics, (1827,) and "Poems," (1841.) 
Died in Jamaica, January 9, 1846. 

Immermann, im'm?r-man', (KARL LEBRECHT,) a 
German dramatist and poet, born at Magdeburg in 1796, 
was the author of a comedy entitled "The Princes of 
Syracuse," (1821,) "The Valley of Ronceval," "King 
Periander," (1823,) and other tragedies. He also pub- 
lished a number of tales and lyric poems. Died in 1840. 

See KARL IMMBRMANN, " Memorabilien," 3 vols., 1840-43; F. 
FREILIGRATH, "C. Immermann, Blatter der Erinnerung an ihn," 
1842 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for April, 1843. 

Imola. See FRANCUCCI. 

Imparato, em-pa-ra'to, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian 
painter, born at Naples about 1530, was a pupil of Titian, 
whose style he imitated with some success. Died after 

Imperials, cm-pa-re-a'li, (FRANCESCO,) born at 
Genoa about 1370, went to Spain, and became attached 
to the court of Henry III. of Castile. He was regarded 
as one of the best Spanish poets of that time. 

Imperiali, em-pa-re-a'lee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an 
Italian physician and author, born at Vicenza in 1568, 
graduated at Padua, and practised with success in his 
native city. He wrote Latin poems, which were admired, 
also a collection of observations entitled "Exotericae 
Exercitationes," (1603.) Died in 1623. 

His son GIOVANNI, born at Vicenza in 1602, was also 
a physician, and wrote " Musaeum Historicum et Physi- 
cum," consisting of eulogies and memoirs of eminent 
literary men. Died in 1670. 

Imperiali, (GIOVANNI VINCENTS,) an Italian poet, 
born at Genoa about 1570, served the state as a diplo- 
matist, and held a high command in the navy. He wrote, 
besides other poems, "Lo Stato rustico," (1611,) which 
was received with favour. Died about 1645. 

See SOPRANI, "Scrittori Liguri." 

Imperiali, (GIUSEPPE RENATO,) an Italian cardinal, 
distinguished for his patronage of learning, was born of 
a noble family at Genoa in 1651. It is said he would 
have been elected pope in 1730, if the court of Spain 
had not interposed against him. Many learned men were 
recipients of his bounty. Died in 1737. He left a noble 
library, which, by his will, was kept open to the public 

See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiaui illustri." 

Imperiali-Lercari, em-pa-re-a'lee IdR-ka'ree, (FRAN- 
CESCO MARIO,) was Doge of Genoa when that city was 
bombarded by the fleet of Louis XIV. in 1684. Hos- 
tilities having been suspended by the mediation of the 
pope, the Doge went as ambassador to Paris, and a 
treaty of peace was signed in 1685. 

Im'pey, (Sir ELIJAH,) an infamous judge, who offi- 
ciated in India during the administration of Warren 
Hastings; was recalled, 1782; impeached, 1788; died 
in 1812. 

See "Memoirs of Sir Elijah Irapey," by E. B. IMPHY, 1846; 
MACAULAY, " Essay on Warren Hastings." 

Impiccati, degli, a surname of ANDREA DEL CAS- 

I'na or I'nas, King of the West Saxons, and one of 
the chiefs of the Heptarchy, succeeded Ceadwalla in 689 
A.D. He appears to have possessed superior talents, 
and is regarded as one of the principal legislators among 
the ancient Anglo-Saxons. He waged war successfully 
against the people of Kent and the Britons about 710, 
In 728 he resigned his crown, and died at Rome the 
same year. 

See WILLIAM OF MALMHSBURY, " Gesta Regum Anglorum." 

In'a-ehus, [Gr. 'Iva^of,] a mythical personage, the 
son of Oceanus, and father of lo, is said to have been 
the first King of Argos. Having been chosen as umpire 
by Neptune and Juno when they disputed about the 
possession of Argos, he decided in favour of Juno. 

Inca, ing'ki, (plural Incas,) a Peruvian or Quichua 
word, signifying " chief," and applied to the dynasty reign- 
ing in Peru on the arrival of the Spaniards in that coun- 
try in the early part of the sixteenth century. As the 
Peruvians did not possess the art of writing, we have no 
means of ascertaining, or even forming a satisfactory 
conjecture respecting, the earliest date of their power. The 
Incas claimed to be the descendants of Manco Capac and 
his wife Mama Ocllo, who were the children of the sun. 
(See MANCO CAPAC.) The empire of the Incas, at the 
period of their greatest power, extended through nearly 
forty degrees of longitude, and contained an area of 
between one and two million square miles. Their sub- 
jects, though unacquainted with letters, had in many 
respects advanced to a high degree of civilization. They 
understood the working of the precious metals, archi- 
tecture, and many other arts, and were especially dis- 
tinguished for the general liberality and wisdom of their 
state policy; though some of their laws and regulations 
were, according to the standard of Christian civilization, 
both unjust and inhuman. 

See PRBSCOTT'S " Conquest of Peru," book i. chap. i. 

Inch'bald, (ELIZABETH,) a popular English actress, 
novelist, and dramatist, born at Stanningfield in 1753, 
was the daughter of a farmer named Simpson. At the 
age of sixteen she came to London with the intention of 
becoming an actress, and was married to Mr. Inchbald, 
who had obtained some success on the stage. After 
performing with her husband several seasons at Edin- 
burgh and other towns, she made her dlbut at Covent 
Garden in 1780, and was very successful. Her success 
is ascribed in a great measure to her personal beauty 
and virtuous character. In 1789 she retired from the 
stage. She wrote " Such Things Are," " Every One 
has his Fault," "To Marry or Not to Marry," and many 
other plays. Her greatest productions are two novels, 
"A Simple Story," (1791,) and "Nature and Art," (1796,) 
which obtained extensive and durable popularity. Her 
" ' Nature and Art,' " says Hazlitt, " is one of tie most 

easi; yas.s; ghard; gas/; G, H, K,guttural; vi, nasal; R, trilled; sas; thasin//iu-. (^[^"See Explanations, p. 23.) 




interesting and pathetic stories in the world." The 
other work is highly commended by Miss Edgeworth. 
Died in 1821. 

See her Life, by BOADHN, 1833; MRS. ELWOOD, "Memoirs of 
the Literary Ladies of England from the Commencement of the 
Last Century," voL i., 1843. 

Inch'j-quin, (MoRROGH O'BRIEN,) BARON OF, a 
famous Irish soldier, born about 1618. He acted a 
prominent part in the civil war, fighting alternately for 
Charles I. and against him. He was a royalist from 1640 
to 1645, and gained several victories. About 1649 he 
entered the French service, with the rank of general. 
Died in 1674. 

Inchpfer, ing'Ko'fer, (MELCHIOR,) a Jesuit, born in 
Vienna in 1584, lived in various cities of Italy, and wrote 
several learned works, among which is the " Ecclesias- 
tical History of Hungary," (1644, unfinished.) He had 
more learning than critical judgment. Died in 1648. 

See BAYLH, "Historical and Critical Dictionary." 

Incledon,ink'el-don, (BENJAMIN CHARLES,) an Eng- 
lish vocalist, born in Cornwall in 1764, served several 
years in the royal navy. He first appeared in a London 
theatre in 1790, and performed many years with success. 
Died in 1826. 

Indaco, 1', len'da-ko, (FRANCESCO,) a painter of the 
Florentine school, flourished about 1530. 

Indaco. 1', ( JACOPO DA FIRENZE,) a Florentine painter, 
a brother of the preceding, was a pupil of Ghirlandaio, 
and worked at Rome. 

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters." 

India, en'de-i, (TuLUO, ) called THE ELDER, a 
painter of the Venetian school, was born at Verona, and 
flourished in 1545. He was a skilful painter in fresco, 
and an excellent copyist 

His son BERNARDINO, a painter, was born at Verona. 
One of his later works is dated 1584. 

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters." 

In-dibl-lia, a Spanish chief, who flourished during 
the first Punic war, in which he fought for and betrayed 
both sides. He fought for the Carthaginians in the 
battle at which Publius Scipio was killed, in 213 B.C. 
His army was defeated by the younger Scipio in 207. 
He was killed in battle by the Romans in 205 B.C. 

See LIVY, " History of Rome," books xxii. and xxv.-xxix. 

Iiidicopleustes. See COSMAS. 

Indra, In'clRa, [etymology doubtful ; possibly related 
to the Latin imber, (Gr. o/43poc,) a "shower" or "rain- 
itorm,"] the regent of the firmament, in the Hindoo 
mythology, is the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. As the 
god of storms and thunder, he may be said to correspond 
very nearly to the Roman Jupiter and Greek Zeus. In 
the early period of the Hindoo mythology he was (like 
Jupiter) regarded as the most powerful of the gods ; but, 
after the introduction of the deities of the Hindoo triad, 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, Indra, Varuna, and Agni 
were deposed from their high rank and made to occupy 
a far inferior position. Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, is 
represented, while still an infant, as baffling with the 
utmost ease the mightiest efforts of the god of thunder. 
(See KRISHNA.) Indra is supposed to preside over all 
atmospheric changes ; the clouds are his war-elephants, 
one of which, represented with three trunks and called 
Irivat,* (1-ra'vat,) is his vShan, (or "vehicle,"!) and his 
most terrible weapon is his vajra, (pronounced by the 
modern Hindoos vuj'ra or buj'ra,) or "adamantine thun- 
derbolt."} The heaven or paradise of Indra is called 
Swarga or Swerga, (pronounced swur'ga.) Here dwell 
the Apsaras, the beautiful dancing-girls of his court, who 
may be said to correspond to the Hoorees (Houris) of 
Mohammed's paradise, and the Gandharvas, or celestial 
minstrels. The consort of Indra is named IndrSnl, (in- 
dRa'nee.) His capital city is called Amrivati, (im-ra'- 
va-tee,) or the "city of immortality." 

See MOOR'S " Hindu Pantheon;" COLBMAN'S " Mythology of the 
Hindus;" SIR WILLIAM JONES'S Works, vol. xiii., (or vol. vi of 
another edition;) H. H. WILSON'S "Translation of the Rig- Veda,' 
and " Essays on the Religion of the Hindus," 

Iravat signifies " watery," " full of rain," (in Latin, plmwut.) 
T See note under GARUDA. 

t This word (vajra) signifies both " thunderbolt" and " adamant,' 
or "diamond." 

Induno, en-doo'no, (DoMENico,) an Italian painter 
of history and genre, born at Milan in 1815. He gained 
the grand prize in 1837. He died in 1878. 

Ifies (en'ySs) or Ifiez de Castro, en'ySth di kas'tRo, 
sometimes Anglicised as AGNES DE CASTRO, a beautiful 
Spanish lady, whose tragical fate is commemorated by 
Camoens in the " Lusiad," was born of a noble famiiy 
in Castile in the fourteenth century. Having been a 
maid of honour at the court of Alphonso IV. of Por- 
tugal, she won the love of his son Don Pedro, who 
privately married her. The king, on learning the fact, 
was violently enraged, and, after vain efforts to dissolve 
their union, authorized her assassination in 1355. She 
was eminent for virtue, grace, and intelligence. Her 
story is the subject of numerous dramas, legends, etc. 

Infantado, de, di en-fan-ta'oo, DUQUE, a Spanish 
statesman, born in 1773, was an intimate friend of the 
Prince of Asturias, (Ferdinand VII.) In 1808 he ac- 
companied that prince to Bayonne, and signed the con- 
stitution which Napoleon imposed on Spain. In 1809 
he commanded an army which was defeated by the 
French at Saint Sebastian. Ferdinand VII. appointed 
him president of the council of Castile in 1814. He 
resigned in 1820, and was prime minister for a short 
time in 1825. Died in 1841. 

Ingalls, (JOHN JAMES,) an American politician, 
born at Middleton, Massachusetts, in 1833. He en- 
gaged in law practice, became a resident of Kansas, 
was State Senator in 1861, and was elected to the 
United States Senate in 1873, 1879, and 1885. He 
officiated as president pro tempore of the Senate 1887- 
91 . He subsequently became a lecturer and journalist. 
Died July 16, 1900. 

Ingalls, ing'galz, (RuFUS,) an American general, born 
in Oxford county, Maine, about 1820, graduated at West 
Point in 1843, and was appointed a brigadier-general 
of volunteers in 1862. He served in the army of the 
Potomac in 1863-65. Died January 15, 1893. 

Ingeburga, mg'eh-bdoR'ga, sometimes written Ing- 
elburge or Ingerburga, a Danish princess, was the 
sister of Canute VI. In 1192 she became the wife of 
Philip Augustus of France, who soon after divorced 
her without good reason. She appealed to the pope, 
Innocent III., who decided in her favour ; and after the 
kingdom of Philip had been laid under an interdict, 
he was induced to reinstate her. Died in 1236. 

Ingegneri, en-jSn-ya'ree, (ANGIOLO,) an Italian litte- 
rateur, born in Venice about 1550, was secretary of Car- 
dinal C. Aldobrandini at Rome, whose service he quitted 
in 1598. He wrote a pastoral called "The Dance of 
Venus," (" La Danza di Venere,") " Buon Segretario," 
and a few other works, in prose and verse. He was a 
friend of Tasso. Died in 1613. 

Ingegno, L'. See LUIGI, (ANDREA.) 

In'ge-low, (JEAN,) a popular English poetess, was 
born at Boston, England, in 1820. Her first volume of 
poems, containing " Divided," " Songs of Seven," " The 
High Tide," etc., at once established her reputation. 
Her other publications are "Studies for Stories," (1864,) 
"Poor Mat," (1866,) "A Story of Doom, etc.," (1867,) 
"A Sister's Bye-I louir.." (1868,) " Mopsa the Fairy," 
(1869,) "Off the Skelligs," (1872,) "Fated to be Free," 
(1875,) and "Don John," (1881.) Died July 12, 

lugemann, ing'eh-man', (BERNHARD SEVERIN,) a 
popular Danish poet and novelist, was born in the island 
of Falster, May 28, 1789. He produced a volume of 
lyric poems (" Digte") in 1811, and an epic poem, called 
"The Black Knights," (" De sorte Riddere,") in 1814. 
His tragedies " Blanca" and " Masaniello" (1815) were 
performed with great success. About 1820 he published 
a dramatic poem, called " The Deliverance of Tasso." He 
was chosen professor of Danish at the Academy of Soroe 
in 1822. He wrote several popular historical novels, 
among which are " Waldemar the Victor," (1826,) and 
" Prince Otho of Denmark," (1835.) Died May 24, 1862. 

See WiLLiAMand MARY HOWITT, "The Literatureand Romance 
of Northern Europe," vol. ii., 1852; LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry 
of Europe ;" ERSLEW, "Almindeligt Forfatter- Lexicon :" MdLLBR. 
"Dansk Pantheon ;" " Quarterly Review" for April, 1838. 

Ingen or Inghen, van, vSn ing'gen or ing'Hen, (WiL- 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mdt; n&t; good; moon; 




LKM,) a Dutch painter, born in 1651, studied under C. 
Maratta at Rome. He worked in Venice and Naples, 
and settled in Amsterdam. His works have considera- 
ble merit. Died about 1710. 

Ingeuhousz, ing'gen -hows', (JAN,) an eminent Dutch 
physician and chemist, born at Breda in 1730. About 
1767 he visited London, where he became intimate with 
Dr. Pringle, president of the Royal Society, by whose 
recommendation he became physician to the empress 
Maria Theresa in 1772. He was made a member of 
the aulic council in Vienna, and received a pension for 
life. After remaining in Vienna a number of years, he 
travelled in France, Italy, etc., pursuing his scientific 
studies and experiments, and at last settled in London, 
and was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Society. He in- 
vented an electrophorus, and discovered that growing 
plants exposed to the light exhale oxygen gas, (1779.) 
His principal works (which are all written in English) 
are " Experiments on Vegetables, discovering their Power 
of Purifying the Air," (1779,) an " Essay on the Food of 
Plants," and " Experiments and Observations on Various 
Physical Subjects." The invention of the plate electrical 
machine is attributed to him. Died in 1799. 

See " Biographic Me"dicale," 

Ingersoll, ing'ger-spl, (CHARLES JARED,) a lawyer 
and writer, a son of Jared, noticed below, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1782. He was elected to Congress in 
1812, and was appointed district attorney for Pennsyl- 
vania by President Madison in 1815. He was chosen 
a Democratic member of Congress in 1840, 1842, and 

1844. Among his works are "Chiomara," a poem, 
(1800,) and a "Historical Sketch of the Second War 
between the United States of America and Great Britain," 
(4 vols., 1845-52.) Died in 1862. 

Ingersoll, (ERNEST,) an American author, born at 
Monroe, Michigan, March 13, 1852, studied at Oberlin 
and Harvard Colleges, was attached to United States 
geological surveys as a naturalist, 1874-1877, and after- 
wards was attached to the United States fish commission. 
In 1880 he was a special agent of the tenth census. His 
principal works are " A Natural History Series" for the 
young, "Natural History of Nests and Birds," (in parts, 
1878 it ieq.,) " Friends Worth Knowing," " Oyster In- 
dustries of the United States," (1881,) "The Ice 
Queen," (1884,) "Wild Neighbours," (1897,) etc. 

Ingersoll, (JARED,) LL.D., an American jurist, born 
in Connecticut in 1749. He graduated at Yale in 1766, 
studied law at the Temple in London, and on returning to 
America took up his residence in Philadelphia. Though 
the son of a royalist, he zealously advocated the rights 
of the colonies in the Revolution. He rose to great dis- 
tinction in his profession, was twice attorney-general of 
Pennsylvania, once United States district attorney, and in 
the latter part of his life president-judge of the district 
court of Philadelphia. He served in the convention that 
framed the Federal Constitution in 1787, and in 1812 was 
the candidate of the Federal party for the Vice-Presidency 
of the United States. Died in 1822. 

Ingersoll, (JOSEPH REED,) D.C.L., son of the pre- 
ceding, was born in Philadelphia, June 14, 1786. He 
graduated at Yale College in 1808, and attained to a high 
rank in the legal profession in his native city. He was a 
representative in Congress from 1835 to 1837, and was 
re-elected by the Whig party in 1841, and again in 1843, 

1845, and 1847. He took a prominent part in the debates 
on the tariff, and was for some time chairman of the 
committee on the judiciary. He was appointed minister 
to England by President Fillmore in 1852. Died in 1868. 

Ingersoll, (ROBERT GREEN,) an American lawyer, 
born at Dresden, New York, August 11, 1833, the son 
of a Congregational minister of broad views. The young 
Ingersoll became a lawyer, was a colonel of cavalry in 
the Federal army, 1862-65, was appointed attorney-gen- 
eral of Illinois in 1866, and afterwards acquired fame as 
a political orator and successful lawyer. He became 
very prominent as a lecturer against the Bible and 
the Christian creeds. Died July 21, 1899. 

Ing'ham, (CHARLES C.,) an eminent American por- 
trait-painter, born about 1797. He worked in the city 
of New York, where he died in December, 1863. His 
pictures are remarkable for their high finish. 

Inghen. See INGEN. 

Inghirami, en-ge-rl'mee, (Cavaliere FRANCESCO,) 
an eminent Italian antiquary, born at Volterra in 1772, 
devoted many years to researches into ancient art, and 
acquired a European reputation by his writings. The 
most important of these is his "Monument! Etruschi," 
(10 vols., 1821-27,) which is the most complete de- 
scription of the antiquities of Etruria. He wrote, also, 
"Galleria Omerica," (3 vols., 1827-38,) illustrative of 
Homer's poems, and " Letters on Etruscan Erudition, 
etc.," (1828.) Died in 1846. 

See ERSCH und CRUDER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Inghirami, (TOMMASO FEDRA,) an eminent Italian 
scholar and orator, born at Volterra in 1470, settled at 
Rome in early youth, and obtained high preferments. 
He acquired the fame of being one of the most eloquent 
men of modern Rome ; and Erasmus informs us that he 
was styled the Cicero of his age. He was patronized 
by Julius II., who appointed him keeper of the Vatican 
Library. He left in manuscript a "Commentary on 
Horace's Art of Poetry," "An Abstract of Roman His- 
tory," and other works. Died in 1516. 

Ingleby, ing'gl-be, (CLEMENT MANSFIELD,) LL.D., 
an English critic, born at Edgbaston, near Birmingham, 
October 29, 1823. He graduated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1847. His principal works are "Theo- 
retical Logic," (1856,) "The Shakspere Fabrications," 
(1859,) " Shakspeare Hermeneutics, or The Still Lion," 
(1867-74,) "Was Thomas Lodge an Actor f" (1867,)' 
"Revival of Philosophy at Cambridge," (1869,) "Shat.- 
spere's Centurie of Prayse," (1870,) and "Shakspere, 
the Man and the Book," (1877.) Died in 1886. 

Inglefield, (Sir EDWARD,) an English naval offi- 
cer, born at Cheltenham in 1820. He entered the 
navy in 1832, took part in encounters with pirates off 
Borneo and in other operations, and was active in the 
search for Sir John Franklin. He also went to the 
polar waters to relieve the Belcher expedition, and 
took part in the siege of Sebastopol. He was suc- 
cessively promoted until he became a full admiral in 
1879. Died September 5, 1894. 

Inglis, ing'glis, (HENRY DAVID,) a Scottish writer of 
travels, born in Edinburgh in 1795. He travelled exten- 
sively in Europe, and published excellent books of travel, 
viz., " Solitary Walks through Many Lands," (3d edition, 
1843,) a "Journey through Norway, Sweden, and Den- 
mark," (1829,) "Tour through Switzerland, the South of 
France," etc., (1830,) "Spain in 1830," (from which Lord 
Aberdeen said he had derived more information than 
from all the state documents he ever perused,) "The 
Tyrol, with a Glance at Bavaria," (1834,) and " Rambles 
in the Footsteps of Don Quixote." Died in 1835. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen," 

Inglis or English, (Sir JAMES,) a poet, born in Scot- 
land in the reign of James IV., is supposed to be the 
author of a book entitled "The Complaint of Scotland," 
published at Saint Andrew's in 1548, said to be the most 
ancient Scottish prose work that is extant. Died in 1530. 

Inglis, (JAMES,) an English author, born at Edzell 
in 1845. Most of his life was spent in India, Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand, and he published "Sport 
and Work on the Nepaul Frontier," (1^80,) "Our 
New Zealand Cousins," (1886,) "Tent Life in Tiger 
Land," (i8G8,) etc. 

Inglis, (JOHN,) an eminent Scottish advocate, was 
born at Edinburgh in 1810. He became lord advocate 
and dean of the faculty in 1852. Having retired from 
office with the Derby ministry in December, 1852, he 
was restored to the same in 1858, and became lord 
justice clerk in the same year. Died August 20, 

In'glis, (Sir JOHN EARDLEY WILMOT,) a British gen- 
eral, born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, about 1815, was a son 
of the Bishop of Nova Scotia. He distinguished himself 
in the campaign of the Punjab in 1848-49, and obtained 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. His regiment was at 
Lucknow when that place was besieged by the Sepoys 
in the summer of 1857. On the death of Sir Henry 

e as &; 9 as s; g hard; g as /; G, H, TS^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( J^p^See Explanations, p. 23. 




Lawrence he succeeded to the command of the garrison. 
He received the brevet of major-general for his heroic 
defence of Lucknow. Died at Homburg, Germany, in 
September, 1862. 

Inglis, (MARGARET MAXWELL,) a Scottish poetess 
born at Sanquhar, Scotland, in 1774, published a "Mis- 
cellaneous Collection of Poems" in 1838. Died in 1843. 

Inglis, (Sir ROBERT HARRY,) M.P., born in 1786, was 
the only son of Sir Hugh Inglis, chairman of the East 
India Company. He was first elected to Parliament in 
1824. From 1829 to 1853 he represented the University 
of Oxford, and constantly voted with the Tories against 
the Reform bill, the relief of the Catholics, etc. Died 
in 1855. 

Ingoldsby, ing'golz-be, (THOMAS,) the assumed name 
of Richard H. Barham. (See BARHAM.) 

Ing'pn I., surnamed THE GOOD, King of Sweden, was 
the son and successor of Stenkil, and began to reign 
about 1080. He favoured the propagation of Christianity 
among his subjects. Died in 1112. 

Ingon IL, a nephew of the preceding, was one of his 
successors, and shared the royal power with his brother 
Philip. Slavery was gradually abolished in his reign. 
Died in 1130. 

Ingoni, en-go'nee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian 
painter, born at M6dena in 1528 ; died in 1608. 

lugoni, (MATTEO,) a painter of the Venetian school, 
born at Ravenna in 1587; died in 1631. 

Ingouf, aN'goof,(FRANc;ois ROBERT,) a skilful French 
engraver, born in Paris in 1747. He engraved "The 
Nativity," after Raphael, and some of the plates for the 
"Musee Francais." Died in 1812. His brother, PIERRE 
CHARLES, born in Paris in 1746, was also a successful 
engraver. Died in 1800. 

Ingraham, ing'gra-am, (DUNCAN NATHANIEL,) a 
naval commander, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 
in 1802. He gained distinction by his spirited conduct 
in procuring the release from an Austrian war-vessel, 
at Smyrna, in June, 1853, of Martin Koszta, a Hungarian, 
who had legally declared his intention to become a 
citizen of the United States. He was raised to the rank 
of captain in 1855, but resigned in 1861, and entered the 
Confederate navy. Died October 16, 1891. 

Ingraham, (JOSEPH H.,) an American writer, born 
at Portland, Maine, in 1809. Besides the romances of 
" Lafitte," " Captain Kyd," and " The Dancing Feather," 
he wrote "The Prince of the House of David," "The 
Pillar ofFire,"and"TheThroneofDavid." Died in 1866. 

Ingram, ing'gram, (HERBERT,) an English printer, 
born at Boston in 1811, founded the "Illustrated Lon- 
don News" in 1842. He was elected to Parliament in 
1856, and visited the United States in 1860. In Sep- 
tember of that year he was drowned in Lake Michigan, 
in consequence of a collision. 

Ingram, (JAMES,) D.D., an English clergyman, born 
in Wiltshire in 1774, became president of Trinity College, 
Oxford, in 1824, and rector of Garsington. He published 
an edition of the " Saxon Chronicle," (1823,) " Memorials 
of Oxford," (1834-37,) which was favourably received, 
and several other works. Died in 1850. 

Ingram, (JOHN H.,) an English author, born in Lon- 
don, November 16, 1849. His principal books have 
been " Poems by Dalton Stone," (1863,) "Flora Sym- 
bolica," (1869,) "Memoir of Poe," (1874, prefixed to an 
edition of Poe's works,) " Poe Memorial," " The Haunted 
Houses of England," " Life of Oliver Madox Brown," 
(1883,) "Life of E. B. Browning," (1888,) " Dar- 
ley's May Queen," (1892,) etc. He edited the " Emi- 
nent Women" series. 

Ingrain, (JOHN KELLS,) an Irish author, bjrn in 
county Donegal in 1823. He was educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, and is best known as an author by 
his " Political Economy," contributed to the " Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica," and reprinted as a book in 
1888. It has been translated into eight European 
languages and into Japanese. 

Ingrassia, en-gRas'se-1, written also Ingraasias, 
(GIOVANNI FILIPPO,) an eminent Sicilian physician and 
anatomist, born at Palermo about 1510, taught anatomy 
at Naples. In 1563 he was chosen by Philip II. first 

physician of Sicily, and in 1575 he checked the ravages 
of the plague at Palermo. He wrote a "Commentary 
on the Bones," and other able treatises on anatomy. 
Died in 1580. 

See ELOY, " Dictionnaire historique de la Me'decine." 

Ingres, axgK, (JEAN AUGUSTE DOMINIQUE,) a cele- 
brated French historical painter, born at Montauban in 
1780 or 1781, was a pupil of David. He gained the first 
prize in 1801 for a picture of "Achilles receiving in his 
Tent the Envoys of Agamemnon." Hewoiked about 
twenty years (1804-24) in Rome and Florence, choosing 
Raphael as his model. During this period lie painted 
" CEdipus and the Sphinx," " Raphael and La Fornarina," 
and "Odalisque," (1819.) He returned to Paris in 1824, 
became the founder of a school, and exhibited " The 
Vow of Louis XIII.," one of his best works, which 
opened to him the doors of the Institute in 1825. In 
1827 he painted on the ceiling of the Louvre "The 
Apotheosis of Homer," which is called his master-piece. 
At the Exposition of 1855 a salon was reserved exclu- 
sively for his works, which are said to have had a wide 
influence on the style of French and foreign artists. He 
is called the representative of correct design and idea' 
composition. Died in January, 1867. 

See L. DE LOMHNIE, " M. Ingres, par un Homroe de Rien," 1842 ; 
FREDERIC MERCHY, " Peintres et ScuJpteurs modernes : J. IngreV 
1846; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Inguimbert, d'.daN'gaN'baiR', (JOSEPH DOMINIQUE,) 
a French bishop, born at Carpentras in 1683, assumed 
the name of DOM MALACHIE. He became an intimate 
counsellor of Pope Clement XII., who appointed him 
domestic prelate, and in 1733 Bishop of Carpentras. He 
built a hospital in that town, and founded a large public 
library there. He wrote and translated several religious 
works. Died in 1757. 

See VITALIS, "Notice surla Vie de Malachie d'Inguimbert," 1813. 

Ingulf. See INGULPHUS. 

In-gul'phus or In'gulf, a monk, born in London 
about 1030, became secretary and favourite of William, 
Duke of Normandy, in 1051. After that prince had 
become King of England, Ingulphus was made abbot of 
the monastery of Croyland. He died in 1109. He was 
the reputed author of a History of the above monastery, 
in Latin, containing much curious and important infor- 
mation ; but Sir Francis Palgrave has proved that it is a 

In't-go, an English engraver, whose proper name was 
JOHN COLLET, was born about 1725. He excelled in 
the same line as Hogarth, and displayed an original 
genius for humorous design. He left but few works, 
among which is a " Monkey pointing to a Very Dark 
Picture of Moses striking the Rock." Died in 1780. 

In'man, (HENRY,) an American portrait-painter, born 
at Utica, New York, in 1801, was a pupil of Jarvis. He 
worked mostly in the city of New York. During a visit 
to England, in 1844, he painted portraits of the poet 
Wordsworth, Dr. Chalmers, and T. B. Macaulay. Among 
his other works are portraits of Chief-Justice Marshall 
and Bishop White. He was commissioned by Congress 
to adorn the national capitol with historical paintings ; 
but before he had finished them he died, in 1846. 

Inman, (JoHN,) a brother of the preceding, born at 
Utica, New York, in 1805, was an associate editor cf 
the "New York Mirror" and "The Commercial Adver 
tiser." Died in 1850. 

In'n^s, (COSMO,) a Scottish lawyer, historian, and 
antiquary, born at Durris on Deeside, September 9, 
1798. He early became known as a student of the 
ancient records of Scottish history. He was made an 
advocate in 1822. He collated and edited the chartu- 
laries of the old religious houses of the North, was em- 
ployed for many years in editing and publishing the 
Scottish statutes, and was the author of " Scotland in 
the Middle Ages," (1860,) " Lectures on Scotch Legal 
Antiquities," (1872,) etc. He had a strong leaning to 
Catholicism, though he never gave his personal alle- 
giance to that religion, and his works were greatly valued 
by Montalembert and other distinguished Catholics. He 
died at Killin, July 31, 1874. A "Memoir of Cosmo 
Innes" was published anonymously, in 1874, by Mrs. 
John Hill Burton. 

a, e, i, 5, u, y, fang; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, ii, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obtain; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; moon; 




In'nes, (Louis,) a Roman Catholic priest, born of a 
Scottish family about 1650. He became secretary to 
James II. after he was deposed from the English throne. 
He is the reputed author of " Memoirs of James II.," part 
of which was published in 1816. Died in Paris, January 

23. '73 8 - 

Innes, (THOMAS,) a brother of the preceding, born 
it. 1662, studied in Paris, was ordained a priest, and suc- 
ceeded Louis as principal of the Scottish College. He 
wrote a " Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of 
the Northern Parts of Britain," (1729,) which is highly 
commended for sound learning, judicious criticism, and 
valuable information. Died in 1744. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

In'ness, (GEORGE,) an American artist, born at New- 
burgh, New York, May i, 1823. He studied art in New 
York and in the European capitals, chronic ill health 
interfering much with the continuity of his labours. 
Taken at his best, Mr. Inness was inferior to no other 
American landscapist. His work was so informed with 
high spiritual purpose that some critics classed him, 
without complete justice, with the " Impressionist" 
school. He was a member of the National Academy. 
Died August 3, 1894. His son, GEORGE INNESS, Junior, 
is a painter of much promise. 

In'no-cent JLat. INNOCEN'TIUS ; It. INNOCKNZO, en- 
no-chSn'zo ; Ger. INNOCENZ, in'no-ts?nts ; Span. INO- 
CENCIO, e-no-Men'Me-o] I., a native of Albano, chosen 
Bishop of Rome in 402 A.D., was contemporary with 
Augustine and Jerome. During his pontificate, Rome 
was pillaged by Alaric the Goth. Innocent strenuously 
asserted the supremacy of the see of Rome, and con- 
demned the doctrine of Pelagius. He succeeded Anas- 
tasius I., who, according to Jerome, was the father of 
Innocent. Died in 417. He was succeeded by Zcsimus. 

See BRUYS, "Histoire des Papes," 5 vols., 1735. 

Innocent It, POPE, was elected in 1 130 as successor 
to Honorius II. Another party elected a rival pope, 
under the name of Anacletus II., whose partisans drove 
Innocent out of Rome. The latter was recognized as pope 
by the Kings of France, England, and Germany, and his 
rival was supported by Roger of Sicily. In 1 138, Inno- 
cent, assisted by Lotharius of Germany, recovered the 
papal power, and, his rival having died in the same year, 
the unity of the Church was restored. In 1139 Arnaldo 
da Brescia was banished from Rome for preaching doc- 
trines that were deemed unsound. Innocent died in 
1143, and was succeeded by Celestine II. 

SeePLATiNA, "Vile de' summi Pontefici," 1613; ALLETZ, "His- 
toire des Papes," 1776; J. HARTMANN, "Vita Innocentii II. Pon- 
tincis," 1744; ARTAUD DH MONTOR, " Histoire des souverains Pon- 
tifes," 1847-49. 

Innocent HI., whose proper name was Lotharius, 
was the son of Trasimund, a Roman count, and was born 
in Rome in 1161. He was unanimously elected pope in 
January, 1198, as successor to Celestine III. With su- 
perior abilities, improved by diligent study, he combined 
great resolution, industry, and austerity of character, and 
availed himself of every opportunity to magnify his office 
and to assert the supremacy of the papal power. In 1199 
he placed the kingdom of France under an interdict be- 
cause the king, Philip Augustus, had repudiated his wife ; 
and thus he compelled him to reinstate her. About 1200 
he instigated the fourth crusade, the principal result of 
which was the capture of Constantinople from the Greeks 
by the crusaders. In 1212 he excommunicated and de- 
posed Otho, Emperor of Germany, and crowned Frede- 
rick of Sicily in his place. A memorable quarrel occurred 
between this pontiff and King John of England, respect- 
ing the appointment of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
(1207,) the right to appoint being obstinately asserted by 
each. England was laid under an interdict, which lasted 
two years, at the expiration of which, as John was still 
refractory, the pope declared him to be deposed, and 
authorized Philip Augustus of France to execute the 
decree. While the latter was preparing to invade Eng- 
land, John submitted to the pope, in 1213, and signed a 
disgraceful treaty, in which he consented to hold Eng- 
land and Ireland as fiefs of the Church of Rome, and to 
pay an annual tribute of one thousand marks. In 1214 
Innocent raised a cruel persecution or crusade against 

the Albigenses for heresy. During his pontificate tha 
papal power attained its greatest height He was perhaps 
the most learned man and the most able statesman of 
his age. He wrote " Letters," and other works, which are 
highly commended. Died in 1216, and was succeeded by 
Honorius III. 

See F. HURTER, " Geschicbte Innocenz III.," 3 vols., 1835, (and 
French version of the same, 4 vols., 1838-43 ;) D. LBSSMANN, " Pabst 
Innocenz III. und Fiirst Michael Glinski," 1830: JORRV, " Histoire 
du Pape Innocent HI," 1852: ARTAUD DH MONTOR, "Histoire de* 
souverains Pontifes," 1847-49; J. H. GURNEY, " Four Ecclesiastical 
Biographies," London, 1864. 

Innocent IV., (SINIBALDO de' Fieschi da fe-Js'- 
kee,) a native of Genoa, was elected pope as successor to 
Celestine IV. in 1243. He soon found himself involved 
in a quarrel with the emperor Frederick II., (who had 
been excommunicated by Gregory IX.,) and retired for 
security to Lyons. Here he summoned a council, in 
1245, and renewed the excommunication of Frederick, 
who was also formally deposed. The emperor, however, 
refused to submit to this assumption, and waged war 
against the pope for several years, until his death in 1250. 
Innocent then returned to his capital, and proclaimed a 
crusade against Conrad, the son of Frederick ; but again 
his malignity was baffled. He died in 1254, and was 
succeeded by Alexander IV. 

See J. HARTMANN, "Vita Innocentii IV.," 1738; PAOU> PANZA, 
"Vita del gran Pontefice Innocenzio Quarto," 1601. 

Innocent V., ( PETER OF TARANTASIA, ) born at 
Moutierj in Savoy, was elected in 1276 as successor to 
Gregory X. After holding office a few months, he died 
in the same year. 

Innocent VI., ( STIENNE Aubert o'baiR', ) a 
Frenchman, born near Pompadour, was elected pope 
in 1352. He succeeded Clement VI., who had made 
him a cardinal and Bishop of Ostia. His court was kept 
at Avignon throughout his pontificate. He reformed 
some abuses in the Church, and appears to have acted 
with more moderation and propriety than most of his 
predecessors. Died in 1362. 

See BRUYS, "Histoire des Papes," 1735; SISMONDI, "Histoire 
des Francais." 

Innocent Vn., (Cardinal COSMO Migliorati mel- 
yo-ra'tee,) born at Sulmona about 1338, was elected pope 
in 1404, as successor to Boniface IX. At that time there 
was an extensive schism in the Church, and Benedict 
XIII. held a rival court at Avignon. Died in 1406. 

See PLATINA, " Vite de' summi Pontefici," 1613. 

Innocent VUL, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA Cibo chee'- 
bo,) born at Genoa in 1434, was elected pope in 1484, as 
successor to Sixtus IV. He laboured without success 
to unite the sovereigns of Europe against the Turks, 
and wcs himself engaged in war with Ferdinand, King 
of Naples. He died in 1491, and was succeeded by 
Alexander VI. 

See F. SERDONATI, "Vita d'Innocenzo VIII.," 1829; F. M. 
VIALARDO, " Istoria della Vita d'Innocenzo VIII.," 1613. 

Innocent IX., (ANTONIO Facchinetti fak-ke- 
net'tee,) born at Bologna, succeeded Gregory XIV. in 
October, 159;, but only survived two months after his 
election. He left a good reputation for virtue and 
wisdom. Clement VIII. was his successor. 

See RANKE, " History of the Popes." 

Innocent X, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA Panfili pan- 
fee'lee,) elected in place of Urban VIII. in 1644, was 
born in Rome about 1570. He owed his promotion to 
the Barberini, who soon became his enemies. The Jan- 
senist controversy having made a great commotion in 
the Church, Innocent appointed a commission of car- 
dinals to settle it, and in 1653 issued a bull cum occasion*, 
in which he condemned the five propositions of Jansen. 
Historians differ widely as to the character of this pontift 
He died in 1655, and was succeeded by Alexander VII. 

See RANKE, " History of the Popes;" CIACONIUS, " Vitas et Re 
gestz Pontificum Romanorum," 4 vols., 1677. 

Innocent XI., (Cardinal BENEDICT Odescalchl 
o-dSs-kll'kee,) born at Como in 1611, succeeded Clement 
X. in 1676. He had been made a cardinal in 1647, and 
had sustained a respectable character. He soon mani- 
fested his zeal to reform abuses and restore strict disci- 
pline, and his inflexible resolution to maintain the papal 

eas/fc; {as>; gkard; gasy'yG, K K,gutturai; N, nasal; R, trilled; sass; th as in this. (J^="See Explanations, p. 23.) 




prerogatives. His pontificate was signalized by a re- 
markable contest with Louis XIV. of France in relation 
to the rfgale and the privileges or exemptions of foreign 
ambassadors at Rome. The pope wished to abolish the 
usage which rendered the ambassador's palace, with the 
adjacent premises, an asylum for malefactors, etc., inac- 
cessible to the officers of justice. Louis XIV. in 1687 
sent his ambassador Lavardin with orders to maintain 
his rights, and with an armed retinue of eight hundred 
men. The pope persisted, and excommunicated Lavar- 
din, who returned without effecting his object ; and the 
quarrel was not ended until after the death of Innocent, 
which occurred in 1689. It seems that his enmity to Louis 
induced this pontiff to favour the English in resistance 
to James II. ; and some one remarked that the peace of 
Europe would be promoted if James would become a 
Protestant, and the pope a Catholic. 

See UGHELLI, "Italia sacra," 10 vols., 1717-22; RANKE, "His- 
tory of the Popes:" SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais;" F. 
BUONAMICI, "De Vita et Rebus gestis Innocentii XI.," 1776. 

Innocent 'XTT (ANTONIO Fignatelli pen-ya-tel'- 
lee,) born in Naples in 1615, became Cardinal and Arch- 
bishop of Naples during the pontificate of Innocent XL, 
and succeeded Alexander VIII. as pope in July, 1692. 
He proposed to take Innocent XI. as his model, and 
appears to deserve credit for his economy, regular habits, 
liberality, and works of utility. In his pontificate a re- 
conciliation was effected with the French court by mutual 
concession. Quietism also received its quietus, in 1699, 
by a papal brief condemning Fenelon's " Maximes des 
Saints." He died in 1700, and was succeeded by Clem- 
ent XI. 

Innocent XIII., (MICHELANGELO Conti kon'tee,) 
born in Rome in 1655, was the son of the Duke of 
Poli, and attained the dignity of cardinal in 1706. He 
succeeded Clement XI. as pope in 1721, and exercised 
his power so prudently that his subjects regretted the 
brevity of its duration. He died in 1724, and his place 
was supplied by Benedict XIII. 

See BRUYS, " Histoire des Papes," 1735 ; " Leben Pabst Innocent 
XIII. ," Cologne, 1724. 

InnocentiuB. See INNOCENT. 

Innocenz. See INNOCENT. 

Innocenzo. See INNOCENT. 

I'no, [Gr. "Ivii,] a daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, 
was the wife of Athamas, King of Thebes. According 
to tradition, she incurred the enmity of Juno, who de- 
prived Athamas of his reason. In a fit of insanity he 
killed a son of Ino, who threw herself into the sea and 
was changed into a sea-goddess, named Leucothea. Her 
story was dramatized by several Greek poets. 

Inocencio. See INNOCENT. 

Inouye, (KAORU,) COUNT, a Japanese statesman, 
horn in 1839. Making a secret journey in Europe with 
Count Ito, he became a strong advocate of Western 
civilization. He was in office from 1868 onward, was 
minister of public works in 1878, afterwards in the 
foreign office, retired in 1887, and was recalled as 
minister of the interior in 1892. 

In'skip, (JOHN S.,) a Methodist preacher, born at 
Huntingdon, England, August 10, 1816, was brought to 
the United States when five years old, began a religious 
life in 1832, and in 1835 commenced to preach. He 
acquired great note as a conductor of camp-meetings, 
and became editor of the "Christian Standard." Died 
t Ocean Grove, New Jersey, March 7, 1884. 

Interiano de Ayala, en-ta-re-a'no da I-a'15, (JUAN,) 
a Spanish author and monk, born in 1656, became 
preacher to the king. He published, besides other works, 
(mostly in Spanish,) "Pictor Christianus Eruditus," 
(1730,) in which he exposes the prevalent errors of 
painters who treat of religious subjects. His style is 
pure and elegant Died in 1730. 

Inthiema, in-te-a'mi, (HERO,) a Dutch poet and jurist, 
born in 1576; died in 1623. 

Intieri, en-te-a'ree, ( BARTOLOMMEO, ) an Italian 
economist and mechanician, born at Pistoia about 1674. 
He founded a chair of political economy at Naples, and 
wrote "On the Conservation of Grain." Died in 1757. 

Inveges, en-va'jes, (AUGUSTIN,) a Sicilian historian 

and ecclesiastic, born at Sciacca in 1595, published a 
"History of Palermo," (3 vols., 1649-51,) which was 
much esteemed. Died in 1677. 

In'wood, (CHARLES FREDERICK,) son of William 
Inwood, noticed below, was born in 1798. He co-operated 
with his father as architect of Westminster Hospital and 
other edifices. Died in 1840. 

In-wood, (HENRY WILLIAM,) an English architect, a 
brother of the preceding, was born in 1794. He was 
associated in his profession with his father, and pub- 
lished " Studies of the Architect from Nature," and an 
illustrated work on Athenian architecture, called "The 
Erechtheion at Athens," (1827.) He perished by ship- 
wreck in 1843, while making a voyage to Spain. 

Inwood, (WILLIAM,) an English architect, born about 
1770, was employed on many buildings in London, and 
also followed the profession of surveyor. He was assisted 
in his architectural labours by his two sons, noticed 
above. Saint Pancras Church, London, finished in 1822, 
was erected by him and his son Henry. He published 
"Tables for Purchasing Estates," etc. Died in 1843. 

I'o, [Gr. 'Iu,] a fabulous personage, whom the Greek 
poets represent as a daughter of Inachus and a priestess 
of Juno. It was said that, having been transformed by 
Jupiter into a white cow, she was tormented by a gadfly, 
(sent by Juno,) to escape from which she swam across 
the Ionian Sea and wandered through various parts of 
the world. Her story is related by ^ischylus in his 

I-o-la'ua [Gr. 'lo/aocl or I'p-las, [Gr. 'loAoc,] a per- 

sonage of classic mythology, was a relative and faithful 
companion of Hercules, whom he aided in his contest 
against the Lernean Hydra. 

I'o-le, [Gr. 'Io?J7,] the daughter of Eurytus, King of 
CEchalia, who promised her in marriage to Hercules. 
But, Eurytus having afterwards refused to perform his 
L-ment, lole was forcibly carried off by her lover. 
On the death of the latter, caused by Dejanira's jealousy, 
(see DEJANIRA,) lole was married to Hyllus, the son of 

I'on, [Gr. 'luv,] the mythical ancestor of the lonians, 
was supposed to be the son of Apollo and Creusa. His 
story was dramatized by Euripides. 

Ion, ["luv,] a Greek tragic poet, who was born at 
Chios, (Scio,) and flourished about 450 B.C. He lived 
at Athens, where he became a friend of ^schylus and 
gained a prize for one of his tragedies. He composed, 
besides tragedies, elegies, lyric poems, and some prose 
works, all of which are lost He was included in the 
canon of the five Athenian tragic poets by the Alexan- 
drian critics. 

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grzca ;" KAYSER, " Historia cn- 
lica Tragicorum Gnecorum," 1845 : KARL NIEBERDING, " De lonit 
Chii Vita, Moribus et Studiis," 1836. 

I'o-phon, [Gr. 'lo^uv,] an Athenian tragic poet, a soi. 
of Sophocles the poet, lived about 420 B.C. He gained 
the second prize in 429, when Euripides received the 
first prize. Among the titles of his plays are " Achilles," 
" Actaeon," and " Pentheus." His works are not extant 
Died after 405 B.C. 

See KAVSER, " Historia critica Tragicorum Gntcorum," 1845. 

louzef or louzaf. See YOOSUF. 

Iphicrate. See IPHICRATES. 

I-phic'ra-tes, [Gr. 'I^ocpan/c ; Fr. IPHICRATE, e'le 
kRJtt',] a skilful Athenian general, who rose from a 
humble rank in society and obtained the chief command 
of the Athenian army. About 392 B.C. he defeated the 
Spartans near Corinth, and afterwards gained applause 
by his defence of Corcyra against the Spartans and Syra- 
cusans. He made important changes in the armour anci 
tactics of his troops, by exchanging the heavy buckler 
for a light target and increasing the length of the speai 
and the sword. He was associated with Timotheus and 
Chares in the command of an expedition against Byzan- 
tium about 357 B.C. 

See GROTB, " History of Greece :" CORNBLIUS NEPOS, " Iphi- 
crates :" DIODORUS SICULUS, books xiv., rv., and xvi. ; XENOPHOM. 
" Hellenica," books iv. and vi. ; REHDANTZ, "Vita: Iphicratis, Cha- 
briae et Timothei," Berlin, 1845. 

Iph-I-e-nI'a or Iph-I-ge-nei'a, [Gr. 'tytytvoa; Fr. 
IPHIGENIE, e'fe'zha'ne',] a daughter of Agamemnon and 

a, e, J, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon; 



Clytemnestra. The ancient poets relate that Diana 
detained the Greek fleet at Aulis by a calm, because 
Agamemnon had offended her, and that the soothsayer 
Calchas declared Diana could be appeased only by the 
sacrifice of Iphigenia. When she was on the point of 
being immolated, she was rescued, it is said, by Dinna, 
who carried her to Tauris, where she became a prie?tess 
In the temple of the goddess. Her story is the subject 
of two of the dramas of Euripides. 

Iphigenie. See IPHIGENIA. 

Iphl-tus, [Gr. 'tyiTOf,.] a king of Elis, who revived 
the Olympic games about 884 B.C., four hundred and 
seventy years after their first institution. They were 
celebrated every fifth year, at Olympia, on the banks 
of the Alpheus. Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, was 
associated with Iphitus in this affair. 

Ipparco, the Italian of HIPPARCHUS, which see. 

Ippocrate. See HIPPOCRATES. 

Ippolito. See HIPPOLYTUS. 

Irailh, e'rjl', (AucusTiN SIMON,) a French historical 
writer, born at Puy-en-Velay in 1719, became canon 
of Monistrol. He wrote an interesting work entitled 
"Literary Quarrels, or Memoirs of the Revolutions in 
the Republic of Letters from the Time of Homer to 
the Present," (4 vols., 1761,) also a "History of the 
Reunion of Bretagne with France," (2 vols., 1764.) Died 
in 1794. 

Ir'by, (CHARLES LEONARD,) an English officer in the 
royal navy, was born October 9, 1789. In conjunction 
with James Mangles, he wrote a valuable work entitled 
" Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and the Holy Land," 
(1823.) Died December 3, 1845. ( See MANGLES, 

Ire'dell, ir'del, (JAMES,) a distinguished jurist, 
born in England in 1751, settled in North Carolina in 
1768. He was admitted to the bar in 1770, and from 
1777 to 1779 was judge of the supreme court of North 
Carolina. He was one of the ablest members of the 
constitutional convention of 1787, and from 1790 till 
his death, in 1799, was judge of the supreme court of 
the United States. He published the " Laws of North 
Carolina, 1715-1790." 

Iredell, (JAMES,) a lawyer, a son of the preceding, 
was born at Edenton, North Carolina, in 1788. He was 
Governor of North Carolina in 1827, and was a Senator 
of the United States from 1828 to 1831. He was sub- 
sequently reporter to the supreme court of his native 
State, and published thirteen volumes of law and eight 
of equity reports. Died in 1853. 

Ire'land, (JOHN,) D.D., an English writer, born at 
Ashburton in 1761, became prebendary of Westminster 
in 1802, and Dean of Westminster and rector of Islip in 
1816. He founded a professorship at Oxford, and several 
scholarships. He was a contributor to the " London 
Quarterly Review," and the author of several approved 
works of divinity, among which is " Paganism and Chris- 
tianity Compared." Died in 1842. 

Ireland, (JOHN,) an English writer, born in Shrop- 
shire, removed to London, where he became a con- 
noisseur of art and a dealer in pictures. He compiled 
"Memoirs of Henderson" the actor, and published 
" Hogarth Illustrated," which was favourably received. 
Died in 1808. 

Ireland, (JOHN,) an American ecclesiastic, born 
in Ireland in 1838. He was brought to the United 
States as a boy, studied theology in France, was or- 
dained priest in the Roman Catholic Church in 1861, 
became bishop, and in 1888 archbishop of St. Paul, 
Minnesota. He became well known as a lecturer on 
temperance and a writer and speaker for the Repub- 
lican party, and published "The Church and Modern 

Ireland, (SAMUEL,) born in London, was a weaver 
of Spitalfields in his youth. He became subsequently a 
dealer in rare prints, curiosities, etc. Having acquired 
some skill in drawing and engraving, he employed it 
in illustrating various countries, of which he published 
" Picturesque Tours." He was the author of " Graphic 
Illustrations of Hogarth," and the publisher of the Shak- 
speare Papers forged by his son. (See below.) Died 
in 1800. 

Ireland, (WILLIAM HENRY,) a son of the preceding, 
was born in London in 1777. He acquired notoriety 
in 1795 by forging legal documents under the seal of 
Shakspeare, and by practising on the public credulity in 
relation to dramas which he pretended to have found at 
Stratford. One of these, called " Vortigern," was pur- 
chased by Sheridan, and performed at Drury Lane before 
the imposture was detected. The audience were ex- 
tremely disgusted at the quality of the play, and Ireland, 
being required to explain how he had obtained it, con- 
fessed the forgery to his father, and afterwards published 
a written confession, which displays more vanity than 
penitence. Died in 1835. 

Ireuaeus, e-ra-na'us, (FALKOVSKI,) a learned Russian 
prelate and writer on theology, born in 1762; died in 

IrenaEus, (KLEMENTIEVSKI,) a Russian theologian, 
born in 1753, became Archbishop of Pskof. He wrote 
commentaries on Scripture, and translated from the 
Greek some works of the Fathers. Died in 1818. 

Iren^us, ?r-e-nee'us, [Gr. E/pizvoiof; Fr. IRENEE, e'ri'- 
na'; It. IRENEO, e-ri-na'o,] SAINT, a Christian martyr, 
born about 130 or 140 A.D., was a Greek by birth, and 
was probably a native of Asia Minor, as he was a pupil 
of the eminent Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna. About 177 
he became Bishop of Lyons, (Lugdunum,) in France, in 
place of Pothinus, who was the first that occupied that 
see. He ministered to his churches with wisdom and 
general acceptance. To counteract the errors of the 
Gnostics and others, he wrote a treatise against Heresies, 
which is still extant, (in a Latin translation.) He also 
wrote several Letters, and other works, which are lost, 
except some fragments. It is generally supposed that 
he suffered martyrdom under Septimus Severus ; but 
the learned are not agreed whether it occurred in 2OJ 
or 208. He was well versed in ancient philosophy, as 
well as in evangelical doctrine. His book on Heresies 
is highly appreciated as a historical monument and a 
vindication of the primitive faith. He was a believer in 
the Millennium, and entertained opinions on that subject 
which some consider extravagant. 

See SAINT JEROME, " De Viria illustrious ;" EUSBBIUS, " Historic 
Ecclesiastical" HENRY DODWELL, " Dissertationes in Irenseum," 
1689; GERVAISE, "Vie de S. Ire'ne'e, second Evgque de Lyon," 1723; 
J. M. PRAT, "Histoire de Saint-Ire'ne'e," 1843; JAMES BRAVEW, 
" Account of the Life and Writings of Saint Iren;eus." 

I-re'ae, [Gr. Zlpijvn ; Fr. iRiNE, e'rjn',] Empress of 
Constantinople, was born at Athens about 752, of very 
obscure parentage, and in 769 A.D. became the wife of 
Leo IV., Emperor of the East. At his death, in 780, he 
left a son of ten years, named Constantine, during whose 
minority Irene acted as regent. She was remarkable for 
her beauty, energy, and talents. In order to decide the 
quarrel between the Iconoclasts and their opponents, to 
whom she was partial, she assembled a council in 787, 
which formally sanctioned the worship of images. When 
her son attained his majority, her ambition so far pre- 
vailed over natural affection that she dethroned him and 
deprived him of sight. In 802 she was deposed by a 
conspiracy of her subjects, and Nicephorus was chosen 
emperor. She died in exile in 803. 

See LB BEAU, "Histoire du Bas- Empire;" VINCENT MIGNOT, 
" Histoire de I' I mpeVatrice Irene," 176:1 ; GIBBON, " History of the 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

Irenee. See IREN^US. 

Ireneo. See IREN^US. 

Ireton, Ir'tpn, (HENRY,) an eminent English repub- 
lican, born in 1610. He was a student of law when the 
civil war began, in which he became an ardent leader 
of the popular cause. Entering the army as captain of 
cavalry, he was rapidly promoted, and became highly 
distinguished for his courage and capacity both in the 
battle-field and the council-chamber. At the battle of 
Naseby, (1645,) with the rank of commissary-general, he 
commanded the left wing, and was wounded and taken 
prisoner ; but, his friends having gained the victory, he 
recovered his liberty the same day. In 1646 he married 
Bridget, daughter of Oliver Cromwell. The latter, as 
Hume remarks, "had great deference for the counsels 
of Ireton ;" and the republicans generally reposed the 
highest confidence in him, as a statesman of incorruptible 
honour. About 1646 he was elected to Parliament, where 

c as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. lJ[^ = See Explanations, p. 23.) 



he projected various wise legal and constitutional re 
forms and was eminent for his skill in drafting ordi- 
nances. While Charles I. was a prisoner at Hampton 
Court, he had conferences with Cromwell and Ireton, 
who, it is said, were inclined to reinstate him in a limited 
royalty, until they intercepted one of his letters which 
convinced them of his insincerity. Ireton was a member 
of the court which tried the king ; and he signed the 
warrant for his execution, January, 1649. In reference 
to this affair, Burnet says, " Ireton was the person that 
drove it on ; for Cromwell was all the while in some 
suspense about it." In July, 1649, he went to Ireland 
as second in command under Cromwell, who, returning 
after the lapse of a few months, left to Ireton the chief 
command, with the title of lord deputy. After gaining 
several victories and taking Limerick, he died there of 
the plague in 1651. Hume, who was not partial to his 
cause, denominates him "a memorable personage, much 
celebrated for his vigilance, industry, capacity even for 
the strict execution of justice in that unlimited command 
which he possessed in Ireland. It was believed by many 
that he was animated by a sincere and passionate love 
of liberty." (" History of England.") 

See, also, " Biographia Britannica ;" GUIZOT, " Histoire de la 
Revolution d'Angleterre." 

Iriarte or Yriarte, e-re-an'ta, (BERNARDO,) nephew 
of Don Juan de Iriarte, noticed below, was born in Tene- 
riffe about 1734. He became a member of the council 
of state, and held other important offices under the 
Spanish government Died in 1814. 

Iriarte, (DOMINGO,) brother of the preceding, born 
in Teneriffe in 1746, was sent as minister plenipotentiary 
of Spain to Poland, and employed in other embassies. 
Died in 1795. 

Iriarte, (FRANCISCO DIEGO DE Ainsay In-sl',) a 
Spanish writer, born at Huesca, published an account 
of his native city, entitled "Fundacion, Eccelencias, 
Grandezas, etc. de la antiquisima Ciudad de Huesca," 

Iriarte, (IGNACIO,) a celebrated Spanish landscape- 
painter, born in Guipuscoa in 1620, was a pupil of the 
elder Herrera. He worked in Seville, and became a 
friend of Murillo, who painted the figures for some of his 
landscapes. He was one of the founders of the Academy 
of Seville. Iriarte was regarded as the best landscape- 
painter of his country and his time. Connoisseurs admire 
in his works the lightness of the foliage, the transparency 
of the sky, the limpidity of the water, and the mastery 
of chiaroscuro. Died in 1685. 

See RAPHAEL MHNGS, " Las Obras," etc., 1780 ; QUILLIBT, " Dic- 
tionuaire des Peintres Espagnols." 

Iriarte, de, da e-re-aR'ti, (Don JUAN,) an eminent 
linguist and scholar, born in the island of Teneriffe in 
1702. He studied in Paris at the College of Louis le 
Grand, and subsequently visited London and Madrid, 
where he was appointed in 1732 one of the librarians 
in the Royal Library. He became official translator to 
the principal secretary of state in 1740, and in 1743 was 
elected a member of the Royal Academy. Among his 
works may be named a " History of the Canary Islands," 
(in manuscript,) a collection of Spanish proverbs in 
Latin verse, and translations from Martial. Iriarle is 
said to have added two thousand manuscripts and more 
than ten thousand printed volumes to the Royal Library 
during the thirty-nine years in which he officiated as 
librarian. Died in 1771. 

Iriarte, de, (ToMAS,) youngest brother of Bernardo, 
noticed above, was born in Teneriffe about 1750. He be- 
came a proficient in the ancient and modern languages 
under the tuition of his uncle, and subsequently became 
archivist to the principal secretary of state, and editor 
of the " Madrid Mercury." He was author of a poem 
entitled "La Musica," (1779,) which was received with 
great favour and translated into the principal European 
languages, and " Literary Fables," (" Fabulas literarias.") 
The latter are written in various metres, and are re- 
markable for their graceful versification. They enjoyed 
great popularity at the time, and are still ranked among 
the classics of the language. An English version of 
.hese fables, by George H. Devereux, appeared in 1855. 
Iriarte also published a comedy entitled "The Spoiled 

Child," ("El Sefiorito mimado,") a number of sonnets 
and critical essays, and a metrical translation of Horace's 
"Art of Poetry." Died about 1790. 

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" IOLY, no- 
tice of the Life of Tomas de Iriarte, in the " Repertoire de Litte'ra- 
ture. " 

Irico, e-ree'ko, (GIOVANNI ANDREA,) an Italian priest 
and savant, born at Trino in 1704. He wrote se/eral 
religious and antiquarian works. Died in 1782. 

I'ria, [Gr. 'Ip'f.J in Greek mythology, the goddess of 
the rainbow, said to be a daughter of Thaumas, and 
sometimes called Thaumantias. Homer represents her 
as the messenger of the gods, employed to carry mes- 
sages from Ida to Olympus and from gods to men. She 
was the attendant of the goddess Hera, or Juno. 

Irland, CR'ION', (BONAVENTURE,) a French jurist, of 
Scottish dsscent, born at Poitiers in 1551 ; died in 1612. 

Irnerius, eR-na're-us, sometimes written Warnerius, 
a celebrated Italian jurisconsult, born at Bologna in the 
eleventh century. He became the renovator or restorer 
of the Roman law, which had been neglected, and on 
which he wrote commentaries, called " Glossae." He 
obtained the office of judge, and was sent by the emperor 
to Rome in 1118 to expedite the election of a pope. 

See B. NIHUSIUS, "Irnerius," Cologne, 1642; FANTUZZI, " Serif 
tori Bolognesi." 

Iron Mask. See MASQUE DE FER. 

I'rgns, (WILLIAM JOSIAH,) D.D., an English author, 
born at Hoddesdon, Herts, September 12, 1812. He 
graduated at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1833, became 
a prebendary of Saint Paul's in 1860, and in 1870 rural 
dean, rector of Wadingham, and Bampton Lecturer. 
He published various theological and philosophical 
works, and made a noted translation of the " Dies Irae." 
Died June 18, 1883. 

Ir'vlne, (WILLIAM,) a general, born near Enniskillen, 
Ireland, about 1742, emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1763. 
He became a colonel in 1776, and a brigadier-general 
in 1779. From 1781 to 1783 he commanded the troops 
stationed at Fort Pitt for the defence of the western 
frontier. He was chosen a member of Congress in 1787, 
and again in 1793. Died in 1804. 

Ir'ving, (DAVID,) LL.D., a Scottish biographer and 
writer on law. He published " Lives of Scottish Poets," 
(1804,) " Lives of the Scottish Writers," (1839,) and "The 
Table-Talk of John Selden," (1854.) He was born at 
Langholm, December 5, 1778; died at Edinburgh, March 
10, 1860. 

Irving, (EDWARD,) a celebrated and eloquent Scottish 
pulpit orator, born at Annan in 1792, was a graduate of 
the University of Edinburgh. Having been employed 
as rector of an academy at Kirkaldy about seven years, 
he was ordained a Presbyterian minister. From 1819 to 
1822 he was engaged as assistant in the pulpit of Dr. 
Chalmers, Glasgow, where he acquired a good reputation. 
He accepted a call from the Scottish Church, Cross 
Street, London, in 1822, and soon became an admired 
and fashionable preacher. His original genius and his 
extraordinary eloquence attracted crowded audiences, 
among whom were found the most eminent authors and 
statesmen, and nobles of the highest rank. In 1823 he 
published a series of discourses entitled "For the Ora- 
cles of God, Four Orations," etc In 1829 he removed 
into a larger church built for him in Regent Square. A 
charge of heresy having been preferred against him in 
the presbytery of London in 1830, he was condemned 
by that body, and ejected from the church, in 1832. 
After this event he obtained another place, and attracted 
crowds by his exhibition of the gift of unknown tongues, 
which he ascribed to divine inspiration. He published 
" Babylon and Infidelity Foredoomed of God," and other 
theological treatises. Died at Glasgow in December, 
1834. " He was unquestionably," says De Quincey, "by 
many degrees the greatest orator of our times." It is 
probable that his devotion was sincere, but not guided 
by discretion, and that in the latter part of his career 
his mind was affected with insanity. Carlyle, who was 
his friend, thinks that "bodily and spiritually, perhaps, 
there was not (in that November, 1822) a man more full 
of genial, energetic life in these islands." He left three 
children. The collected writings of Edward Irving have 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; mjt; nit; good; moon; 





been published under the editorship of his nephew, the 
Rev. G. Carlyle, London, 1864-65. 

See "Life of Irving," by MRS. OLIPHANT, 1862 ; DR QUINCHY, 
'Literary Reminiscences," vol. ii. ; "Edinburgh Review" For Octo- 
ber, 1862: "Edward Irving, an Ecclesiastical and Literary Biogra- 
phy," by W. WILKS ; CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Emi- 
nent Scotsmen," (Supplement;) MICHAEL HOHL, " Bruchstucke aus 
dem Leben und den Schriften E. Irving's," 1839 ; LEHMAMN, " Ueber 
die Irvingianer," 1853; "Westminster Review" for January, 1824; 
" Biackwood's Magazine" for November, 1858, and June, 1862; 
" Fraser's Magazine" for January, 1835; "North British Review" 
for August, 1862. 

Irving, (Sir HENRY BRODRIBB,) an English actor, 
whose family name is Brodribb, was born at Keinton, 
in Somersetshire, February 6, 1838. He first appeared 
on the stage in 1856, and rapidly attained distinction as 
a first-rate comedian. His " Hamlet," first played in 
1874, greatly divided public opinion, but at present his 
high rank as a tragedian is very generally conceded. 
Since 1883 he has frequently visited the United States. 

Ir'ving, (JOHN TREAT,) an American judge and writer, 
brother of Washington Irving, was born in 1778. He 
was a popular contributor, (political,) both in prose and 
verse, to the " Morning Chronicle," and from 1821 til! 
his death, in 1838, was presiding judge of the court 
of coma /n pleas in New York. 

Irving, (JoHN TREAT,) an American lawyer and writer, 
son of the preceding, and a resident of New York, is au- 
thor of a volume of " Indian Sketches," (1835,) and two 
novels, entitled " The Attorney," and " Harry Harson ; 
or, The Benevolent Bachelor," which originally appeared 
in the " Knickerbocker Magazine." 

Irving, (JOSEPH,) a Scottish author, born at Dumfries 
in 1830. He wrote a " Book of Dumbartonshire," (3 
vols., 1879,) "Annals of Our Time," "Dictionary of 
Scotsmen," (1880,) etc. Died in 1891. 

Irving, (PETER,) an American journalist, born in 1771. 
He became in 1802 the editor and proprietor cf the 
" Morning Chronicle," a Democratic journal of New 
York. In conjunction with his brother Washington, he 
projected " Knickerbocker's Histoty of New York." He 
wrote "Giovanni Sbogarro, a Venetian Tale," (1820.) 
Died in 1838. 

Irving, (THEODORE,) LL.D., an American author, 
and minister in the Protestant Episcopal Church, was 
born in New York in 1809. He spent some time in 
Europe with his uncle, Washington Irving, was professor 
of history and belles-lettres in Geneva College, New 
York, from 1836 to 1849, and afterwards filled for several 
years the chair of belles-lettres in the New York Free 
Academy. He entered the ministry in 1854. He wrote 
" The Conquest of Florida by Hernando de Soto," in 2 
vols., (Philadelphia and London, 1835,) and "The Foun- 
tain of Living Waters," (1854.) Died December 20, 1880. 

Irving, (WASHINGTON,) a distinguished American 
author and humourist, born in the city of New York, 
April 3, 1783, was a son of William Irving, a native of 
Scotland. About iSco he left school and commenced 
the study of the law. For the benefit of his health, he 
performed in 1804 a voyage to Europe, visited France, 
Italy, Switzerland, and England, and returned in 1806. 
Soon after his return he was admitted to the bar; but 
he preferred to devote himself to literary pursuits, and 
never practised law. In conjunction with his brother 
William and with James K. Paulding, he issued in 1807 
a humorous and satirical magazine, entitled "Salma- 
gundi, or the Whim-Whams and Opinions of Launcelot 
Langstaff, Esq., and others." Of this amusing and popular 
work only twenty numbers were issued. He published 
in 1809 another humorous work, "The History of New 
York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker," in which he was 
assisted by his brother Peter. It was very favourably 
received. " I have never," says Sir Walter Scott, " read 
anything so closely resembling the style of Dean Swift 
as the Annals of biedrich Knickerbocker." (Letter to 
Henry Brevoort, April 23, 1813.) 

In 1810 he became a silent partner with his brothers 
in an extensive commercial house in New York. He 
sailed in 1815 to Europe, where he remained many 
years, and in 1817 visited Sir Walter Scott at Abbots- 
ford, who became his constant friend. He was reduced 
to poverty by the failure of the firm of which he was a 
member, in 1817. His next important work was "The 

Sketch-Book," (1818,) by Geoffrey Crayon, which was 
written in England. It enjoyed great popularity, and 
raised Irving to the highest rank of American authors. 
Lord Jeffrey, in the " Edinburgh Review" for August; 
1820, commended "The Sketch-Book" as "written 
throughout with the greatest care and accuracy, and 
worked up to great purity and beauty of diction on the 
model of the most elegant and polished of our native 
writers." He published in London, in 1822, "Brace- 
bridge Hall, or the Humourists," which was received 
with great favour both in England and America. Com- 
menting on this work, Lord Jeffrey says, " We happen 
to be very intense and sensitive admirers of those soft 
harmonies of studied speech in which this author is apt 
to indulge himself, and have caught ourselves oftener 
than we shall confess, neglecting his excellent matter to 
lap ourselves in the liquid music of his periods." ("Edin- 
burgh Review" for November, 1822.) For his "Tales 
of a Traveller," (1824,) Murray, the London publisher, 
gave him .1500 before he saw the manuscript. 

Mr. Irving afterwards spent some years in France and 
Spain, where he composed his " History of the Life 
and Voyages of Christopher Columbus," (4 vols., 1828,) 
which was very successful. " This is one of those works," 
says Alexander II. Everett, "which are at the same time 
the delight of readers and the despair of critics. It is 
as nearly perfect as any work well can be." ("North 
American Review" for January, 1829.) In 1829 he pro- 
duced an imaginative and romantic work entitled "The 
Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada, from the Manu- 
scripts of Fray Antonio Agapida." He was appointed 
secretary of legation to the American embassy at London 
in 1829, and returned to the United States in 1832. Among 
his later works are "The Alhambra,"(i832;) a "Tour on 
the Prairies," (1835;) "Astoria," (3 vols., 1836;) "The 
Adventures of Captain Bonneville," (2 vols., 1837;) 
"Oliver Goldsmith, a Biography," (1849;) "Mahomet 
and his Successors," (1850;) and "The Life of George 
Washington," (5 vols., 1855-59.) He was minister to 
Spain from 1842 to 1846. He passed the latter part of 
his life at Sunnyside, on the Hudson River, where he 
died, November 28, 1859. He was never married. 

For an easy elegance of style, Irving has no superior, 
perhaps no equal, among the prose writers of America. 
If Hawthorne excels him in variety, in earnestness, and in 
force, he is perhaps inferior to Irving in facility and grace ; 
while he can make no claim to that genial, lambent 
humour which beams in almost every page of " Geoffrey 


.835, and January, 1837, (both by EDWARD EVERETT,) and April, 
1858 ; " Blackwood's Magazine" for July, 1820 ; " Fraser's Magazine 1 ' 
for October, 1835; "Westminster Review" for January, 1837 ; ALLI 
BONE, "Dictionary of Authors:" CLEVELAND, "Compendium of 
American Literature ;" " Atlantic Monthly" for November, 1860, and 
June, 1864. 

Irving, (WILLIAM,) a brother of the preceding, was 
born in New York in 1766. He married a sister of 
James K. Paulding in 1793, became a merchant in New 
York, and was a member of Congress during three 
terms, (1813-19.) He aided his brother and Mr. Pauld' 
ing in the " Salmagundi," of which he wrote the poetical 
parts. Died in 1821. 

Ir'win, (EYLES,) a poet, born in Calcutta, of Irish 
parents, in 1748, was employed in the civil service of 
the East India Company. He wrote several odes and 
eclogues, and "Adventures during a Voyage up the Red 
Sea," (1780.) Died in 1817. 


Isa, ee'sa, written also 153 and Isha, one of the names 
of SIVA, which see. 

Isaac, I'zak, [" or pn' ; It. ISACCO, e-sik'- 
ko; Arabian, ISHAK, is'hlk',] a Hebrew patriarch, the 
son of Abraham and Sarah, was born about 1990 B.C. He 
married Rebecca, and became the father of Esau and 
Jacob. " Of all the patriarchs," says Bishop Hall, " none 
made so little noise in the world as Isaac." He removed 
to Gerar. in the land of the Philistines, and acquired 

; jasj; 'ghard; gas/;G, H,K, guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; sasz; th as in Afaf. (2=See Explanations, p. 23. 




riches as a planter. He died at the age of one hundred 
and eighty. 

Isaac L, or Isaac Com-ne'nus, [Gr. loaiuaot 6 
Ko^wTvof,] Emperor of Constantinople, was chosen by 
the army as successor of Michael VI. in 1057. Two 
years later, in consequence of a malady which he sup- 
posed mortal, he resigned the throne to Constantine 
Ducas, and entered a convent Died in 1061. 

Isaac H, or Isaac An'ge-lus, [Gr. 'laaaiaof 6 'Ayye- 
*oc,l Emperor of Constantinople, was proclaimed in 
1185 as successor to Androni'cus, who was dethroned 
by a popular revolt He rendered himself very un- 
popular by his vices and misgovernment In 1195 his 
brother Alexis usurped the throne and imprisoned Isaac, 
who was liberated and restored in 1203 by an army of 
crusaders. In 1204 he was again supplanted by Alexius 
Ducas, and died or was killed the same year. Constan- 
tinople was speedily taken by the crusaders, who elected 
Baldwin emperor. 

Isaac, ee'zak, (HEINRICH,) a German musician, whorr 
the Italians called ARRIGO TEDESCO, (>. the " German 
Henry,") was born about 1440. He removed to Italj 
about 1475, and was patronized by Lorenzo de' Media 
He composed sacred music. 

Isaacson, T'zak-son, (HENRY,) born in London ir 
1581, wrote a work on Chronology. Died in 1654. 

Isabel, the Spanish of ELIZABETH, which see. 


Is'a-bel [Sp. pron. e-si-bel'] HZ, (or, more fully, 
Maria Isabel Luisa,) Queen of Spain, born at Madnd 
in October, 1830, is a daughter of Ferdinand VIL and 
Maria Christina. She succeeded her father on the 29th 
of September, 1833, when her mother became regent. 
Her claim was disputed by her uncle, Don Carlos, in a 
civil war, which ended in the defeat of the Carlists in 
1840. The queen-regent having been driven from power 
by a popular revolt in October, 1840, Espartero became 
regent Isabel was declared of age in November, 1843, 
and in October, 1846, was married to her cousin, Fran- 
cisco de Assis, a son of Francisco de Paula, who was a 
brother of Ferdinand VII. Her reign was agitated by 
many revolutions, coups d'ltat, and changes of constitu- 
tion. In September, 1868, she was deposed by her 
revolted subjects almost without a struggle. Her son, 
Alfonso XII., became king in 1875. 

Isabella. See ELIZABETH. 

Is-a-bel'la OF AUSTRIA, (CLARA EUGENIA,) the 
daughter of Philip II. of Spain and Elizabeth of France, 
was born in 1566. As the niece of Henry III. of France, 
she claimed the French crown at his death, but was 
excluded by the Salic law, though she was favoured by 
the chiefs of the League. In 1597 she became the wife 
of Archduke Albert, son of the Emperor of Germany. 
Died in 1633. 

Isabella OF BAVARIA, daughter of Stephen, second 
Duke of Bavaria, born in 1371, became Queen of France 
in 1385 by marriage with Charles VI. She was remark- 
able for beauty and for her voluptuous and dissolute 
character. When her imbecile consort became incapable 
of ruling, she aspired to royal power, and made a coali- 
tion with the English against the dauphin, her son. Died 

l n '435- 

Isabella [Span. ISABEL, e-si-bf 1'; Fr. ISABELLE, e'zf- 
bel'] OF CASTILE, daughter of John II., King of Cas- 
tile, was born at Madrigal in 1451. The malcontent 
subjects of her brother, Henry IV., forced him to ac- 
knowledge her as his heir, after which her hand was 
solicited by several princes of Europe, and she became 
the wife of Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469. In 1474 she 
was proclaimed Queen of Castile and Leon, the sove- 
reignty of which she did not resign to her husband, but 
kept in her own hands. Historians agree in applauding 
her beauty, virtue, magnanimity, piety, learning, and 
political wisdom. It was under her auspices that Co- 
lumbus discovered America, after his project had been 
treated with neglect by Ferdinand. Died in 1504. (See 
FERDINAND V.) Isabella had blue eyes and auburn hair, 
and possessed gieat beauty of features, sweetness of 
expression, and dignity of presence. 

See PRESCOTT, " History of Ferdinand and Isabella;" Tr,*?: . _ 
MOLINA, " Sumariu de la Vida y Hechos de los cat61icos Reves D. 

Fernando y Dona Isabel," 1587 ; FERNANDEZ DE PULGAR, " Rerum 
a Ferdinando et Elisabe Hispaniarum Repibus Gestarum Decades 
II.," 1545; D. CLEMENCIN, "Elogio de la Reina catolica Dona 
Isabel," 1821 ; GEORGE ANITA, " Memoirs of Queen Isabella of 
Castile," London, 1850. 

Isabelle. See ISABELLA. 


Isabelle (e'zt'bSl') OF FRANCE, Queen of England 
daughter of Philip the Fair, King of France, was born 
in 1292, and was married to Edward II. in 1308. The 
issue of this union was a son, who became Edward III. 
About 1324 she went to Paris to negotiate between her 
consort and the French king, where she formed a con- 
spiracy with malcontent nobles, and returned to England 
with the avowed intention to remove from power the 
king's unworthy favourite, Spencer. Entering London 
without resistance, in 1326, the partisans of the queen de- 
posed Edward II. and proclaimed his son king. Isabelle 
and her favourite, Mortimer, exercised the royal power 
a few years during the minority of her son ; and there 
seems no reason to doubt that they contrived the murder 
of Edward II. She was imprisoned for nearly twenty 
years, and died in prison in 1358. She was surnamed, 
on account of her cruelty, "the she-wolf of France." 

Isabelle OF FRANCE, Queen of England, born in 
1389, was a daughter of Charles VI. She was married 
to Richard II. of England in 1396. Died in 1409. 

Isabelle, e'zf'bel', (CHARLES EDOUARD,) a French 
architect, born at Havre in 1800, wrote "The Circular 
Edifices and Domes Classed," etc., Died May I, 1880. 

Isabelle d'Angouleme, e'zf'bel' d6N'goo'l8m', a 
French princess, was a daughter of Aymar, Count of 
Angouleme. She was married to John, King of Eng- 
land, in 1201. Died in 1245. 

Isabey, e'zfbS', (EUGENE Louis GABRIEL,) an emi- 
nent painter of marine views, born in Paris in 1804. He 
obtained a first-class medal in 1824, and produced 
11 The Coast of Honfleur" and a " Tempest near Dieppe" 
in 1827, the "Battle of the Texel," (1839,) "The De- 
parture of Queen Victoria," (1845,) and the " Embarka- 
:ion of De Ruyter," (1851.) He received a first-class 
medal at the Exposition of 1855. Died in 1886. 

Isabey, (JEAN BAPTISTS,) a celebrated French minia- 
ture-painter, born at Nancy in 1767, was a pupil of 
David, and father of the preceding. About 1802 he 
became the most fashionable artist of Paris in his depart- 
ment of the art He was liberally patronized by the 
emperor Napoleon, who had been his friend when both 
were obscure citizens. He executed many admired 
portraits of the Bonaparte family and of the generals 
of the empire. It is said that most of the sovereigns of 
Europe have been the subjects of his pencil. Among 
his works are the "Table des Marechaux," a picture on 
porcelain of Napoleon and his marshals, and " Th; 
Congress of Vienna," (1817.) Died in 1855. 

Isacs, ee'zaks, (PlETER,) a skilful Dutch portrait- 
painter, born at Helzevor in 1569; died about 1620. 

Isaeus, I-see'us, [Gr. 'laoioc/ Fr. IsfiE, e'za',] a famous 
Greek orator, who flourished about 400 B.C., was a 
native of Chalcis, or, according to some authorities, of 
Athens. Having been a pupil of Isocrates, he opened 
a celebrated school in Athens, and had the honour of 
being the preceptor of Demosthenes. Isxus is one of 
the ten Athenian orators of the Alexandrian canon. His 
style is at once elegant and vehement, but is less natural 
than that of Lysias. He had great skill in dialectics 
and in the distribution of his arguments. Only eleven 
of his orations are now extant ; and these are all forensic. 
He is said to have survived the accession of King Philip 
of Macedon, 348 B.C. 

See J. A. LIEBMANN, " De Iszi VitaetScriptis," 1831 ; E. JENIKE. 
" Observationes in Iszum," 1838. 

Isaeus, a Greek sophist and orator, born in Assyria, 
lived in the first century after Christ His eloquence 
is extolled by Pliny. 

Isaiah, I-za'yah" or e-zi'a, [Heb. m'yVT ; Gr. llaaiaf ; 
Lat ESAI'AS; Fr. ISA'I'E, e'zt'e', or fisAiE, i'zi'e'; It 
ISAIA, e-sa-ee'S; Sp. ISAIAS, e-si-ee'as,] the first of the 
great Hebrew prophets, was a contemporary of Hosea, 
Joel, Amos, and Micah. He prophesied during a period 
of about fifty years, beginning about 760 B.C. He lived 
at Jerusalem, and exerted great influence in public affairs. 

i, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, <J, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon; 




Little is known of his personal history, except that he 
had a wife, who is called a prophetess, and two sons. 
There is a doubtful tradition that Isaiah suffered death 
by being sawn asunder, at the command of King Ma- 
nasseh. As a writer he is remarkable for versatility of 
genius, and merits the first rank among the prophets by 
the majestic simplicity and sublimity of his compositions. 
He declared more amply and clearly than any other 
prophet the eternal divinity, vicarious sufferings, and 
glorious kingdom of the Messiah, and hence is often 
called the evangelical prophet. No other prophet is so 
often quoted by Christ and his apostles. (See Matt. i. 
22, iii. 3, viii. 17, xii. 18-20, xiii. 14 ; Luke iv. 17; Acts 
xxviii. 25 ; Rom. ix. 27, and x. 16; Phil. ii. 10.) In our 
translation of the New Testament he is always called 
ESAIAS. He has been pronounced by some critics not 
inferior to Homer in poetical genius ; and all agree that 
his book is a master-piece of beauty and sublimity both 
in thought and style. 

Among the commentators on Isaiah are Saint Jerome, 
Vitringa, Lowth, Calmct, Eichhorn, Doderlein, Gesenius, 
Gataker, Hitzig, Rosenmiiller, and Henderson ; and, in the 
United States, Dr. Alexander and Mr. Albert Barnes. 

See, also, KIMCHI, "Lexicon Rabbinicum;" EWALD, "Die Pro- 
pheten des alien Bundes," and "Geschichte des Volkes Israel bil 
Christus;" KNOBEL, "Prophetisme des H^breux." 

Isaie. See ISAIAH. 

Isambert, e'z6N / baiR', (EMILE,) a French physician 
and biographer, a son of Fran9ois Andre, noticed below, 
was born at Auteuil in 1828. Died October 27, 1876. 

Isambert, (FRANCOIS ANDRE,) a French jurist and 
Protestant, born at Aunay (Eure-et-Loire) in 1792. He 
distinguished himself about 1825 as the defender of the 
rights of the free people of colour in Martinique, and 
" performed in France," says Taillandier, "a service like 
that which Clarkson and Wilberforce rendered in Eng- 
land." In 1830 he was appointed a judge (conseiller) of 
the court of cassation. He was a Liberal member of the 
Chamber of Deputies from 1830 to 1848, and supported 
Cavaignac and the cause of order in the Assembly of 
1848. He was secretary of the French Society for the 
Abolition of Slavery, of which he is said to have been 
the founder. Among his works are a " Manual for the 
Publicist and Statesman," (4vols., 1826,) and a "History 
of Justinian," (1856.) He wrote many able articles for 
the "Nouvelle Biographic Generale." Died in 1857. 

See TAILLANDIER, article in the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Isarn, e'zlRn', (SAMUEL,) a French poet, born at Cas- 
tres in 1637, wrote "The Speaking Pistole," (" La Pistole 
parlante," 1660,) which had great success. Died in 1673. 

Isauricus. See LEO III. 

Is-ca'nl-us or Is-ca'nus, (JOSEPH,) surnamed also 
DEVO'NIUS, an English poet, born at Exeter, derived his 
name from Isca, the place of his education. He accom- 
panied Richard I. en a crusade to Palestine, and wrote 
a Latin poem " On the Trojan War," and another en 
titled " Antiocheis." Died about 1224. 

Isee. See IS^EUS. 

Iselin, ez'laN', (ISAAC,) a Swiss writer, born at Bale 
in 1728. He was assistant secretary of state from 1756 
to his death. He became the enlightened advocate of 
reform in morals, education, and legislation, on which 
he wrote articles for the journals. His chief work is 
entitled " On the History of Mankind," (" Ueber die 
Geschichte der Menschheit." 1764.) Died in 1782. 

See J. G. SCHLOSSER, "Rede auf Iselin," 1783; S. HIRZEL, 
"Denkmal I. Iselin gewidmet," 1782. 

eminent Swiss philologist and divine, born at Bale in 
1681. He spoke Greek with facility, and excelled in 
Oriental languages. He became professor of history at 
Bale in 1707, and was promoted to the chair of divinity 

ricis Latinis Melioris ./Evi," 1697,) a treatise "On the 
Domination of the Magi in Persia," (1707,) and other 
minor works. Died in 1737. 

See BECK, "Vita Iselini," in the 3d vol. of "Tempe Helvetica; 1 
J. R. ISELIN, " Laudatio funebris consecrandas Memorise Viri incom 
parabiHs J. C. Iselini," 1739. 

Iselin, (JEAN RODOLPHE,) a Swiss jurist, born at 
3ale in 1705, wrote "On Eminent Domain," ("De Do- 
minio Eminente," 1726,) and other works. Died in 1779. 
Isembert (e'zfiN'baiR') OF XAINTES, a French archi- 
ect, lived about 1200, and is supposed :o have built the 
old London Bridge. 

Isenburg, ee'zen-booRG', [Fr.' ISEMBOURG, C'ZON'- 
JOOR',] one of the great German families of Protestant 
>rinces and counts. It included the branches of Isenburg- 
Birstein, Isenburg-Philippseich, Isenburg-Iiiidingen, and 

Isendoorn, van, vSn ee'zen-doRn', or Ysendoorn, 
GIJSBERT,) a Dutch philosopher, born in Gelderland in 
:6oi, published "EfTata Philosophica," (1633,) "Ethica 
?eripatetica," (1659,) and other works. Died in 1657. 

Isfendiyar, is-fen'dee-ytR', or Asfandiyar, as-fan'- 
dee-ylR', one of the most celebrated heroes in Persian 
listory, lived between the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., 
and is said to have been the first convert to the religion 
of Zoroaster, in which he was followed by his father 
ushtasp (Darius Hystaspis) and the whole Persian 
empire. This change of religion led to the invasion of 
Persia by Arjasp, King of Turan, in which Isfendiyar, 
u y his bravery and heroism, not only saved his father's 
.ingdom, but conquered India, Arabia, and the West, 
He was killed in battle by the celebrated Roostum. 

See MALCOLM, "History of Persia;" J. ATKINSON, "Abridg- 
ment of the Shah Nameh of Firdousi. " 

Ish'mael, [Heb. ^Nl'DK" ; Arabic, ISMAEEL or ISMAIL, 
is-mS-eel'; Fr. ISMAEL, es'mf el',] the son of Abraham 
and Hagar, born about 1900 B.C., was the ancestor of 
the Ishmaelites or Arabians. (See Genesis xvi., xxi.) 

Ishwara. See ISWARA. 

Isi, ee'see, written also 19! and Ishi, (the consort of 
Isa or Siva,) one of the many names of PARVATt, which 
see. She is identified by some writers, including Sir W. 
Jones, with the Isis of the Egyptians. (See Isis.) 

Isiaslaf. See IZIASLAF. 

Isl-dore [Gr. 'Ial6apof; Lat. ISIDO'RUS ; Fr. ISIDORE, 
e'ze'doR'; It. ISIDORO, e-se-do'ro] OF CHARAX, a Per- 
sian, who is supposed to have lived in the first century 
of our era, wrote a work called " Parthian Itinerary," 

hich contains a list of the eighteen provinces of Parthia 
and of the chief towns, with the distances of the towns 
from each other. 

Isidore OF Moscow, a Russian prelate, was chosen 
Primate of Russia in 1437. He favoured the reunion of 
the Greek and Latin Churches at the Council of Florence, 
(1437.) Died at Rome in 1463. 

Isidore, SAINT, an eminent Spanish scholar and 
bishop, born at Carthagena about 570 A.D., was a brother 
of Leander, Archbishop of Seville. He understood 
Greek, Hebrew, and Latin, and was very influential in 
the Spanish Church. About 600 he was appointed 
Bishop of Seville. The Council of Toledo, held in 650, 
denominated him "the glory of the Catholic Church, 
and the most learned man of his age." Among his most 
important works are, in Latin, "A Chronicle from the 
Origin of the World to 626 A.D.," and "Twenty Books 
of Etymologies," which, says Dr. Hoefer, " is one of the 
most precious monuments for the history of human 
knowledge." Died in 636 A.D. 

See SAINT ILDEFONSO, "De Viris illustribus ;" TRITHEIM, " De 
Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis ;" ROESLER, " Dissertatio ; Isidori His- 
toria Gothorum, Vandalonim," etc., 1803. 

Isidore, SAINT, OF ALEXANDRIA, born in Egypt about 
318 A.D., was a friend of Athanasius, by whom he was 
ordained a priest. Died in 404. 

Isidore, SAINT, OF PELUSIUM, is supposed to have 
been born between 360 and 390 A.D. He lived as a 
hermit in Egypt, and had a high reputation for piety and 
wisdom. He wrote, in Greek, a great number of short 
letters, of which more than two thousand are now ex 
tant. They are said to contain sound doctrine and good 
instruction in morals. Died about 450 A.D. 

See HERMANN, "Dissertatio de Isidore Pelusiota," 1737 : NIE- 
MEVER. "Dissertatio de Isidoro Pelusiota," 1825. 

Isl-dore Mer-ca'tor or Fec-ca'tor, the supposed 
name of a person who in the eighth or ninth century 
fabricated a famous code of canon law or collection of 
decretals, often called the " Collection of the Pseudo-Isi- 

as k ; 9 as s; g hard; g asy; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^^See Explanations, p. 23 '- 




dore. Some popes availed themselves of this means 
to extend their temporal power. 

Isidorus. See ISIDORE. 

Is-I-do'rus OF MILETUS, a Greek architect of the 
sixth century, who was employed by the emperor Jus- 
tinian to build the magnificent church of Saint Sophia 
in Constantinople, which is now used as a mosque. 

I'ais, [Gr. 'loif,] one of the chief deities of the ancient 
Egyptians, was called the wife of Osiris and mother of 
Horus. She was worshipped as the goddess of fecun- 
dity, and appears to have represented nature or the earth. 
The cow was sacred to Isis. She had many worshippers 
in Greece and Rome. There were famous temples of 
Isis at Memphis and Denderah. She has been identified 
with the Hindoo Isi, (which see.) 

Isla, es'li, (JosE FRANCISCO,) a witty and popular 
Spanish author, born at Segovia in 1703. He became a 
Jesuit and an eminent preacher. He effected a reform 
m the vicious style and bad taste that prevailed among 
the Spanish priests, which he ridiculed in his famous 
satirical romance "The Life of the Popular Preacher 
Fray Gerundio de Campazas," (3 vols., 1758,) which 
is called the best picture of Spanish manners of the 
eighteenth century. This work was condemned by the 
Inquisition. He made a Spanish version of " Gil Bias," 
under this title : " Adventures of Gil Bias, stolen from 
Spain, adopted in France by Le Sage, and restored to 
his Native Country and Language," (6 vols., 1787.) The 
Jesuits having been expelled from Spain in 17671 he 
retired to Bologna, where he died in 1781. 

See J. I. DE SALAS, " Vida de Juan de Isla," 1803; TICKNOR. 
" History of Spanish Literature ;" EVERETT, " Critical and Miscella- 
neous Essays." 

Isleif, is'llf, an Icelandic historian, was ordained a 
priest in Rome about 1056, and returned home. He 
wrote "Annals of Iceland and of Norway." Died about 

Ismaeei or Ismail, is-mS-eel', a Moslem priest, was 
Imam of the Sheeites in the second century of the Hejrah. 
At his death a division occurred among the Sheeites in 
respect to the succession. Those who adhered to the 
son of Ismaeei were called Ismaeelites or Ismaeelians, 
wid became a powerful sect in Egypt and Persia. 

Ismaeei, Ismail, or Ismail Shah, is-mi-eel' shlh, 
founder of the dynasty of Sofees of Persia, was born in 
1487, and assumed royal power about the age of four- 
teen. He acquired several provinces of Persia by con- 
quest, and died in 1524, leaving the throne to his son, 
Aboo-Modhaffer. Ismaeel is venerated by the Persians, 
who call him King of the Sheeites, (a religious sect.) 

See MALCOLM, " History of Persia ;" VON HAMMER-PURGSTALL, 
44 Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs." 

Ismaeei (Ismail) II., King of Persia, the son of Aboo- 
Modhaffer, began to reign in 1576, and made himself de- 
tested by his sanguinary temper. After executing many 
innocent persons, he died in 1577, and was succeeded by 
his brother, Mohammed Meerza, (Mirza.) 

See MALCOLM, 4t History of Persia." 

Ismael, the French for ISHMAEL, which see. 

Ismail Pasha, is-mJ-eel' pa'sha, former Khedive of 
Egypt, was born in Cairo in 1830. His uncle Said, the 
viceroy, in 1862 made him commandant of the army, 
and in 1863 he succeeded as viceroy. His lavish ex 
penditures not only greatly encumbered his private es 
tales, but embarrassed all the people of Egypt. In 1867 
he acquired from the Porte the title of Khedive. He 
carried on extensive wars of conquest in the Soudan. 
In 1869 the Suez Canal was opened. In 1879 the press- 
ure of the foreign creditors became so great that the 
Sultan, urged by the representatives of the European 
powers, directed Ismail to abdicate. The abdication 
took effect June 26, 1879 ; his son TEWFIK succeeded 
as khedive. Died at Constantinople, March 2, 1895. 

Isnard, is'niR', (ACHILLE NICOLAS,) a French politi- 
cal economist and writer, born in Paris ; died about 1803. 

Isnard, (MAXIMIN,) a French Girondist, republican, 
and orator, born at Grasse, in Provence, in 1751, was 
chosen a member of the Legislative Assembly in 1701. 
He was one of the most able and enthusiastic partisans 
of the Revolution, to which he often gave a new impulse 
by his brilliant, impetuous, and inflammatory eloquence. 

He was one of the first members of the committee of 
public safety, the formation of which he first proposed 
and was president of the Convention a few days in May, 
1793, during the struggle between his party and the Ja- 
cobins. He was involved in the fatal proscription of the 
Girondists, but escaped death by concealment. In 1795 
he was chosen a member of the Council of Five Hun- 
dred. He retired from political life when Napoleon be- 
came consul, and published an essay on the " Immortality 
of the Soul," (1801,) in which he professes himself aeon- 
vert to revealed religion. He maintained a fair reputation 
for honour and probity, and died about 1830. Lamartine, 
who calls him the Danton of the Gironde, says, " His 
speeches were magnificent odes, which exalted discussion 
into lyric enthusiasm." (" History of the Girondists.") 
" Isnard was the man of the Girondist party," says 
Charles Nodier, " who possessed in the highest degree 
the gift of those vehement inspirations which burst like 

thunder in sudden and terrible explosions." 

See " Nouvelle I 
French Revolution. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale 

;" TH 

IERS, "History of tho 

Isnardi, es-naR'dee, (GiAMBATTlSTA,) an Italian sa- 
vant, born near Nice in 1749, wrote a "Memoir on the 
Monuments of India and Egypt" Died in 1830. 

Isocrate. See ISOCRATES. 

I-soc'ra-tes, [Gr. 'loo/ipanyr ; Fr. ISOCRATE, e'zo'- 
kRtt'; It ISOCRATE, e-sok'ri-ti,] one of the ten great 
Athenian orators, bom at Athens in 436 B.C., received 
lessons from Gorgias, Prodicus, and Theramcnes, and 
was an intimate friend of Plato. He soon surpassed 
these masters in the rhetorical art ; but his insuperable 
constitutional timidity defeated his political aspirations, 
and disqualified him for a public debater or an oracle 
of the " fierce democracy." He opened a school of elo- 
quence, which numbered among its pupils many eminent 
men, such as Isaeus, Timotheus, Xenophon, and Hyperi- 
des. Cicero compared his school to the wooden horse 
of Troy, from which issued the principal Grecian chiefs. 
He composed orations and forensic arguments for clients 
or others, and discourses on moral and political questions. 
His style is extremely polished and harmonious, but 
perhaps too artificial and diffuse. His character was 
honourable, his political principles were moderate and 
sincerely patriotic. He was one of the few who had the 
courage to appear in mourning for the death of Socra- 
tes. It is said that the disastrous battle of Chaeronea 
affected him so deeply that he refused to eat afterwards, 
and died at the age of ninety-eight. Twenty-one of his 
orations are extant. 

See PLUTARCH, "Viue Decem Oratorum ;" BILMARK. "De 
Isocrate Oratore Grzco," 1798: PFUND, "De Isocratis Vita et 
Scripris," 1833: LICHTENAUER, " De Isocrate," 1843; O. MI'LLHR, 
" History of the Literature of Ancient Greece ;" P. EKHRMAN, " Iso- 
crates Patre loquentiie," 1743. 

Isolani, e-so-11'nee, (IsiDORO,) an Italian theologian, 
born at Milan, lived between 1480 and 1550, and wrote 
many works against the doctrines of Luther. 

Is'olani, e-zo-la'nee, UOHANN LUDWIG HECTOR,) 
COUNT, an Austrian general, born in 1586, served in 
the Thirty Years' war. For the part he took in the 
betrayal of Wallenstein he received the title of count. 
Died in 1640. 

Isore, e'zo'ra', (JACQUES,) a French politician, born 
at Cauvigny in 1758, was a member of the Convention 
in 1792, and voted for the death of Louis XVI. Died 
in 1839. 

Isouard, 6-soo-aRd', or laoard, J-so-aRd', (NlCOLO,) 
a Maltese musician and composer, born in 1775. He 
is usually known by the name of NICOLO, under which 
he gave his compositions to the world. The best-known 
of these are his comic operas of "Joconde," (1813,) and 
"Jeannot and Colin," (1814;) but he produced with ex- 
traordinary facility, and was the author of a large number 
of other operas, comic and serious, of masses, cantatas, 
psalms, etc. 

Isourd, d', de'zooR', ( JOACHIM JEAN XAVIER,) i 
French ecclesiastic, born at Aix in 1766. He became a 
cardinal in 1827, and in 1829 was made a peer of France, 
with the title of duke. After refusing several archbishop- 
rics, he accepted that of Lyons in 1839 ; but he died 
before the end of, that year. 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; m?t; ndt; good; moon. 




Is'rael, [Heb. ^Nll?'; Gr. 'lapa^A,] a name often given 
by the inspired writers to the patriarch Jacob, whose 
descendants are called Israelites. (See JACOB.) 
Israeli See DISRAELI. 

Is'raels, (JosEF,) a Dutch genre painter of eminence, 
born at Groningen in 1824. His brother, LEHMAN 
ISRAELS, born in Groningen in 1833, became a journalist 
of New York, and was for some years one of the editors 
of the New York " World." 

Is'selt, van, (MICHAEL,) a Dutch historian and Cath- 
olic priest, born at Dokkum, adhered to the Spanish 
party in the civil war. He wrote " Historia Belli Colo- 
niensis," (1584,) and other works. Died in 1597. 

Is'ter, [Gr. 'lorpof,] a Greek historian and poet, livec! 
about 250 B.C., and was a friend or pupil of Callimachus. 
He wrote a history entitled Arroca, and other works, 
none of which are extant. 

Isthvanfi, Isht'vin-fee, [Lat. ISTHVAN'FIUS,] (NICHO- 
LAS,) a Hungarian noble, born about 1535, was rewarded 
for his services by the office of Vice-Palatine of Hungary. 
He wrote, in Latin, a " History of Hungary from 1490 to 
>6o6," (1622.) Died in 1615. 
laturiz, de, dits-too-reth', (Don FRANCISCO XAVIER,) 
a Spanish politician, born at Cadiz in 1790. He pro- 
moted the revolution of January, 1820, was elected to 
the Cortes in 1822, and became a leader of the Liberal 
or democratic party. He was minister of foreign affairs 
for a few months m 1836, and was driven into exile by 
an hnevtf. Having returned in 1837, he was chosen 
president of the Cortes in 1839. He negotiated the 
marriage of the queen Isabel, (1846,) was sent as minister 
to England in 1850, and to Russia in 1857. He became 
president of the council in February, 1862. Died 1871. 
Iswara, ees'wa-ra, or Ishwara, eesh'wa-ra, written 
also Igwara, one of the thousand names of Siva, though 
sometimes applied to other Hindoo deities. He is by 
some writers identified with the Osiris of the Egyptians. 
It'a-lus, [Gr. 'IroAoc; Fr. ITALE, e'tfl',] an ancient 
king of Italy, from whom that country is supposed to have 
derived its name. He married Electra, a daughter of 
Latinus. He is considered as fabulous by some authors. 
Itard, e'tiR', (JEAN MARIE GASPARD,) a French phy- 
sician, born at Oraison in 1775, removed to Paris about 
1796, and practised with success. In 1799 he was ap- 
pointed physician to the Institution for Deaf-Mutes, which 
position he filled for many years. He wrote a "Treatise 
on Diseases of the Ear," (2 vols., 1821.) Died in 1838. 
Ito, (HiROBUMi,) COUNT, a Japanese statesman, 
born in the province of Choshu in 1840. He visited, 
\\liile young, Europe and the United States, became 
active in efforts to modernize Japan, and held various 
offices in the Japanese cabinet, becoming premier in 
1886. His sweeping reforms leading to a reaction, 
he retired in 1888, but was premier again 1892-95. 
He was the father of the Japanese constitution promul- 
gated in 1889. In 1894 he took command of the 
Japanese naval forces in the war with China, and gained 
an important victory over the Chinese fleet on Sep- 
tember 7. He subsequently aided in the capture of 
Port Arthur, and in January, 1895, Wei-hai-wei and 
the Chinese fleet were surrendered to him. In Octo- 
ber, 1900, he again accepted the premiership. 

Ittenbach, it'ten-baK'. (FRANZ,) a German painter, 
born at Konigswinter in 1813. He was one of the best 
of the Dusseldorf school, and was chiefly known for his 
religious pictures. Died December I, 1879. 

Ittig, it'tic, [Lat. ITTIG'IUS,] (THOMAS,) a German 
theologian, born in 1643 at Leipsic, where he became 
professor of divinity. He wrote numerous works, among 
which are one " On the Heresiarchs of the Apostolic 
Age," (1690,) and "Bibliotheca Patrum Apostolicorum 
Grzco-Latina," (2 vols., 1699.) Died in 1710. 

Iturbide, e-tooR'be-Di, (Don AUGUSTIN,) Emperor 
of Mexico, born at Valladolid (Mexico) in 1784, (one ac- 
count says 1790.) He fought against the insurgents in the 
war of independence which began in 1810, and rose to 
the rank of general. About the end of 1821 he became 
the master-spirit of a successful plot for the liberation 
of Mexico from the Spanish rule. He was proclaimed 

-mperor in May, 1822 ; but his power was resisted by a 
large party in the Congress and by many generals, who 
preferred a republic. Finding his position untenable, 
ic abdicated, and was banished in May, 1823. In Julv, 
1824, he returned almost alone, and, just after he landed, 
was arrested and shot as a traitor. 

See M. J. QUIN, "Memoirs of Iturbide," and French version of 
the same, by J. T. PARISOT, 1824. 

lule. See IULUS. 

I-u'lus, [Gr. 'lou/loc; Fr. IULE, e'u'l',] a son of ^Eneas. 

Ivan or Iwan (e-van') I., a Russian prince, who began 
to reign in Moscow at the death of his brother George, 
in 1328, and was tributary to the Tartars. His dominions 
consisted of Vladimir, Moscow, and Novogorod. His 
reign was peaceful, and lasted twenty-two years. 

His grandson, Ivan H., son of Simeon, born in 1325, 
was recognized by the Tartars as heir to the throne in 
1353. The events of his short reign were unimportant. 
In his last illness he took, according to usage, the mon- 
astic vows, and died in 1358. 

See KARAMZIN. " Histoire de Russie." 

Ivan III., (Vasilievitch,) son cf Basil IV., ascended 
the Russian throne in 1462, and is sometimes styled 
IVAN I., CZAR OF MUSCOVY. He liberated his realm 
from the tribute which the Tartars had exacted by right 
of conquest from his predecessors, and is regarded as 
the founder of the empire. About 1475 ne defeated, in 
several actions, the Tartar chief Ahmed, (or Akhmet,) 
and extended his dominions by the conquest of various 
princes. He embellished Moscow, the capital, with fine 
edifices, and patronized the industrial arts. In 1486 he 
assumed the title of "Sovereign of all the Russias." He 
died in 1505, aged sixty-six, and was succeeded by his 
son Basil. 

See HKBBRSTBIN, " Rerum Moscovitfcarum Corumentarii," 1549. 

Ivan IV., or Ivan Vasilievitch H., surnamed THE 
TERRIBLE, grandson of the preceding, inherited the 
throne at the death of Basil, his father, in 1533, when 
he was four years of age. He assumed the titles of Czar 
and Autocrat about the age of fifteen. He conquered 
Kazan and Astrachan from the Tartars, and waged wai 
against Sweden and Poland without decisive results. 
Siberia was discovered and partially subdued in his 
reign. About 1582 the first printing-press was estab- 
lished by him in Russia. He displayed energy and 
ability in promoting civilization, but is charged with 
excessive cruelty in the exercise of his unrestrained 
power. Died in 1584. 

See ODERBORN, " Joannis Basilidis Vita," i6co; HEIDENSTEIN, 
"De Bello Moscovitico," 1600; S. CIAMPI, " Esame critico con 
Document! inediti della Storia di Iran Wasiliewitsch," 1827. 

Ivan V., (Alexievitch,) born in 1666, was the heir 
of the Russian crown at the death of his brother Feodor 
III. in 1682 ; but on account of his imbecility his younger 
brother Peter (the Great) was proclaimed in his stead. 
Ivan was permitted to retain the title of Czar, but had 
no ambition to rule. Died in 1696. 

Ivan VI, sometimes styled IVAN III., born in 1740, 
was the son of Anthony Ulric of Brunswick and Anne of 
Russia, (niece of the empress Anne.) The latter, at her 
death in 1740, appointed the infant Ivan her successor; 
but Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, obtained 
the imperial power. Ivan was confined in prison, where, 
it is said, he was killed in 1764, when Mirovitch made 
a rash attempt to raise him to the throne. 

See E. MAUVILLON, " Histoire de la Vie et du Regne d'Iwan_VI," 
1766: " Geschichte von dem Leben und Regierung Ivans III., Kaiser 
von Russland," 1766; " Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

Ivanot e-va'nof, [written in German, IWANOW,] 
(FEODOR,) a Russian dramatist, born in 1777, served in 
the army, and wrote, besides several successful comedies, 
a tragedy called "Martha." Died in 1816. 

Ivara. See JUVARA. 

Ivernois, d', de'veR'nwa', (FRANgois,) a Swiss politi- 
cal writer, born at Geneva in 1757, represented his native 
city at the Congress of Vienna in 1814. He wrote a 
" History of the Revolutions of Geneva in the Eighteenth 
Century," (3 vols., 1791,) and other works. Died in 1843. 

See "NouvelJe Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

as k; 5 as t; g hard; g as>; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Iversen, ee'ver-sen, (CHRISTIAN,) a Danish writer, 
born at Copenhagen in 1748, published, among other 
works, the " Literary Progress of Denmark," (4 vols., 
1781-89.) Died in 1827. 

I'ver-spn, (ALFRED,) a Democratic politician, born 
in Burke county, Georgia, in 1798, was elected to Con- 
gress in 1847, succeeded \V. C. Dawson as United States 
Senator from Georgia in 1855, and was a prominent 
advocate of disunion. He became a Confederate briga- 
dier in 1862. Died March 4, 1873. 

Ives, Ivz, (EDWARD,) an English surgeon, who went 
with Admiral Watson to the East Indies in 1754, and 
published a valuable account of his voyage and of the 
operations of the English army in 1755, 1756, and 1757. 
Died about 1780. 

Ives, Ivz, (ELI,) an American physician, born at New 
Haven, Connecticut, in 1779. He was professor of medi- 
cine at Yale College about twenty years. Died in 1861. 
Ives, (JOHN,) F.R.S., an English antiquary, born at 
Yarmouth in 1751, was educated at Cambridge. He 
published " Remarks on the Garianonum of the Romans," 
and other antiquarian treatises. Died in 1776. 

Ives, (LEVi SILLIMAN,) a theologian, born in Meriden, 
Connecticut, in 1797. He became an Episcopal clergy- 
man about 1824, and Bishop of North Carolina in 1831. 
In 1852 he joined the Roman Catholic Church. He 
wrote, besides other works, "The Trials of a Mind in 
its Progress to Catholicism," (1854.) Died Oct. 13, 1867. 
Ivea or Yves, [modern Fr. pron. ev,] written also 
I'vo, (SAINT,) a French theologian, born in 1035, became 
Bishop of Chartres. Died in 1115. 
Iveteaux. See DBS YVETEAUX. 
Iv'i-mey, (JOSEPH,) an English Baptist minister, born 
at Ringwood, Hants, May 22, 1773. He was ordained 
in 1805. He published a "Life of Bunyan," and a 
valued " History of the English Baptists." Died Feb- 
ruary 8, 1834. 
Ivo. See IVES, SAINT. 

I'vo-ry, (JAMES,) F.R.S., an eminent British mathe 
matician, born at Dundee in 1765. After he left college, 
he engaged in teaching and other pursuits. In 1804 he 
obtained the chair of mathematics in the Royal Military 
College, Marlow, which he retained about fifteen years. 
He contributed numerous able papers on physical as- 
tronomy and mathematics to the " Transactions" of the 
Royal Society. He was a corresponding member of the 
Institute of France and of other foreign Academies. In 
1831 he received the Guelphic order of knighthood and 
a pension of ^300. Died in 1842. 

S CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scots- 
men," (Supplement.) 


Iwan. See IVAN. 

Ix-I'on, [Gr. 'I^uv,] a fabulous king of the Lapithae 
The poets feigned that after he had committed a murder 
Jupiter purified him and invited him to his table. Ixior 
attempted to seduce Juno, but embraced a cloud insteac 
of that goddess. To punish him for this crime, he was 
chained to a fiery wheel which revolved perpetually 
He was the father of the Centaurs. 

See VIRGIL, "GeorpicV book iv. 484. 

Ixtlilxoohitl, ikst-lel-iio-cheetl', .' (FERNANDO DE 
ALVA,) a Mexican historian, born at Tezcuco about 1568 

was a descendant of the royal family of Tezcuro. He 
wrote "Historia Chichimeca," and other chronicles on 
Mexican history. The first-named work has been trans- 
ated into French by Ternaux-Compans. Died about 

See PRESCOTT, " History of the Conquest of Mexico," ToL i. 
iook i. 

Izaacke, I'zak, ? (RICHARD,) an English antiquary, 
)orn at Exeter in 1624; died in 1700. 

Iz'ard, (GEORGE,) a general, born in South Carolina 
n 1777. He became a colonel in 1812, served in the 
war that ensued, and was raised to the rank of major- 
'eneral. Died in 1828. 

Izard, (RALPH,) a Senator, born in South Carolina in 
1742, settled in London in 1771. Having returned to the 
United States in 1780, he was chosen a member of Con- 

tion. Died in 1804. 

See his " Life and Correspondence," by his daughter, 1844. 

Izdubar, iz-doo-bar', a half-mythical, or perhaps en- 
tirely mythical, king of Babylonia, the hero of the 
"Twelve Legends of Izdubar," translated in 1872 by 
Mr. George Smith from the cuneiform records. Mr. 
Smith believed Izdubar to be a historical personage; 
others think him purely mythical. He appears in the 
egends as a giant, a mighty hunter, and a great con- 
queror. In later records he is treated as one of the 
;ods of the country. 

Iziaslaf or Isiaslav (e-ze-as-UP) I, written also 
Isiaslaw, (DMITRI or DEMETRIUS,) Grand Duke of 
Russia, succeeded his father, Yaroslaf, in 1054. His 
reign was disturbed by wars with his brothers and other 
princes, among whom Russia was divided. He was killed 
in battle in 1078, and left the throne to his son. 

Iziaslaf or Isiaslav H, Grand Prince of Russia, was 
the son of Mstislaf. He began to reign in 1 146, as suc- 
cessor to Igor II., whom he defeated in battle. He was 
thrice driven from his throne, but as often recovered it. 
He died in 1154. 

Iziaslaf or Isiaslav TTT, surnamed DAVIDOVITCH, 
son of David, became Grand Prince of Russia in 1157. 
He was killed in battle about 1161. 

Iziocalt, e-se-o-kalt', King of the Mexicans, ascended 
the throne in 1433, and is called the founder of the 
Mexican empire. He formed a code of laws, which was 
adopted by several adjacent nations. Died in 1445. 

Izmaflof, is-ma'e-lof, (ALEXANDER,) a Russian fabu- 
list, born at Moscow in 1779. He became a resident of 
Saint Petersburg, and edited several reviews or journals. 
He published a volume of fables, (1804,) which are highly 
commended. Died in 1831. 

See GRETCH, " History of Russian Literature," 1819-22. 

Izmaflof, (VLADIMIR VASILIEVITCH,) a Russian writer, 
born at Moscow in 1773. He wrote "Travels in 
Southern Russia," (1802,) and translated some works of 
Rousseau and Chateaubriand. 

Izquierdo de Ribera, eth-ke-eVdo da re-Ba'ra, (Don 
EUGENIO,) a Spanish diplomatist, born at Saragossa, 
He was sent to Paris as plenipotentiary in 1806, and 
negotiated a treaty for the partition of Portugal. Died 
in 1813. 


Jaafar, Jafar, Djafar, or Giafar, jl'a-far or jl'far 
surnamed SADIK, an eminent Mussulman doctor of 
Medina; died in 764 A.D. 

Jaafar, Jafar, Jafer, Djafar, or Giafar, a Barmecide, 
who became the favourite of Haroun-al-Raschid, and 
to whom, it is said, the Caliph gave his own sister Ab- 
basa in marriage, on condition that the intercourse of the 
married pair should be strictly Platonic. Abbasa having 
borne a son to Jaafar, Haroun, in his rage, mercilessly 
destroyed both father and son. (See BARMECIDES.) 

Jaafar-Ibn-Tofail See ABOO-BEKR-IBN-TOFAIL. 

Jabet, zht'b&', (GEORGE,) an English solicitor, ol Bir- 
mingham. He wrote under the name of EDEN WAR- 
WICK. He published "The Poet's Pleasaunce," (1847,' 
" Nosology," (1848,) etc. Died July 13, 1873. 

Jablochkoff, (PAUL,) a Russian electrician, who 
first solved the problem of producing a practical arc 
light. Died in 1894. 

Jablonowski, (STANISLAUS,) a Polish general, 
born in 1631, commanded the right wing of the army 
of Sobieski when he defeated the Turks at Vienna in 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long ; i, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, u, jf, short; a, ?, j, Q, obscure; fir, fil I, fat; met; n8t; good; moon. 




1683. He afterwards had the chief command during 
the illness of the king. Died in 1702. 

Jablonowski, von, fon ya-blo-nov'skee, (JOSEPH 
ALEXANDER,) a Polish or German prince, born in 1711, 
was a patron of science. He founded at Leipsic a sci- 
entific association which bears his name, and wrote, 
besides other works, "Museum Polonicum," (1752.) 
Died in 1777. 

Jablonski, yj-blon'skee, (DANIEL ERNST,) an emi- 
nent German Protestant theologian, born at Dantzic in 
1660. He became pastor at Konigsberg in 1690, and 
preacher or chaplain to the king at Berlin in 1693. He 
published a Hebrew Bible, with notes and a preface, 
(1699,) and wrote several works on theology. He la- 
boured to effect a union of various Protestant sects. 
Ditd in Berlin in 1741. 

Jablonski or Jablonsky, (JOHANN THEODOR,) a 
brother of Daniel Ernst, noticed above, was born at 
Dantzic about 1654. He published a "French-German 
and German-French Dictionary," (1711.) Died in 1731. 

Jablonski, (PAUL ERNST,) an eminent Prussian 
scholar and divine, a son of Daniel Ernst, noticed above, 
was born in Berlin in 1693. He devoted himself par- 
ticularly to the study of the Coptic and other Oriental 
languages. Among his numerous works are " Pantheon 
Egypriorum," (3 vols., 1750-52,) a work relating to the 
religion of the Egyptians, and " Of the Memnon of the 
Greeks and Egyptians." Died in 1757. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Jablonsky, ya-blon'skee, (KARL GUSTAV,) a Prus- 
sian entomologist, born in 1756, published a "System 
of all the Known Insects, arranged according to the 
Method of Linnaeus." Died in 1787. 


Jachaeus. See JACK. 

Jack, [Lat. JACH^E'US,] (GILBERT,) a Scottish meta- 
physician, born at Aberdeen about 1578. He became 
professor of philosophy at Leyden in early life. He 
published severa. works, among which is " Institutiones 
Physics," (1612.) Died in 1628. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Jack, (THOMAS,) a Scottish minister of Eastwood, 
wrote "Onomasticon Poeticum," (1592.) Died in 1596. 

Jack, (WILLIAM,) LL.D., a Scottish mathematician, 
born at Stewarton in 1834. He was educated at the 
Universities of Glasgow and Cambridge, was professor 
of natural philosophy in Owens College, Manchester, 
186670, and in 1879 became professor of mathematics 
in the University of Glasgow. 

Jack'son, (ANDREW,) a celebrated American general 
and statesman, born in the Waxhaw settlement, North 
or South Carolina, on the 151(1 of March, 1767. Parton 
states that he was born in Union county, North Caro- 
lina, but adds that " General Jackson always supposed 
himself to be a native of South Carolina," for in his 
proclamation to the nullifiers of South Carolina he thus 
addresses them : " Fellow-citizens of my native State." 
He was a son of Andrew Jackson, an Irishman, who 
emigrated to America in 1765 and died poor in 1767. 
The name of his mother was Elizabeth Hutchinson. We 
have little definite information about the schools that he 
attended. According to Parton, " he learned to read, to 
write, and cast accounts ; little more. . . . He was never 
a well-informed man." Having taken arms against the 
British in 1781, he was captured, and afterwards wounded 
by an officer because he refused to clean his boots. 
About 1785 he began to study law at Salisbury, North 
Carolina. He was addicted in his youth to gambling, 
horse-racing, and other sports. He was an excellent 
horseman, " a capital shot," was very dignified in man- 
ner, and was distinguished for his courage and activity. 
His stature was six feet and one inch high. 

In 1788 he removed to Nashville, Tennessee, where 
he began to practise law. He speedily obtained a large 
practice, of which disputed land-claims formed the prin- 
cipal subject. About 1792 he married Rachel Robards, 
originally Rachel Donelson, whose first husband was 
living and had taken preliminary measures to obtain 
a divorce, which was legally completed in 1793. The 
marriage ceremony was again performed in 1794. Jack- 

son, following a custom then extremely common in the 
South and West, fought a number of duels in the early 
part of his life. He was a member of the Convention 
which framed the Constitution of Tennessee in 0796, and 
in the autumn of that year was elected representative to 
Congress by the people of Tennessee, which was then 
entitled to only one member. He supported Thomas 
Jefferson in the Presidential election of 1796. In 1797 
he became a Senator of the United States for Tennessee. 
He resigned his seat in the Senate in 1798, "partly be- 
cause he felt himself out of place in so slow and digni- 
fied a body, but chiefly for pecuniary reasons." He was 
a judge of the supreme court of Tennessee from 1798 to 
1804. In 1806 he challenged and killed Charles Dick- 
inson in a duel with pistols, receiving himself a severe 
wound. This affair impaired for many years his popu- 
larity in Tennessee and other parts of the United States. 

In 1807, while the trial of Aaron Burr was still unde- 
termined, Jackson "harangued the crowd, [at Richmond,] 
defending Burr, and angrily denouncing Jefferson as a 
persecutor." (Parton's " Life.") After war had been 
declared against Great Britain, General Jackson (who 
several years before had been appointed major-general 
of militia) offered his services, and those of 2500 volun- 
teers, in June, 1812. He was ordered to New Orleans, 
and led a body of 2070 men in that direction ; but at 
Natchez he received an order dated February 6, 1813, by 
which his troops were dismissed from public service. In 
September, 1813, he had an affray with Colonel Thomas 
H. Benton at Nashville, and was severely wounded by his 
brother, Jesse Benton. In October next he took the field 
against the Creek Indians, whom he defeated at Talla- 
dega in November. By his services in this Creek war, 
which ended in 1814, he acquired great popularity, and 
in May, 1814, he was appointed a major-general in the 
regular army. He was soon after ordered to the Gulf 
of Mexico, to oppose an expected invasion of the British. 
In November he seized Pensacola, which belonged to 
Spain but was used by the British as a base of operations. 
About the 1st of December he moved his army to New 
Orleans, which was then ill prepared for defence. The 
British fleet, conveying an army of veterans who had 
fought under Wellington, entered Lake Borgne Decem- 
ber 13, and captured several gunboats. General Jackson 
proclaimed martial law in the city on the i6th. On the 
23d the enemy advanced to a point about nine miles be- 
low the city, and were attacked in the night by General 
Jackson, who had about 2100 men. The result of this 
action was favourable to the defenders of the city, who 
gained time to fortify their position. On the 25th of 
December Sir Edward Pakenham arrived and took com- 
mand of the invaders, whose number was about 12,000. 
Jackson, who had a much smaller army, composed partly 
of the unerring marksmen of Tennessee and Kentucky, 
repulsed an attack on the 1st of January, 1815. On the 
8th of January the British made a general assault on the 
American lines, but were defeated with great loss by 
the deadly fire of the riflemen and artillery. Generals 
Pakenham and Gibbs were killed. " Seven hundred 
killed," says Parton, " fourteen hundred wounded, and 
five hundred prisoners, were the dread result of that 
twenty-five minutes' work. Jackson's loss was eight 
killed and thirteen wounded." The victory of New 
Orleans, which was one of the most brilliant and de- 
cisive ever gained by an American army, raised Jackson's 
reputation as a general to the highest point, and made 
him the idol of a large portion of the American people. 
This was the last battle of the war, a treaty of peace 
having been signed in Europe in December, 1814. 

In March, 1815, while that city was still under mar- 
tial law, Judge Hall, of New Orleans, granted a writ of 
habeas corpus for the release of Mr. Louaillier, who had 
been arrested by order of Jackson, for exciting discontent 
among the troops. The latter, instead of obeying the 
writ, had the judge arrested and kept in custody. Peace 
having been formally proclaimed, Hall was set at liberty. 
General Jackson was then summoned to answer for con- 
tempt of court. He was found guilty, and sentenced to 
pay a fine of one thousand dollars. He immediately 
paid the fine ; but it was afterwards refunded with the 
interest by an act of Congress passed in February, 1844. 

eas k: 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^T'See Explanations, p. 23.) 




In 1817-18 he waged a successful war against the 
Seminoles in Florida, seized Pensacola, and executed 
Arbuthnot and Ambrister, two British subjects, accused 
of inciting the savages to hostile acts against the Ameri- 
cans. He was appointed Governor of Florida in 1821. 
Before this date he had built, near Nashville, a mansion 
called the " Hermitage," in which he resided many years. 
In 1823 he was elected a Senator of the United States, 
and nominated as candidate for the Presidency by the 
legislature of Tennessee. His competitors were John 
Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and William H. Crawford. 
Jackson received ninety-nine electoral votes, Adams 
eighty-four, Crawford forty-one, and Clay thirty-seven. 
As no candidate had a majority, the election devolved 
on the House of Representatives, voting by States, each 
State having one vote. Through the influence of Mr. 
Clay, John Quincy Adams was elected, by the vote of 
thirteen States. General Jackson, who received the 
vote of seven States, became the implacable enemy of 
Mr. Clay, whom he stigmatized as " this Judas of the 
West." He habitually attributed the conduct of his 
political opponents to mean or improper motives, and, 
accordingly, hated Crawford, Clay, Adams, and Calhoun, 

In 1828 he was elected President, receiving one hun- 
dred and seventy-eight electoral votes, while Mr. Adams 
received eighty-three. Calhoun became Vice-PresidenL, 
Martin Van Buren was appointed secretary of state. 
Jackson was the first President who proscribed public 
servants for political opinions. He made more removals 
in one year than all the other Presidents in forty years 
before. At a banquet in April, 1830, the President gave 
thij famous toast: "Our Federal Union: it must be 
preserved." In April, 1831, he reorganized his cabinet, 
appointing Edward Livingston secretary of state, Louis 
McLane secretary of the treasury, Lewis Cass secretary 
of war, Levi Woodbury secretary of the navy, and Roger 
B. Taney attorney-general. 

Among the principal events of his first term was his 
veto of the bill which granted anew charter to the Bank 
of the United States, (July, 1832.) This subject became 
the chief issue between the partisans of Jackson and his 
opponents, who supported Henry Clay in the Presiden- 
tial election of 1832. General Jackson was re-elected, 
receiving two hundred and nineteen electoral votes out 
of two hundred and eighty-eight, which was the whole 
number, and Martin Van Buren succeeded Calhoun in 
the Vice-Presidency. In November, 1832, a Convention 
in South Carolina adopted an ordinance of nullification, 
by which they ordained that the tariff-law of 1828 " is 
null and void." The President electrified the country 
by his memorable proclamation against the nullifiers, 
December II, 1832, in which he announced his resolu- 
tion to crush any disunion movement with the strong 
hand. He was censured by the Senate for removing 
the public deposits from the Bank of the United States, 
September, 1833. 

He used his influence to procure the election of Mar- 
tin Van Buren to the Presidency in 1836, and retired 
finally from public life March 4, 1837. He afterwards 
joined the Presbyterian Church. In his last illness Dr. 
Edgar asked "what he would have done with Calhoun 
and the other nullifiers if they had kept on." " Hung 
them, sir, as high as Haman," was his reply. He 
died, without issue, at the Hermitage, on the 8th of 
June, 1845. 

See EATON, " Life of Jackson," 1824; WILLIAM COBBHTT, "Life 
of Andrew Jackson," 1834; J. S. JENKINS, "Life of General An- 
drew Jackson," 1850; J. T. HEADLBY, "Life of Andrew Jackson," 
1852; AMOS KRNDALL,"Lifeof Andrew Jackson," 1844; ALEXANDER 
WALKER, "Jackson and NewOrleans," 1856; JAMES PARTON, " Life 
of Andrew Jackson," 3 vols., 1860, (by far the most complete life of 
the Hero of New Orleans that has been published ;) " National Por- 
trait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," vol. i. ; "New American 
Cyclopaedia ;" W. G. SU.MNER, " Life of Jackson." 

Jack'son, (ARTHUR,) an English Puritan minister, 
born in Suffolk in 1593, preached at Saint Faith's, Lon- 
don, until 1662, when he was ejected; He wrote "An- 
notations on the Old Testament," (1643-58.) Died in 

Jackson, (CHARLES,) LL.D., an American jurist, 
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1775. He 
graduated at Harvard with the highest honours of his 
class in 1793, studied law with Theophilus Parsons, and 

obtained an extensive practice in his native town. In 
1803 he removed to Boston, where he practised law for 
many years. In 1813 he was made judge of the supreme 
court of Massachusetts, the duties of which he discharged 
for ten years. He was placed at the head of the com- 
missioners appointed by the State in 1832 to revise her 
legislative enactments. Died in Boston in 1855. He 
published a "Treatise on the Pleadings and Practice in 
Real Actions, with Precedents," etc., (1828.) 

Jackson, (CHARLES THOMAS,) M.D., an American 
chemist and geologist, born at Plymouth. Massachusetts, 
in June, iScj. He took the degree of M.D. at Harvard 
in 1829, after which he continued his studies in Palis, 
and passed several years in visits to various countries 
of Europe. In conjunction with Francis Alger, he pub- 
lished a work called " Mineralogy and Geology of Nova 
Scotia," (1832.) He became a resident of Boston about 
1833, was appointed State geologist of Maine in 1836, 
and produced a " Report on the Geology of the State 
of Maine," (1837.) His second and third Reports on 
the same subject appeared in 1838 and 1839. He was 
appointed geologist of the State of New Hampshire in 
1 8/0. He claimed to be the original discoverer of anaes- 
thetics, and was involved in a long controversy on this 
subject Died August 29, 1880. 

Jackson, (CYRIL,) DR., a noted English divine, bom 
at Stamford in 1742. He was offered the primacy of 
Ireland and an English bishopric, both of which he de- 
clined. He was tutor to the Prince of Wales, (George 
IV.) Died in 1819. 

Jackson, (FREDERICK GEORGE,) an English 
Arctic explorer, born at Leamington in 1860, and edu- 
cated at Edinburgh University. His first field of 
travel was in the Australian desert, when he made a 
midwinter journey across the Great Tundra. He led 
the lackson-Harmsworth expedition to Franz-Josef 
Land, and remained there engaged in investigation for 
three years. He had the good fortune to rescue the 
famous explorer Nansen (</.') He returned in the 
summer of 1897. 

Jackson, (HELEN HUNT,) an American poet and 
author of much merit, was born in Amherst, Massachu- 
Setts, in 1831. She was the daughter of Professor N. W. 
Fiske. Her first husband was Mr. Hunt, an officer of 
the United States engineers, who died in 1863. In 1875 
she married a Mr. Jackson. Her works include " Verses 
by H. H.," (1871.) "Bits of Travel," (1872,) "Bits of 
Talk," " A Century of Dishonour," and several volumes 
of tales for children. Died August 12, 1885. 

Jackson, (HENRY R.,) was born in Georgia in 1820. 
He served as a colonel in the Mexican war, and was 
minister to Austria from 1853 to 1858. He published in 
1851 "Tallulah, and other Poems." He was a general 
in the Confederate service, 1861-65, ?"d won distinction 
as a lawyer. He was appointed United States minister 
to Mexico in 1885. He was a trustee of the Peabody 
Education Fund 1875-88. Died in 1898. 

Jackson, QAMES,) a lawyer, born in Devonshire, 
England, in 1757, emigrated to America in 1772. He 
fought with distinction against the British in Georgia 
in 1776-82, was elected to Congress in 1789, and was a 
United States Senator for Georgia from 1792 to 1795. 
In 1798 he became Governor of Georgia, and in 1801 
was again elected a Senator of the United States. Died 
in Washington, March 19, 1806. 

Jackson, (JOHN, ) a clergyman of the Anglican 
Church, born in Yorkshire, England, in 1686. He was a 
zealous advocate of the Arian doctrines, which prevented 
his advancement in the church. Died in 1763. He wrote 
a valuable work entitled "Chronological Antiquities," 
(3 vols., 1752,) and numerous controversial treatises. 

Jackson, (JoHN,) an able English engraver on wood, 
flourished about 1725-45. 

Jackson, (JOHN,) an eminent English portrait-painter, 
born at Lastingham, Yorkshire, in 1778, became a resi- 
dent of London about 1797, and was elected a member 
of the Royal Academy in 1817. Among his best works 
are portraits of Canova and Flaxman. Died in 1831. 
See CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of British Paiuters." 

See CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of British Paiuters." 
>, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; nSt; good; moon: 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, 




Jackson, (JOHN ADAMS,) an American sculptor, born 
at Bath, Maine, November 5, 1825. He learned the trade 
of a machinist. He afterwards studied portrait-painting 
and crayon-work with success under D. C. Johnson, in 
Boston, and then practised sculpture in France and Italy. 
His portrait-busts and medallions are often excellent. 
Among his other works are " Eve lifting the Dead Abel," 
(1862,) "Peasant-Boy and Goat," "Culprit Fay," "Read- 
ing-Girl," the soldiers' monument at Lynn, Massachu- 
setts, and " Hylas," (1879.) Died at Pracchia, in Tuscany, 
August 30, 1879. 

Jackson, (PATRICK TRACY,) a merchant and manu- 
facturer, born at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1780. 
He organized in 1821 the Merrimac Manufacturing 
Company, and founded Lowell. Died in 1847. 

Jackson, (ROBERT,) an English physician, born in 
1751. He served as surgeon in the army, and wrote, 
besides other works, a "Treatise on the Fevers of 
Jamaica," (1791.) Died in 1827. 

Jackson, (SAMUEL,) a distinguished physician and 
physiologist, born in Philadelphia March 22, 1787. He 
was elected in 1835 to the chair of the institutes of medi- 
cine in the University of Pennsylvania, which he filled 
with great credit to himself and the institution for 
twenty-eight years. He resigned in 1863. He wrote, 
besides other works, "Principles of Medicine," (1832,) 
and an " Introduction to Lehman's Chemical Physi- 
ology," (1856.) Died April 5, 1872. 

Jackson, (THOMAS,) a learned English divine, born 
in Durham in 1579. He was the author of a "Com- 
mentary on the Apostles' Creed," and of several devo- 
tional treatises. He became Dean of Peterborough in 
1638. His works are highly praised by Southey. Died 
in 1640. 

See E. VAUOHAN, " Life of Thomas Jackson," 1673. 

Jackson, (THOMAS,) an eminent English Methodist 
preacher, born at Sancton, Yorkshire, December 12, 
1783. He was the author of a large number of religious 
and biographical works. Died at Richmond in 1873. 

Jackson, (THOMAS GRAHAM,) an English archi- 
tect and author, born at Hampstead in 1835. He 
published "Modern Gothic," (1873,) "Dalraatia," 
(1887,) "W.-idham College," (1893,) "St. Mary's, 
Oxford," (1897,) etc. He was elected to the Royal 
Academy in 1896. 

Jackaon, (THOMAS JONATHAN,) commonly known bj 
the name of STONEWALL JACKSON, a distinguished Amer- 
ican general, born in Lewis county, Virginia, January 21, 
1824, graduated at West Point in 1846, standing seven- 
teenth in a class of fifty-nine. He was considered at 
West Point to be rather a dull and slow student. In the 
Mexican war (1846-47) he served as first lieutenant with 
distinction. Having resigned his commission in 1852, 
he became a professor in the Military Institute at Lex- 
ington, Virginia. About 1853 he married Miss Junkin, 
a daughter of Dr. Junkin, of Lexington. He was ap- 
pointed a colonel of the Virginian troops in April, 1861, 
and commanded the force that was attacked by the Union 
army at Martinsburg, July 2. He served as brigadier- 
general at the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and was 
promoted to the rank of major-general in the following 
September. It has been currently stated that he received 
his surname from the fact that he and his men " stood like 
a stone wall" at the battle of Bull Run ; but, according to 
one of his biographers, the name " Stonewall" was first 
applied to his brigade because it was recruited in a stone- 
wall country, the counties of Jefferson, Page, Frederick, 
etc. He was defeated by General Shields near Win- 
chester, March 23, 1862, and retreated up the valley to 
Harrisonburg, pursued by General Banks. Having been 
reinforced, he resumed the offensive with about twenty 
thousand men, attacked General Banks near Strasburg, 
May 23, and drove him back to the Potomac. On the 
approach of General Fremont from the west, General 
Jackson moved hastily up the valley to Harrisonburg. 
His army was overtaken by General Fremont at Cross 
Keys, where an indecisive battle was fought on the 8th 
of June. Before the end of June he moved his army 
to Richmond and joined that of General Lee. He 
commanded a corps at the battle of Gaines's Mill, June 

'\ 27, and at that of Malvern Hill, July i, 1862. On the 
1 9th of August he defeated a small army under General 
Banks at Cedar Mountain, Virginia. He captured 
Harper's Ferry, with eleven thousand Union prisoners, 
on the I5th of September, and joined General Lee in 
time to take part in the battle of Antietam, September 
17. He contributed to the victory at Fredericksburg, 
December 13, 1862, for which service he was promoted 
to the rank of lieutenant-general. He remained inactive 
for several months, (January-April, 1863,) employed 
partly in preparing official reports. On the 1st of May 
he was ordered by General Lee to execute a flank move- 
ment on the right wing of General Hooker's army. He 
surprised and routed the eleventh corps, near Cnancel- 
lorsville, on the evening of the 2d of May. As he was 
riding with his staff from the front towards the rear 
during that battle, he received a volley from his own 
men, who in the darkness mistook the staff for a party 
of Federal cavalry. General Jackson received three 
wounds, of which he died at Guinea's Station on the 
loth of May, 1863. " His loss," says Mr. Greeley, " was 
the greatest yet sustained by either party in the fall of a 
single man ; though Sidney Johnston had probably mili- 
tary talents of a higher order. But Jackson's power over 
his men was unequalled ; and it was justified by the 
soundness of his judgment, as well as the intrepidity of 
his character. Contrary to the vulgar notion, his attacks 
were all well considered, and based on a careful cal- 
culation of forces ; and he showed as high qualities in 
refusing to squander his men at Antietam, and again at 
Fredericksburg, as he did in his most brilliant charges. 
... It is doubtful if all the advantages, including pres- 
tige, which the rebels gained around Chancellorsville, 
were not dearly purchased by the loss of Thomas J. 
Jackson." ("American Conflict," vol. ii. pp. 359-60.) 
Stonewall Jackson was a man of deep and earnest re- 
ligious convictions ; and in his general character, as well 
as in his serene, indomitable courage and the extraoi- 
dinary influence which he exerted over the minds of his 
soldiers, he reminds us of the great Puritan leaders who 
fought under Cromwell. 

See DABNHY, " Life of General T. J. Jackson," and a " Life ot 
General T. J. Jackson," in " Southern Generals," 1865. 

Jackson, (THOMAS K.,) born in South Carolina about 
1829, was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate 
army in 1861. 

Jackson, (WILLIAM,) a clergyman of the Anglican 
Church, born in Ireland about 1737. In 1794 he was 
detected in a treasonable correspondence with France, 
in which he recommended the invasion of Ireland. He 
was tried and found guilty of high treason, but died 
from the effects of poison, before sentence was passed 
upon him, in 1795. 

Jackson, (WILLIAM,) an eminent English musician 
and landscape-painter, was born at Exeter in 1730. 
Among his musical compositions are " Twelve Popular 
Songs," " Six Sonatas for the Harpsichord," and " Twelve 
Canzonets for Two Voices." He published "Thirty 
Letters upon Various Subjects," (1782,) and "The Four 
Ages," (1798.) Died in 1803. 

Jackson, (WILLIAM,) known as JACKSON OF MASHAM, 
from his native place, an English musician and composer, 
born January 9, 1816. He composed oratorios, cantatas, 
anthems, glees, etc. Died April 15, 1866. 

Jackson, (Dr. WILLIAM,) Bishop of Oxford, and 
brother to Dr. Cyril Jackson, noticed above, was born 
at Stamford in 1750. He published several sermons. 
Died in 1815. 

Jacme, or En Jacme, King of Aragon. See JAMES I. 

Ja'cpb, [Heb. 3p>'"; Gr. 'laxufi,] a celebrated Hebrew 
patriarch, a son of Isaac, and the great progenitor of the 
Israelitish nation. He was also called ISRAEL. 

See Genesis xxv., xxvii., xxviii., xxix.. TTT 

Ja'cob, a Hungarian adventurer, and chief of the 
Pastoureaux. About 1250 he incited the common people 
to enlist in a crusade for the liberation of Saint Louis, 
who was then a captive. He mustered a vast multitude 
of French peasants, who massacred priests and com- 
mitted other outrages in France. Jacob was killed, and 
his dupes were dispersed. 

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/',- G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilltd; as z; th as in this. 


Explanations, p. 23.) 




Ja'cob, (EDWARD,) a topographical and antiquarian 
writer of Kent, England. Died in 1788. 

Jacob, (GiLES,) an English author, born in Hamp- 
shire in 1686. Among his works are "The Poetical 
Register," (1723,) composed of memoirs of the English 
dramatic poets, and a "Law Dictionary," (1729,) which 
has passed through many editions. Died in 1744. 

Jacob, (HENRY,) an English Puritan and Independ- 
ent minister, born in Kent about 1562. He founded in 
London the first Independent Congregational church 
that existed in England, and published several works. 
In 1624 he removed to Virginia, where he died about 

Jacob, (HENRY,) a philologist and Orientalist, born 
in 1606 or 1607, was a son of the preceding. He became 
a Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and published 
"Graeca et Latina Poemata." Died in 1652. 

Ja'cpb, (JEHODAH LEON,) a Jew of the seventeenth 
century, born in Spain, resided in Holland. He wrote 
a " Description of the Temple of Solomon," also a 
description of the Tabernacle, and an "Exposition of 
the Psalms." 

Jacob, (JOHN,) a British general, born in 1812 or 
1813. He distinguished himself in India in 1843 as 
commander of the Sinde Horse. Died in India in 1858. 

Jacob, (JOHN,) an Armenian carpenter, lived about 
1650. He is distinguished for having introduced the art 
of printing into Persia. 


Jacob or James [Gr. 'laxuSof ; Lat JACO'BUS] OP 
NISIBIS, surnamed THE GREAT, a Christian bishop, who 
was regarded as a prophet and was distinguished for his 
ascetic life. He became Bishop of Nisibis, and attended, 
in 325 A.D., the Council of Nice, where he advocated the 
orthodox creed. He is said to have delivered Nisibis 
from the besieging Persians by his prayers. His death 
is variously dated from about 340 to 350 A.D. 

See SAINT JEROME, "De Viris illustribm ;" FABRICIUS, " Bibli- 
theca Grajca;" CAVK. " Historia Literaria." 

Jacob (or James) OF VITRY, a French priest, who 
in 1217 became Bishop of Acre in Syria, where he con- 
yerted many Saracens. In 1229 he was made Bishop of 
Tusculum and a cardinal. He left a valuable " History 
of Jerusalem," or " Historia Orientals, " as well as " His- 
toria Occidentalis," and many letters. Died at Rome in 

Ja'cpb Ben Ash'er, a learned Jew, born in Ger- 
many, wrote a work called "Arba Thourim." Died at 
Toledo about 1340. 

Ja'cpb Ben Haj'im or Chajim, a Jewish rabbi 
of the sixteenth century, distinguished for his learning, 
was born at Tunis. He edited the Masora and Hebrew 
Bible, with commentaries, and a Chaldean paraphrase, 
" Biblia Rabbinica Bombergiana," (4 vols., 1525.) 

Ja'cob Ben Naph'ta-U, a learned Jewish rabbi of 
the fifth century, educated at Tiberias. To him is chiefly 
attributed the invention of the Masoretic points used in 
distinguishing the Hebrew vowels. 

Jacob de Saint-Charles, zhiTcob' deh sin shin], 
(Louis,) a French author and bibliographer, born at 
Chalons-sur-Sa6ne in 1608. He became a monk of the 
order of Carmelites. Among his works are a "Treatise 
upon the Finest Libraries of the World," (1644,) "The 
Parisian Library," and "The French Universal Library," 
(1646.) Died in 1670. 

Jacob-Kolb, zhjfkob' kolb, (G4RARD,) a French 
antiquary, born at Rheims in 1775. He made valuable 
collections of Greek and Roman medals, autographs, 
and books. He wrote " Historical Researches on the 
Crusades and the Templars." Died in 1830. 

Jacob le Bibliophile. See LACROIX, (PAUL.) 

Jacobaa or Jacobaea. See JACQUELINE. 

Jacobaeus, ya-ko-ba'us, or Jacobi, yl-ko'bee, (OLI- 
OER,) a distinguished physician and philosopher, born 
at Aarhuus, in Jutland, in 1650, became professor of 
medicine and natural philosophy in the University of 
Copenhagen. He wrote several works on natural 
history, and elegant Latin poems. Died in 1701. 

See NICERON, "Mimoires;" KRAFT og NVKRUP, " Litteratur- 

Jacobazzi, yi-ko-bit'see, (DOMENICO,) an Italian 

cardinal, born at Rome about 1443, wrote a " Treatise 
on Councils," (1538.) Died in 1527. 

Jacob! See JACOBAEUS. 

Ja-co'bi, [Ger. prpn. ya-ko'bee,] (ABRAHAM,) M.D., 
a distinguished physician, born, of a Hebrew family, at 
Hartum, in Westphalia, May 6, 1830. He studied at 
Greifswalde and Gottingen, and graduated at Bonn in 
1851. In 1853 he removed to New York, where he 
ga%-e attention chiefly to gynaecology and diseases of 
children, and held several professorships. His principal 
works are " Dentition and its Derangements" (1862) 
and a " Treatise on Diphtheria," (1880.) 

Jacobi, ya-ko'bee, (HEINRICH FRIEDRICH,) an emi- 
nent German writer and thinker, born at Dusseldorf in 
1743. His father was a merchant, and young Jacobi 
was destined to the same calling, although his tastes led 
him to other pursuits. At the age of sixteen he was 
sent to school at Frankfort. He afterwards went to 
Geneva, where he remained three years, applying him- 
self to literary studies. During this period he acquired 
such a mastery of the French language as has rarely 
been equalled by any of his countrymen. On returning 
to Dusseldorf, he conducted his father's business for 
several years, without, however, abandoning his favourite 
pursuits. Afterwards, through the influence of his friend 
and patron the Count of Goltstein, he received an ap- 
pointment under the government, and was thus enabled 
to devote his principal attention to philosophy and lite- 
rature. About this time he married Betty von Clermont, 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, a lady of considerable wealth as well 
as of great accomplishments and personal attractions. 
In 1779 Jacobi was invited to Munich, where he became 
privy councillor. But, having exposed the abuses of the 
Bavarian system of customs, he fell into disfavour with 
the government, and withdrew to his estate near Dus- 
seldorf. In 1804 he was again called to Munich, to aid 
in the establishment of the new Academy of Sciences 
in that city, of which institution he became president 
in 1807. He resigned this position in 1813, and died 
in 1819. 

Among the works of Jacobi may be named " Edward 
Allwill's Correspondence," ("Eduard Allwill's Brief- 
sammlung," 1781,) " On the Doctrine of Spinoza," 
(" Ueber die Lehre des Spinoza," 1785,) in a series of 
letters to Mendelssohn, " David Hume on Faith, or 
Idealism and Realism," (" David Hume iiber den Glau- 
ben, oder Idealismus und Realismus," 1787,) "Wolde- 
mar," (2 vols., J799,) and "Of Divine Things and their 
Revelation," (" Von gottlichen Dingen und ihrer Offen- 
barung," 1811.) 

"As a writer of fiction," observes Mrs. Austin, "Ja- 
cobi is distinguished for vigorous painting, admirable 
delineation of nature and the human heart, warmth and 
depth of feeling, and a' lively, bold, yet correct turn of 
expression. As a philosopher, he is admired for his 
rare depth of thought, for the fervour of his religious 
feelings, and for the originality and beauty of his style." 
Again she says, " His character is rich in all that can 
attract the wise and good." "Jacobi is ranked, and 
justly," says Dr. Hedge, " among the philosophers of 
modern Germany, although his philosophy, far from 
shaping itself into a system, denies, and that denial 
may be regarded as one of its leading characteristics, 
on philosophical grounds, the possibility of a system, 
and maintains that any system of philosophy, carried to 
Its legitimate results, must lead to fanaticism. He vin- 
dicated the ' affective' part of man's nature, which the 
Kantian exaltation of pure reason had seemed to dis- 
parage, at least to neglect, and gave to feeling its due 
place and authority as a medium and interpreter of truth. 
. . . He differed from contemporary philosophers in being 
a devout believer in revelation, in the Christian revela- 
tion. The gospel was to him the test and criterion of all 
truth. For the rest, he was an eclectic, and welcomed light 
from whatever quarter it came. In philosophical insight 
he is surpassed by none ; and, though his fixed idea of 
the impossibility of a systematic philosophy may have 
somewhat vitiated his view of existing philosophies, his 
criticisms on some of them are among the best that 
have been essayed." 

See J. KUHN, "Jacobi und die Philosophic seiner Zeit," 1834: 

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I. o. u. y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mf t; n6t; good; moon; 





Jacob!, (JoHANN GEORG,) brother of the preceding, 
was born at Dusseldorf in 1740. He became professor 
of philosophy and eloquence at Halle, and in 1784 
professor of belles-lettres at Freiburg. He published 
a collection of poems. Died in 1814. 

See ROTTECK, " Gedachtnissrede auf Jacobi," 1814; ERSCH und 
GRUBER, "AUgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Jacobi, (KARL GUSTAV JAKOB,) an eminent German 
nathematician, born at Potsdam in 1804, became in 1829 
professor of mathematics at Konigsberg. He wrote 
" Foundations of the New Theory of Elliptical Func- 
ti .ns," (1829,) and "Canon Arithmeticus," and contrib- 
uted a number of able treatises to the Academy of 
Sciences, of which he was a member. Died in Berlin 
in 1851. 

Jacobi, (MARY PUTNAM,) an American physician, a 
daughter of G. P. Putnam, of New York, was born in 
London, England, in 1842. She was educated in the 
Philadelphia Woman's Medical College, in the New 
York College of Pharmacy, and in the Ecole de Mede- 
cine, Paris, where she graduated in 1871. In 1873 she 
married Dr. A. Jacobi. She became professor of ma- 
teria medica in a woman's medical college in New York, 
and published many professional papers of high value. 

Jacobi, (MAXIMILIAN,) a German alienist, a son of H. 
F. Jacobi, already noticed, was born at Dusseldorf, April 
10, 1775. He studied at Jena, Edinburgh, Gb'ttingen. 
Erfurt, and London, taking the degree of M.D. in 1807. 
He afterwards had charge of insane asylums at Salzburg 
and at Siegburg. His writings on insanity are of high 
importance. Died at Siegburg, May 18, 1858. 

jacobi, (MORITZ HERMANN,) brother of K. G. J. Jaco- 
bi, was born in 1801. He was the inventor of Galvano- 
plastic, (1840,) on which he published a treatise, and of 
the application of electro-magnetism to the moving of 
machinery. Died at St. Petersburg, March 10, 1874. 

Jacobini, ya-ko-bee'nee, (LuDOVico,) an Italian car- 
dinal, born at Genzano, January 6, 1830. He became a 
domestic prelate of the pope in 1862, and held various 
offices, chiefly connected with the Propaganda. In 1874 
he was made Archbishop of Thessalonica and nuncio at 
Vienna. In 1879 he was created a cardinal-priest, and in 
1880 was appointed papal secretary of state, administrator 
of the property of the Holy See, and prefect of the 
Lauretan congregation. Died Feb. 28, 1887. His rela- 
tive, ANGELO JACOBINI, born in Genzano, April 25, 1825, 
was in 1882 created a cardinal-deacon, and died in 1886. 
Ja'cpbs, [Ger. pron. ya'kops,] (FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN 
WILHELM,) an eminent German scholar and writer, born 
at Gotha in 1764. He studied at Gottingen under Heyne 
in 1784, and in 1807 became a teacher of ancient literature 
in the Lyceum at Munich, and member of the Academy 
of Sciences of that city. In 1810 he was appointed 
chief librarian and director of the cabinet of coins at 
Gotha. Among his numerous critical writings, which 
are distinguished for profound learning and elegance of 
style, are " Animadversions on Euripides," (" Animad- 
versiones in Euripidem," 1790,) "Critical Emendations 
on Ancient Writers," (" Emendationes criticae in Scrip- 
tores veteres," 1796,) and "Emendations on Greek 
Anthology," ("Emendationes in Anthologiam Graecam.") 
He also prepared editions of Achilles Tatius, Bion and 
Moschus, and other classics. He made translations from 
the Orations of Demosthenes, the Greek Anthology, and 
Velleius, and contributed a number of excellent treatises 
to Wieland's " Attic Museum" and to the " Library of 
Ancient Literature and Art" He also wrote "Glean- 
ings from the Journal of the Pastor of Mainau," (1823. 
Died in 1847. 

Jacobs, (JACOBS,) a Belgian painter, whose true 
was born at Antwerp in 1812, and was noted for his 
landscapes, sea-views, and town-pictures. Died in 

Jacobs, (JOSEPH,) a British folk-lorist, born at 
Sydney, Xew South Wales, in 1854. He is an 

authority in England on fairy tales, of which he has 
>ublished numerous collections, also works on the 
listory of the Jews and other subjects. 

Jacobs, ya'kops, (JURIEN,) a distinguished Swiss 
jainter of animals and hunting-scenes, born in 1610 ; died 
n 1664. 

Jacobs, ya'kops, (SlMON,) a Dutch painter, born ai 
Gouda, was killed at the siege of Haarlem in 1572. 

Jacobsen, ya'kop-sen, (LEVIN,) a Danish surgeon, 
Dorn at Copenhagen in 1783. He invented an instru- 
ment called the "lithoclaste," and wrote several works. 
Died in 1843. 

See H. C. OERSTED, "Tale ved Jacobsens Liigfard." 

Jacobsen or Jacopsen, ya'kop-sen, (MICHAEL,) a 
naval commander, born at Dunkirk. He served in the 
famous Spanish Armada sent against England in" 1 588, 
and, by his skilful management, saved several vessels. 
Died in 1633. 

Jacobson, ya'kop-son, (JOHANN KARL GOTTFRIED,) 
a Prussian technologist, born at Elbingen in 1726, pub- 
lished a "Technological Dictionary of Useful Trades, 
Arts," etc. Died in 1789. 

an American Presbyterian clergyman, born at Newark, 
Mew Jersey, September 19, 1816. He graduated at 
Princeton College in 1834, and at the theological school 
n Princeton in 1838. In 1851 he became professor of 
Oriental and Biblical literature in a theological seminary 
at Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He published " Notes ' 
on the Gospels, Acts, and Genesis, in six volumes, (1848 
-65.) Died October 28, 1876. 

Jacoby, ya-ko'bee, JOHANN,) a German democrat, 
born at Konigsberg, May I, 1805. He was a physician, 
when in 1841 a political pamphlet ascribed to him caused 
his imprisonment. In 1848 he was a republican leader 
and a member of the Frankfort Parliament and of the 
National Assembly. He was later tried for high treason, 
but got clear after a seven weeks' examination. He was 
in later years often imprisoned as a socialist agitator, 
Died March 6, 1877. 

Jacometti, ya-ko-met'tee, (PIETRO PAULO,) a sculp- 
tor, founder, and painter of the Roman school, born at 
Ricanati in 1580; died in 1655. 

Jacomb, jak'om, ? (THOMAS,) an English dissentirg 
minister, born in Leicestershire in 1622. He wrote a 
"Commentary on the Eighth Chapter of Romans," a 
" Treatise of Holy Dedication," and other works. Died 
in 1687. 

Jacopo di Pietro, ya'ko-po de pe-a'tKO, an Italian 
sculptor, born in Tuscany, was a pupil of Andrea Or- 
cagna. He died after 1368. 

Jacopo Tedesco, (architect.) See LAPO. 

Jacopone da Todi, ya-ko-po'na da to'dee, or Ja- 
copo, ya'ko-po, sometimes called Benedetto, an Italian 
monk and poet, born at Todi. He wrote poems which 
were approved by the Academy della Crusca. The 
" Stabat Mater Dolorosa" is ascribed to him by some 
writers. Died in 1306. 

See G. Mopio, "Vita di Jacopone," 1558; GINGOKN*, "Histoire 
litte'raire d'ltalie." 

Jacopsen. See JACOBSEN. 

Jacotin, zhi'ko'taN', (PIERRE,) a French officer of 
engineers, bom near Langres in 1765, was distinguished 
for his knowledge of topography. He drew a map of 
Egypt and Syria which was taken from actual survey. 
Died in 1827. 

Jacotot, zhfko'to', (JOSEPH,) a French teacher, born 
at Dijon in 1770. Under Napoleon I. he was a member 
of the Chamber during the Hundred Days. He gained 
distinction by his earnest efforts in the cause of national 
education, for which he advocated a new and improved 
system and on which subject he wrote several works. 
Died in 1840. 

See A. GUYARD, "Jacotot et sa Me'thode," 1840; C. F. WURW, 
" Hamilton und Jacotot," 1831 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Jacquand, zhrkdN', (CLAUDIUS,) a French historical 
painter, born at Lyons in 1805, settled in Paris in 1833, 
and obtained a medal of the first class. Died in 1878. 

Jacquard, zhS'kSR', (JOSEPH MARIE,) a Frenchman, 
celebrated for his inventions in the art of weaving, was 

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g asj; G, H, n,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as i; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



born in Lyons, July 7, 1752. At an early age, being 
employed as a type-founder, and afterwards as a cutler, 
he exhibited an uncommon mechanical genius. In 1793 
he assisted in the defence of his native city against the 
army of the Convention. He subsequently served for a 
short period in the army of the Rhine. In 1801 he com- 
pleted his great invention for weaving the finest and 
richest kinds of figured doth. This apparatus, which 
bears his name, the Jacquard loom, though at first 
strongly opposed by the weavers of France, has been 
brought into general use both in Europe and in America, 
and, instead of destroying the occupation of labourers, it 
has greatly increased the number of operatives employed 
in the manufacture of figured stuffs. Jacquard also in- 
vented a machine for wearing nets. For this invention 
he received a gold medal in 1804 from the inspectors of 
Paris.' While in that city, he was introduced to Napo- 
leon I. Died in 1834. In 1840 a public statue was 
raised to his memory by the citizens of Lyons. 

See DE FORTIS, "E~loge historique de Jacquard," 1838; "Nou- 
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" LAMAKTINK, ''Memoirs of Celebrated 
Characters, 1856. 

Jacquelin, zhJk'laN', (JACQUES ANDRE,) a French 
dramatist, born in Paris in 1776; died in 1827. 

Jacqueline, zhtk'len', Jac-o-bae'a or Jac-o-ba'a, 
[Ger. pron. ya-ko-ba'a,] of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, 
and heiress of William VI. of Bavaria, was born in 1400. 
She was married successively to John the Dauphin of 
France and son of Charles VI., to her cousin John of 
Brabant, and to Humphrey Duke of Gloucester and 
brother of Henry V. After a long contest with her 
cousin Philip the Good of Burgundy, she was compelled 
to give up to him her possessions. Died in 1436. 

See PETIT, "Chronique ancienne et modeme de la Holiande;" 
A. VAN OVERSTRATKN, " Jacoba van Beijeren, in V. Boeken," 1790; 
MORBRI, " Dictionnaire Historique." 

Jacquelot or Jaquelot, zhSklo', (ISAAC,) a learned 
Protestant theologian, born in Champagne, France, in 
1647. He wrote "On the Existence of God," (1697,) 
a "Dissertation on the Messiah," (1699,) and on "The 
Inspiration of the Old and New Testaments," (1715.) 
Died in Berlin in 1708. 

See DAVID DURAND, "La Vie de Jaquelot," 1785; NirfzoN, 
" Memoires." 

Jacquemard, zhtk'mf R', (fixiENNE,) a grammarian, 
born in Paris in 1772, wrote a valuable "Elements of 
French Grammar." Died in 1830. 

Jacquemart, zhik'mSR', (ALBERT,) a French author, 
born in Paris in 1808. His most important works are 
those devoted to the history and description of the ceramic 
art. Died in Paris, October 14, 1875. His son, JULES 
FERDINAND JACQUEMART, born at Paris in 1837, won a 
reputation as an engineer, and also as a designer, but 
especially as an engraver and etcher. Died in 1880. 

Jacquemont, zhlk'moN', (VICTOR,) a distinguished 
naturalist, born in Paris in 1801. After making scientific 
excursions through France and Switzerland, he sailed 
in 1826 for America, and visited Canada, the United 
States, and Hayti. He returned to France in 1827, with 
a choice collection of plants and minerals. In 1828 he 
went to the East Indies, and explored the greater part of 
Hindpstan and Thibet. He was author of a " Geological 
Treatise on the Alps," " Correspondence of Victor Jacque- 
mont with his Family and many of his Friends during his 
Journey in India," and "Travels in India from the Year 
1828 to the Year 1832." Died at Bombay in 1832. 

See E"DOUARD DB WARREN, " La Vie et les CEuvres de Jacque- 
mont," 1852; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale :" "Foreign Quar- 
terly Review" for February, 1834. 

Jacques, zhik, (AM^DEE,) bom in Paris in 1813, 
wrote several works on philosophy, and edited the 
works of Leibnitz. Died in Buenos Ayres in 1865. 

Jacques, FRERE. See BAULOT. 

Jacques, (MATHIEU JOSEPH,) a French ecclesiastic, 
and professor of theology at Lyons, was born in 1736. 
He wrote " Convincing Proofs of the Christian Religion," 
and other theological works. Died in 1821. 

Jacques, (NICOLAS,) a French miniature-painter, born 
near Nancy in 1780 ; died in 1844. 

Jacques de Chison, zhik deh she'zoN', a French 
poet, who lived about 1250, was highly esteemed by his 

Jacquet, zhjPk^', (EUGENE VINCENT STANISLAS,) a 
distinguished Orientalist, born at Brussels in 1811, was 
particularly skilled in the Sanscrit. In 1829 he was 
admitted a member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, and 
soon became known by his writings. Died in 1838. 

See FELIX NEVE, "Me'nvnre sui la Vied'Eugeae Jacquet," 1856; 
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne.-ale." 

Jacquet, (Louis,) a French ecclesiastic, born at Lyons 
in 1 732, wrote a " Parallel between the Greek and French 
Tragic Writers," and a prize essay upon the Discovery 
of America. Died in 1794. 

Jacquier, zhj'ke-i', ( FRANC.OIS, ) a distinguished 
French mathematician', born at Vitry-le-Fran9ais in 171 1, 
was appointed professor of philosophy at the Roman 
College by Pope Benedict XIV. He edited the " Prin- 
cipia" of Newton, and wrote, with Le Sueur, a " Treatise 
on Algebra," and other scientific works. Died in 1788. 

Jacquin, zhi'kiN', (ARMAND PIERRE,) a French 
writer, bom at Amiens in 1721 ; died about 1780. 

Jacquin, zhi'kaN',?( JOSEPH FRANZ,) a German bota- 
nist and chemist, son of Nikolaas Joseph, noticed below, 
was born about 1766. He was professor in the University 
of Vienna, and wrote on natural history. Died in 1839. 

Jacquin, (NIKOLAAS JOSEPH,) a celebrated botanist, 
born at Leyden in 1727. Having removed to Vienna, 
he was sent by Francis I. to the West Indies, whence he 
returned at the end of six years, with a choice collection 
of plants. He was subsequently appointed professor 
of chemistry and botany in the University of Vienna, 
and created baron and councillor of mines and coinage. 
He wrote numerous works on botany, among which may 
be mentioned his magnificent " Florae Austriacje," whicn 
contained five hundred coloured engravings, (1773-77.) 
Died in Vienna in 1817. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgememe Encyklopaedie ;" MEUSEL, 
"Gelehrtes Deutschland ;" "Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale;" KAI- 
MANN, "Rede zur Gedachtnissfeier des N. J. Jacquin," 1818. 

Jacquinot, zhfke'no', (CHARLES CLAUDE,) a French 
general, born at Melun in 1 772, commanded two divisions 
of cavalry at Waterloo. Died in 1848. 

Jacquinot - Pampelune, zhi'ke'no' poMp'lnn', 
(CLAUDE FRANC.OIS JOSEPH,) a French advocate and 
politician, born at Dijon in 1771 ; died in 1835. 

Jacquot, zhi'ko', (GEORGES,) a French statuary, bom 
at Nancy in 1794, gained the grand prize in 1820, and 
went to Rome with a pension. Died Nov. 23, 1874. 

Jadassohn, ya'di-son, (SALOMON,) a German (Jew- 
ish) musical composer, born at Breslau, August 13, i8jl. 
He acquired distinction as a pianist, composer, and in- 
structor, and especially by his " Science of Pure Compo- 
sition," ("Lehre vom reinen Satze," 3 vols., 1883.) 

Jadelot, zhid'lo', (NICOLAS,) a learned French phy- 
sician, born at Pont-a-Mousson in 1738, became professor 
of anatomy and physiology at Nancy. He wrote nume- 
rous professional works, among which are a " Treatise 
upon the Causes of the Pulsation of the Arteries," and 
a "Complete Course of Anatomy." Died in 1793. 

Jadin, zhi'daN', (Louis EMMANUEL,) a French com- 
poser of dramatic music, born at Versailles in 1768 ; died 
in 1853. 

Jadin, (Louis GODEFROY,) a French landscape-painter, 
son of the preceding, born in Paris in 1805 ; died in 1882. 

Jadwiga. See HEDWIG. 

Jaeger. See JAGER. 

Jaerta, QOHAN or HANS.) See JARTA. 

Jaffe, yif-fa', (PHILIPP,) a German (Jewish) historian, 
born near Posen, February II, 1819. He was educated 
at Berlin. His " History of Germany under Lothair the 
Saxon," (1843,) an d " History of Germany under Conrad 
III.," (1845,) were followed by the important " Regesta 
Pontificum Romanorum," (1851,) a standard work. He 
then studied medicine, but in 1862 he was appointed a 
professor of history in the University of Berlin. His 
"Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum" (6 vols., 1864-73) 
is highly esteemed. Died by suicide, April 3, 1870. 

Jagellon, ya-gellon, Duke of Lithuania, born about 
1354. He embraced Christianity, and married Hedwig, 
Queen of Poland, thus uniting the two territories under 
one government He also caused Christianity to be 
established in Lithuania. Died in 1434. 

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J?, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; nflt; good; moon; 




Jagemann, ya'geh-man', (CHRISTIAN JOSEPH,) a Ger- 
man littlratntr, born at Dingelstadt in 1735, spent many 
years in Italy. He translated several Italian works into 
German. Died in 1804. 

JSger or Jaeger, ya'ger, (GusTAV,) a German histor- 
ical painter, born at Leipsic in 1808, painted some frescos 
in the royal palace of Munich, and various oil-paintings, 
which are highly commended. Died April 29, 1871. 

JSger or Jaeger, (JOHANN WOLFGANG,) a German 
Lutheran divine and theological writer, born at Stuttgart 
in 1647 ; died in 1720. 

Jag'gar, (THOMAS AUGUSTUS,) D.D., an American 
bishop, born in the city of New York, June 2, 1839. He 
took orders in the Episcopal Church, held rectorships in 
New York and Philadelphia, and in 1875 was consecrated 
Bishop of Southern Ohio. 

Jagic, ya'gitch, (VATROSLAV, also written in Latin 
eminent Croatian philologist, born at Warasdin, July 6, 
1838. He was educated at Agram and Vienna. In 1871 
he was called to the University of Odessa as professor 
of comparative philology. In 1874 he was made pro- 
fessor of Slavic languages at Berlin, and in 1880 took a 
similar position at Saint Petersburg. Among his works 
are a " History of Croatian and Servian Literature," 
(vol. i., 1867,) "Critical and Palxographical Essays," 
(1884,) etc. He has edited many Old Croatian, Glago- 
litic, and Old Slovenian writings. 

Ja'go, (RICHARD,) an English clergyman and poet, 
born in Warwickshire in 1715. Among his poems may 
be mentioned an " Elegy on the Death of a Blackbird," 
"Edgehill," and "Labour and Genius." Died in 1781. 

Jalian-Geer or Jahanguire. See JEHAN-GEER. 

Jalin, ySn, (FERDINAND HENDRIK,) a Danish histo- 
rian, born at Neumiinster in 1789. He wrote on Danish 
history. Died in 1828. 

Jalin, ySn, (FRIEDRICH,) a German medical writer, 
born at Meiningen in 1766; died in 1813. 

Jahn, (FRIEDRICH LUDWIG,) a German writer, born 
at Lanz in 1778, published several treatises on gym- 
nastics, an essay "On German Nationality," (1810,) and 
other works. Died in 1852. 

Jahn, (JoHANN,) a German Orientalist and Roman 
Catholic priest, born in Moravia in 1750. He was 
professor of Oriental languages at Vienna from 1789 to 
1806. He wrote, besides other works, an " Introduction 
to the Old Testament," (1793,) and " Biblical Antiquities," 
(1805,) both of which were censured as unsound and put 
in the " Index" by the court of Rome. Died in 1816. 

Jahn, (OTTO,) a German archaeologist, born at Kiel 
in 1813. He became professor of philology at Leipsic 
in 1847, an d published a "Life of Mozart," (1856,) and 
other works. Died September 9, 1869. 

Jahns, yans, (FREDERICK WILHELM,) a Prussian 
musician, writer, and composer, born at Berlin in 1809. 
In 1871 he published an excellent "Catalogue of Weber's 
Works." Died August 8, iSSS. 

Jahr, y3R, (GEORG HEINRICH GOTTLIEB,) a distin- 
guished homceopathist, born at Gotha, in Germany, 
January 30, 1801. He studied under Hahnemann, grad- 
uated as doctor of philosophy in Germany, and as doctor 
of medicine in Paris, (1840,) in which city he thenceforth 
lived. Most of his numerous books (in German and 
French) have been translated into English. Died at 
Brussels in July, 1875. 

Jaillot, zhfyo', (CHARLES HUBERT,) a French geog- 
rapher and engraver, published some accurate maps of 
France. Died in 1712. 

Jaillot, (JEAN BAPTISTE RENOU,) a French geogra 
pher, published " Researches in the City of Paris," (5 
vols., 1772.) Died in 1780. 


Jaina and Jains. See JINA. 

Jakob, von, fon yJ'kop, (LuowiG HEINRICH,) a 
learned German writer, born at Wettin in 1759, became 
professor of political economy at Halle in 1816. He 
published a "Manual of National Economy," (1805,) 
and other esteemed works. Died in 1827. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Jal, zhil, (AUGUSTE,) a French littfrateur and archae- 
ologist, was born at Lyons about 1795. He published, 

besides criticisms on art, " De Paris i Naples ; Etudes 
de Mceurs, de Marine et d'Art," (2 vols., 1835,) and 
" Arche'ologie navale," (2 vols., 1839.) His chief work 
is the valuable " Dictionnaire critique de Biographic," 
often reprinted. Died April 5, 1873. 

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Jalabert.zhi'lS'baiR', (CHARLES FRANC.OIS,) a French 
historical painter, born at Nimes about 1815, obtained a 
iredal of the first class in 1855. 

Jalal-ed-Deen, (or -eddin.) See JELAL-ED-DEEN. 

Jaley, zhS'li', (JEAN Louis NICOLAS,) a skilful French 
statuary, born in Paris in 1802. Among his works are 
statues of " La Pudeur" and " La Priere." Died 1866. 

Jallabert, zhS'U'baiR', (TIENNE,) a French natural 
philosopher and writer, born in 1658 ; died in 1724, 

Jallabert, (JEAN,) a son of the preceding, born in 
Geneva in 1712, filled the office of syndic of the repub- 
lic. He wrote " Experiments upon Electricity," (1748,) 
and several other scientific works. Died in 1768. 

See DESGENETTES, notice in the " Biographic Me"dicale ;" " Nou- 
velle Biographic Ge"ne"raJe." 

Jam'bll-ehus, a native of Syria, who was enslaved 
by the Romans under Trajan, flourished in the second 
century. He subsequently obtained his liberty, and 
wrote a romance, in Greek, entitled "Babylonics, or 
the Loves of Sinonis and Rhodanes." 

Jamblichus or Jamblicus, a Platonic philosopher, 
and native of Syria. He flourished under the reign of the 
emperor Julian, who dedicated numerous epistles to him. 

Jam'bll-ehus or I-amTjlI-chus -ehal-ci-de'nus, 
[Gr. 'la^Xifof / Fr. JAMBLIQUE, zhoNTMek',] an eminent 
heathen philosopher, born at Chalcis, in Syria, flourished 
in the reign of Constantino the Great, (306-37 A.D.) He 
was a pupil of Porphyry, and was attached to the Neo- 
Platonic school. Many of the Neo-Platonists encouraged 
a life of ascetic meditation and a belief in magic and 
divination. Their system was built on the doctrine 
of emanation, that the souls of all beings, after the 
requisite purification, return to the Source from which 
they emanated. Jamblichus wrote a " Life of Pythago- 
ras," a treatise on the " Mysteries cf the Egyptians," 
and several other works. To his influence is ascribed 
the prevalence of magic, sacrifices, and superstition in 
the Neo- Platonic philosophy. 

See EUNAPIUS, " Vitae Sophistarum ;" RITTER, " History of Phi- 
losophy;" FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grseca;" HEBKNSTRHIT, " Dis- 
sertatio de Jamblichi Doctrina," 1764. 

Jamblicus. See JAMBLICHUS. 

Jamblique. See JAMBLICHUS. 

Jamee, JamJ, or Djami, ji'mee, (Moolla-Nooi 
ed-Deen- (Nour-ed-Din-) Abd-er-Rahman, mool'l J 
nooR-ed-deen' Jbd eR-raH'man,) written also Djamy 
and Dschami, a celebrated Persian poet, born at Jam, (or 
Djam,) in Khorassan, in 1414, lived at Herat, where he 
enjoyed the bounty of the Sultan Aboo-Saeed, (Abou- 
Said.) Among his principal works are "The Chain 
of Gold," (Sil'silet-zah'ab or -zeh'eb,) a collection of 
satires, and " The Loves of Joseph and Zuleika, and Mej- 
noon and Leila." He also wrote " Beharistan," (" Abode 
of Spring,") a treatise on morality, in prose and verse, 
which is admired for its graceful style as well as for its 
sentiments. Jamee has sometimes been called " the Per- 
sian Petrarch." He was devoted to the doctrine of the 
Soofees ; and many of his poems are characterized by 
the spiritual or mystical ideas of that sect Died in 1492. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," article " Djami ;" OUSRLEY, 
" Biographical Notices of Persian Poets ;" " Eraser's Magazh.e" for 
November, 1856. 

Jameray-DuvaL See DUVAL. 

James [Sp. JAIME, Hi'mi] I, King of Aragon, sur- 
named THE CONQUEROR, succeeded to the throne in 
1213. He quelled an insurrection formed against him 
by his nobles, and checked the encroachments of papal 
power. Died in 1276. He was succeeded by his son, 
Pedro III. 

See T. DE SOTO, " Vida del Rey Don Jaime I. de Aragon," i6sz. 

James IX, King of Aragon, surnamed THE JUST, 
son of Peter III., was born in 1261. He ascended the 
throne in 1291. He annexed Catalonia and Valencia to 
his territory, and carried on long wars against Navarre 
and the Moors. He was a brave, magnanimous, and 
benevolent prince. Died in 1327. 

c as k; 9 as s; g harJ; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( 

ee Explanations, p. 23.) 




James 1 of England and VI. of Scotland was born in 
the Castle of Edinburgh in June, 1566. He was the only 
child of Mary Queen of Scots and her husband Henry 
Lord Darnley, (called, after his marriage, King Henry.) 
Both Queen Mary and Lord Darnley were grandchildren 
of Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. of England. 
It was through this princess that James claimed the 
throne of England. In 1567 Lord Darnley was mur- 
dered, James was placed under the care of the Earl of 
Mar, and Queen Mary married Bothwell, and was soon 
after made prisoner by the insurgent lords. Mary was 
forced to abdicate in favour of her son, who was crowned, 
as James VI., on the 2gth of July, 1567. During his 
minority Scotland was fearfully rent by contending 
factions and the violent disputes of the Protestants and 
Catholics. The regent Morton having rendered himself 
odious by his tyrannical acts, a successful conspiracy 
was formed against him by a majority of the Scottish 
nobles. Morton, however, on account of his Protestant 
proclivities, soon regained his former influence. James 
from the commencement of his reign exhibited a weak 
and frivolous passion for favourites. His cousin Esme 
Stuart, Lord D'Aubigny, a native of France, obtained 
the principal ascendency over his onthful mind. Cap- 
tain James Stuart held the second place in the king's 
esteem. Lord D'Aubigny was created Duke of Lennox, 
and Captain Stuart Earl of Arran. Both eagerly plotted 
the destruction of Morton, who was put to death in 
1581. In 1582 a company of nobles seized King James, 
confined him in the castle of Ruthven, in Perthshire, im- 
prisoned Arran, and forced Lennox to retire to France. 
This revolt is known in history as the Raid of Ruthven. 
At the expiration of ten months, James recovered his 
liberty and reinstated Arran in his former power. In 
1585 a treaty was concluded between the English and 
Scottish sovereigns. Elizabeth conferred upon James 
an annual pension of five thousand pounds, and through 
her influence deprived the Earl of Arran of all emolu- 
ments. In 1586 James formed another treaty with Eng- 
land, offensive and defensive, for the protection of the 
Protestant religion. In 1587 Mary Queen of Scots was 
executed. James at first appeared insulted and enraged ; 
he threatened to invade the dominions of Elizabeth; 
but, feeling more interested for the inheritance of the 
crown of England than for his honour or for filial duty, 
he was soon pacified. In 1589 he married Anne, daugh- 
ter of the King of Denmark. In 1594 he quelled a 
rebellion of the Catholic lords. Bothwell also, having 
taken part in this revolt, was obliged to fly from the 
country, to which he never returned. James was an 
earnest advocate of Episcopacy, and made strenuous 
efforts to establish it in his dominions, in opposition to 
the wishes of the people. On this account a tumult 
was raised in Edinburgh in 1596, from which his life 
appeared to be in imminent danger. But James, ex- 
hibiting for him an unusual share of spirit and energy, 
dexterously turned this to his own advantage. In 1600 
he was decoyed to the castle of the Earl of Cowrie, 
where Ruthven, brother of the earl, made an attempt 
on the king's life, on which occasion both the noblemen 
were slain. The Gowrie Conspiracy has always been 
veiled in mystery, no historian having yet unravelled it. 
On the death of Elizabeth, in 1603, James became 
King of England. He displeased his new subjects by 
the prodigality of his gifts to his Scottish favourites. He 
continued the foreign policy of Elizabeth by concluding 
a treaty with Henry IV. of France for assisting Holland 
against Spain. In 1605, chiefly through King James's 
penetration, the Gunpowder Plot was discovered. (See 
FAWKES, GUY.) The year 1612 was marked by the death 
of Henry, Prince of Wales, who by his manly and noble 
qualities had been far more successful than his father in 
winning the affections of the English people. In 1613, 
James's daughter, the princess Elizabeth, was married 
to Frederick, the Elector-Palatine. Among the king's 
favourites were successively Sir George Hume, Philip 
Herbert, Earl of Montgomery, and Robert Carr or 
Ker, a young Scotchman who by his handsome person 
monopolized the royal favour. He was created Earl 
of Somerset In 1615 Carr was ried and convicted on 
a charge of poisoning his friend Sir Thomas Overbury. 

This made room for a new favourite, named Villiers, who 
was created Duke of Buckingham, and who retained 
his influence over the king during the remainder of the 
reign. In 1617 James visited Scotland, where he was 
very zealous in introducing episcopal forms into the 
Established Church. In 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was 
executed on the pretended charge of conspiracy, but in 
act to conciliate the court of Spain. The public con- 
empt which this excited against James was increased 
>y his behaviour towards the Elector-Palatine, whom 
the Bohemians had chosen as their king, and who was 
attacked by the united forces of Austria and Spain, 
[ames pusillanimously refused to give his son-in-law 
any assistance or encouragement Frederick had been 
he Protestant champion of Europe, and the people of 
Britain hesitated not to express their grief and rage. 
During a long period James had wished to form a Span- 
sh alliance for Prince Charles ; and he now hastened 
the negotiations. This alliance was, however, broken 
off through the rashness and insolence of Buckingham. 
Finally, in 1624, war was declared against Spain, and 
an army was fitted out to assist the Elector. Owing to 
jestilence and mismanagement, this army never entered 
:he Palatinate, which remained in the possession of th 
Duke of Bavaria. James died in March, 1625, after a 
reign of nearly fifty-eight years, during twenty-two of 
which he sat on the throne of England. He had seven 
children by his queen, Anne of Denmark, of whom only 
Prince Charles and the Princess Elizabeth survived him. 
" No prince," says Hume, "so little enterprising and 
so inoffensive, was ever so much exposed to the opposite 
extremes of calumny and flattery, of satire and panegyric. 
. . . Many virtues, it must be owned, he was possessed 
of; but scarce any of them pure or free from the conta- 
gion of the neighbouring vices. His generosity bordered 
on profusion, his learning on pedantry, his pacific dis- 
position on pusillanimity, his wisdom on cunning, hi* 
friendship on light fancy and boyish fondness." (Hume's 
" History of England," chapter xlix. Respecting the 
character of James, see, also, Gardiner's " History," 
referred to below, vol. i. chap. ii. pp. 55-57.) James was 
the author of numerous works, which displayed con- 
siderable learning and no little pedantry ; but the most 
important of his labours was the supervision of the 
present translation of the Bible, which will remain as a 
lasting monument of his industry and munificence. The 
translation was not only made under his immediate 
superintendence, but the excellent rules by which the 
translators were governed were drawn up by James him- 
self. Among his works we may cite "Basilicon Doron, 
or his Majesties Instructions to his Dearest Son, Henry 
the Prince," "The Essays of a Prentice in the Divine 
Art of Poesy," " The True Law of Free Monarchies," 
" Daemonology," and "A Counterblast to Tobacco." 

WKLDON, and Sin E. PEYTON, with notes by SIR WALTER SCOTT, a 
vols.,iSn; GARDINER, " History of England from the Accession of 
James I. to the Disgrace of Chief- Justice Coke," London, 1863. 

James LL of England and VTL of Scotland, son of 
Charles I., and younger brother of Charles II., was born 
at Saint James s, London, in 1633, and soon after was 
created Duke of York. He was taken prisoner by the 
Parliamentarians in 1646. In 1648 he escaped to Hol- 
land, and went to Paris, where he remained nearly four 
years. Having received a commission in the French 
army, he served under Marshal Turenne until the peace 
concluded between Cromwell and the French obliged 
him to leave the kingdom. At the restoration, in 1660, 
James accompanied his brother to England, where he 
received the appointments of lord high admiral and lord 
warden of the Cinque Ports. The same year he married 
Anne, daughter of*Chancellor Hyde. In 1664 the Duke 
of York was an earnest advocate of the war with Hol- 
land. He took command of the fleet, and in June, 1665, 
gained an important victory over the Dutch. In 1671 
the Duchess of York died, and James avowed himself a 
Roman Catholic. In 1672 war was renewed against Hol- 
land, and James, as lord admiral, assumed the command 
of the navy. In 1673 the Test Act was passed against 
Catholics and dissenters. By it the Duke of York was 

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, lonr; i. e. A same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 8, u, y\ short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; moon; 


compelled to resign the command of the navy, and all 
other offices which he held under government. The same 
year he married Maria Beatrice Eleonora, daughter of 
the Duke of M6dena. In 1677, greatly to the satisfaction 
of the English nation, Mary, daughter of the Duke of 
York, was married to her cousin William, Prince of 
Orange, who was a Protestant. 

In 1679, during the commotions of the Gates Popish 
Plot, James retired to the continent. In his absence 
a bill for excluding him from the throne was brought 
before the Parliament. It was passed by the Commons, 
but was rejected by the Lords. Upon the death of King 
Charles, in 1685, James ascended the throne unopposed, 
and promised to maintain and defend the Established 
Church. He summoned a Parliament, which voted him 
all the revenues his brother had enjoyed. Having de- 
clared his intention of continuing the alliance formed 
by Charles with France, he received from Louis XIV. 
500,000 livres. Strong suspicions were soon excited 
against the king by his arbitrary measures. It became too 
manifest that he only intended to keep his promises until 
he could break them with safety. He sent an agent to 
Rome to promote the restoration of Roman Catholicism 
in England ; he publicly attended the illegal celebration 
of the mass, and laboured earnestly for the repeal of 
the Test Act. The blindness of his zeal was so apparent 
that even the pope advised him to exercise more caution. 
In June, 1685, England was invaded by the Duke of 
Monmouth, a natural son of Charles II. Monmouth 
was totally defeated at Sedgemoor on the 5th of July, 
was captured two days after, and executed. James now 
exhibited his true character. Colonel Kirke and the in- 
famous Judge Jeffreys were sent to the western counties, 
which had been the principal scene of Monmouth's insur- 
rection, and, by the king's express authority, perpetrated 
a series of butcheries. Men were shot and hung with- 
out the form of trial, and women were burned at the 
stake for sheltering fugitives. In opposition to law, he 
admitted Catholics to the highest rank in the army and 
the navy. Protestants holding high offices of state were 
discharged, and a court resembling that of the high com- 
mission under Charles I. was established. Episcopal 
dioceses were given to professed Catholics, and the Prot- 
estant clergy were driven from the colleges of Oxford and 
Cambridge to make room for foreign priests. In June, 
1688, the queen gave birth to a son, who was suspected 
to be spurious. Previous to this period, Mary, Princess 
of Orange, had been regarded as the heir-apparent to 
the crown, and the English people had hoped that at 
length they would again be governed by a Protestant 
sovereign. These hopes being now blighted, they ap- 
plied to the Prince of Orange for assistance in an effort 
to depose the king. He was prepared to accept the in- 
vitation which they sent him ; and in November, 1688, 
he landed in Devonshire, with about fourteen thousand 
men. The king, deserted by the nobility, the gentry, 
the army, his friends, and his servants, quitted the island 
in December, and fled to France, where he was kindly 
received by Louis XIV. Soon after, the Prince and 
Princess of Orange were crowned, as King William III. 
and Queen Mary. In 1689 James landed in Ireland with 
a small force given him by Louis. He besieged London- 
derry, which he was unable to take. On the 1st of July, 
1690, King William, who commanded in person, totally 
defeated James's army at the battle of the Boyne, and 
firmly established his own power. James soon returned 
to France, and resided at Saint Germain's until his death, 
which occurred in September, 1701. As a king, he was 
brave, determined, energetic. He did much for the im- 
provement of the British navy ; he was industrious, and 
frugal of the public money. But he was implacable in 
revenge, and his blind bigotry cost him three kingdoms. 
James had by his first wife, Anne Hyde, eight children, 
of whom only Queen Mary and the Princess Anne sur- 
vived him. By his second wife, Mary of Modena, he 
had six children, two of whom outlived him. He also 
had four children by Arabella Churchill, a sister of the 
Duke of Marlborough, and one by Catherine Sedley. 

See DAVID JONBS, "Life of James II.," 1702; J. S. CLARKB, 
"Life of James II., King of England," a vols., 1816; BURNET, "His- 
tory of his Own Times;" MACAULAY, History of England;" C 
J. Fox, " History of the Early Part of the Reign of James II.,' 1808 


James I., King of Scotland, of the house of Stuart, 
and son of Robert III., was born about 1394. In I4OJ 
his father sent him to France, in order that he might 
escape the intrigues of the Duke of Albany ; but he was 
seized by a British fleet, carried as prisoner to Lon- 
don, and thrown into the Tower, whence, after remaining 
there more than two years, he was taken to Windsor. 
In 141 7, when King Henry V. invaded France, James was 
obliged to accompany him. In 1424, after a captivity of 
nineteen years, he was released and restored to his king- 
dom. While the young king was in England, Henry V. 
had given him a good education ; and, upon his acces- 
sion to power, James commenced with energy and firm- 
ness to reform the laws and customs of Scotland. During 
his captivity Scotland had been governed successively by 
the two Dukes of Albany as regents, who had increased 
their own power and that of the feudal lords, to the 
detriment of the royal authority. On the recovery of his 
kingdom he resolved to check with a strong hand the 
arrogance and lawlessness of the nobles. He seized his 
cousin Murdo, Duke of Albany, his sons, the Earls of 
Douglas, Lennox, Angus, and many other peers and 
barons. All were reconciled to the king except the Duke 
of Albany, his sons, and the Earl of Lennox, who were 
tried and executed. This blow struck terror into the order 
of nobles. The king continued to conduct his reforms 
with ability and prudence. One part of his policy was 
to raise the ecclesiastical power in order to balance that 
of the barons. James had married Joanna Beaufort, a 
lady of the blood-royal of England. Although the earls 
at first received the innovations of the king in a spirit 
of submission, they at length, perceiving the rapid decline 
of their authority, formed a conspiracy against him, and 
assassinated him in 1437. James had the reputation of 
being one of the most accomplished princes of his day. 
He produced several poetical pieces and songs, which 
were greatly admired, and in which much literary taste 
was displayed. There yet remains his " Kings Quhair." 
Robertson justly remarks that " it was the misfortune of 
James that his maxims and manners were too refined for 
the age in which he lived. Happy had he reigned in a 
kingdom more civilized. His love of peace, of justice, 
and of elegance would have rendered his schemes suc- 
cessful ; and, instead of perishing because he attempted 
too much, a grateful people would have applauded and 
seconded his efforts to reform and improve them." 

See BUCHANAN, " Rerum Scoticarum Historia;" BURTON, "His- 
tory of Scotland," vol. iii. chap. xxviL ; ROBERTSON, " History of 

James II, son and successor of the preceding, was 
born in 1430. He had for his adviser an able man, 
named Crichton, who during his minority obtained chief 
control of the government Crichton impressed on the 
mind of the young monarch the necessity of further hum- 
bling the nobility. But what James I. had attempted 
to do slowly and by legal means, his son and Crichton 
pursued with an impetuosity as unscrupulous as it was 
unwise. William, sixth Earl of Douglas, having defied 
the royal authority, was decoyed by Crichton to an in- 
terview in the Castle of Edinburgh, where both he and 
his brother were murdered. James stabbed with his 
own hand William, eighth Earl of Douglas. This led 
to a revolt, and the house of Stuart appeared to be in 
imminent peril. The Earl of Douglas commanded the 
greater number and more warlike followers ; but, owing 
to his want of energy, nearly all his retainers deserted 
him before a battle was fought, and he was obliged to 
fly to England. James would in all probability have 
succeeded in his plans, had he not been killed in 1460 
by the bursting of a cannon. 

See BURTON, "History of Scotland," vol. iii. chap. xxviiL 
ROBERTSON, " History of Scotland." 

James HL, the son and successor of James II., was 
born in 1453. During his minority the kingdom was 
governed successively by Bishop Kennedy and Lord 
Boyd. James married Margaret of Denmark about 
1470. He had respectable abilities, and was a lover of 
the fine arts and literature. The nobles were offended 
because he neglected them and chose for his associates 
artists, musicians, and other persons of inferior rank. 
The king's brothers, the Duke of Albany, and the Earl 

as k; 5 as s; % hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (2^=See Explanations, p. 23.) 




of Mar, conspired with the malcontent nobles against 
James, who was defeated by them in battle near Ban- 
nockburn in 1488, and was murdered as he fled from 
the field. 

James IV., King of Scotland, succeeded his father, 
James III., in 1488, at the age of fifteen. He was gen- 
erous and brave, loved magnificence, delighted in war, 
and was eager to obtain fame. During his reign the 
ancient and hereditary enmity between the king and the 
nobles appears almost entirely to have ceased. During 
the revolt which had cost James III. his life, his son 
had been compelled or persuaded to set himself at the 
head of it, and was openly declared king. He was sub- 
sequently troubled by remorse for this deed, and, not 
being free from superstition, he received from the pope, 
as penance, an iron belt to be worn without cessation for 
the remainder of his life. He also performed several pil- 
grimages on foot. James founded (1497) the University 
of Aberdeen, and he also created the order of Knights 
of the Thistle, (or of Saint Andrew.) In 1513, in oppo- 
sition to the advice of his sagest counsellors, he rashly 
invaded England with one of the most loyal and gallant 
armies that ever a Scottish king had commanded, and 
was defeated at the famous battle of Flodden, where 
the flower of the Scottish chivalry perished. The king, 
with twelve earls, thirteen lords, and a great number of 
barons, died upon the field, in September, 1513. 

James V., a son of James IV., was born in 1512, and 
succeeded his father in 1513. The regency was conferred 
upon his cousin, the Duke of Albany, a man of enter- 
prise and ability, who was desirous to extend the royal 
authority; but, in spite of all his exertions, the aris- 
tocracy retained their power, and the duke resigned his 
authority about 1525. The king was then in his thir- 
teenth year, and the nobles agreed that he should assume 
the government. The Earl of Angus, however, by hii 
intrigues, obtained the chief control of affairs, and kept 
the young king as a prisoner in his own palace. James, 
after suffering this for some time, escaped, and Angus was 
obliged to fly from the country. Firmly seated upon the 
throne, James continued the policy of his predecessors | 
in humbling the nobility. Commencing very cautiously, 
he found loyal supporters among the clergy, the prin- 
cipal of whom was Cardinal Beaton. The nobles had 
received too severe a blow at Flodden to resist, and 
James pushed forward his plans in an unscrupulous 
and arbitrary manner. He married Mary of Guise in 
1538. Henry VIII. of England declared war against 
turn in 1542, and he was obliged to seek the assistance 
of those nobles whom he had oppressed. They took 
up arms at his command, were led by him against the 
English, and were at first successful ; but, owing to the 
lateness of the season, and to other causes of discontent, 
they refused to follow up their good fortune. A second 
expedition across the border was still less successful : 
nearly ten thousand Scots were taken prisoners, or, as 
some say, went deliberately over to the English. This 
proved too great a blow to the proud and ambitious 
monarch, who died of a broken heart in December, 
1542, in the thirty-first year of his age, leaving the 
crown to his only legitimate child, the unfortunate Mary 
Queen of Scots. He had several natural children, one 
of whom was the famous Regent Murray. 



James, [Gr. 'laxuSof ; Lat. JACO'BUS ; Ger. JAKOB, 
yl'kob; Fr. JACQUES, zhtk; Sp. SANTIAGO, sin-te-d'go; 
It GIACOMO, ja'ko-mo,] one of the twelve apostles, 
commonly called SAINT JAMES, son of Zebeclee, and 
brother of Saint John. He was one of the three apostles 
who appeared to be the most intimately associated with 
our Saviour. He suffered martyrdom about 44 A. D., by 
the order of Herod Agrippa. 

James, called THE LESS, was one of the twelve apos- 
tles, and is generally supposed to have been the brother 
jf our Saviour, and the author of the Epistle bearing 
that name. Josephus states that he was put to death 
by the high-priest Ananias about 62 or 63 A.D. 

James, (CHARLES T. C.,) an English novelist and 
dramatist, born at London in 1858. He wrote "The 
New Faith," (1890,) "One Virtue," (1893,) 
"Where Thames is Wide," (1896,) etc. 

James, (CONSTANTIN,) a French medical writer, 
born at Bayeux in 1813. He edited Magendie's 
" Lectures on Physiology," (1837-39.) Died in 1888. 

James, (EDWIN JANES,) an American educator, 
born at Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1855. He was edu- 
cated at Harvard, held professorships in the University 
of Pennsylvania 1883-95, and became connected with 
the University of Chicago in 1895. He became presi- 
dent of the American Academy of Political and 
Social Science in 1889, and was president of the 
University Extension Society 1891-96. He published 
several works and numerous papers on economics. 

James, (FLORENCE,) pen-name of Florence War- 
den, a British novelist, born at Hanworth in 1857. 
She was a governess 1875-80, and an actress 1880-85. 
Her novels are numerous, some of the later being 
"A Lady in Black," (1897,) "Joan, the Curate," 
(1898,) etc. 

James, (GEORGE PAYNE RAINSFORD,) a very volu- 
minous novelist and historian, born in London in 1801. 
Before attaining the age of seventeen he had written a 
series of Eastern tales, entitled "The String of Pearls." 
In 1825 he published "Richelieu," which had previously 
received the commendation of Sir Walter Scott and 
Washington Irving. This is thought to be his best pro- 
duction. In 1852 Mr. James was chosen British consul 
at Norfolk, in Virginia, and in 1858 received the same 
appointment for Venice. His very numerous works 
are mainly novels, but include biographies and poems. 
Died in 1860. 

James, (Sir HENRY,) an English general, born near 
Saint Agnes, Cornwall, in 1803. He was educated at 
Woolwich, and in 1825 entered the royal engineers. He 
invented photozincography, and executed valuable fac- 
simile plates by that process. He published accounts 
of the ordnance surveys of the three kingdoms, besides 
other works of permanent value. Died June 14, 1877. 

James, (HENRY,) an able and original writer on the- 
ology, born at Albany in 1811. About 1843 he became 
acquainted with the writings of Swedenborg, whose 
leading doctrines he appears to have fully embraced, 
without, however, joining himself to the ecclesiastical 
organization of Swedenborgians. He published, be- 
sides other works, "Moralism and Christianity," (1852,) 
"Christianity the Logic of Creation," (1857,) " Substance 
and Shadow, etc.," (1863,) and "The Secret of Sweden- 
borg, being an Elucidation of his Doctrine of the Divine 
Natural Humanity," (1869.) Died December 18, 1882. 

James, (HENRY,) LORD, an English lawyer, bom 
at Hereford, October 30, 1828. He studied at Chel- 
tenham College and at the Middle Temple, was called 
to the bar in 1852, was made a Queen's counsel in 
1869, and a bencher in 1870. He entered Parliament 
in 1869, became solicitor-general in 1873, and attor- 
ney-general in the same year. In 1895 [he became 
chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and was raised 
to the peerage as Lord James of Hereford. 

James, (HENRY,) an American novelist and critic, 
ason of Henry James, (1811-1882,) was born at New 
York city, April 15, 1843. He was educated in Paris, 
Geneva, and Bonn, and early became known as a 
contributor to American journals. Among his works 
are "Roderick Hudson," (1875,) "The Portrrr 
a Lady," (iSSi,) "Tales of Three Cities," (iS> 
"The Tragic Muse," (1890,) " The Other House," 
(1896,) etc., with works of travel, criticism, etc. 

James, (JOHN ANGEI.L,) an eloquent English 
dissenting minister and popular writer, born at 
Blandford, Dorset, in 1785. He was for many years 
an Independent minister of Birmingham, and acquired 
great influence by his oral ministry and his numerous 
writings, which have had an immense circulation. 
Died in 1859. 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; ndt; good; moon; 




James, (JOHN THOMAS,) Bishop of Calcutta, born at 
Rugby in 1786. Upon the death of Bishop Heber he 
was appointed to the diocese of Calcutta, and sailed for 
India in 1827. He was the author of a "Tour through 
Germany, Sweden, Russia, and Poland," (1816,) " Treat- 
ise on the Italian, French, Dutch, and German Schools 
of Painting," (1822,) and "The Semi-Sceptic, or the 
Common Sense of Religion considered." Died in 1828. 

James, (PAUL MOON,) an English poet, born in 1780. 
His short lyric " The Beacon," often attributed to Moore, 
is all that rescues him from oblivion. He was a banker 
in Birmingham, where he died in 1854. 

James, (RICHARD,) an English divine, linguist, and 
traveller, and nephew of Thomas James, (1571-1629,) 
was born at Newport, in the Isle of Wight, in 1592. 
Among his works are manuscripts upon Russia, and a 
" Poem upon the Death of Sir Robert Cotton." Died 
in 1638. 

James, (ROBERT,) an English physician, born in Staf- 
fordshire in 1703. He was the inventor of a celebrated 
fever-powder which bore his name, and the author of a 
"Medicinal Dictionary," (1743-45,) (in which he was 
assisted by Dr. Samuel Johnson,) treatises on the "Prac- 
tice of Physic" and " On Canine Madness," and a "Dis- 
sertation on Fevers," (1778.) Died in 1776. 

James, (THOMAS,) a learned divine, born at Newport, 
in the Isle of Wight, in 1571. He was distinguished as 
an able and industrious writer against the Catholics. 
Among the most important of his works are " A Treat- 
ise of the Corruptions of the Scriptures, Councils, and 
Fathers by the Church of Rome," (1612,) and "The 
Jesuits' Downfall." Died in 1629. 

See WOOD. "Athenae Oxonienses." 

James, (THOMAS,) an English navigator, who sailed 
in 1631 in search of a northwest passage. He made 
some discoveries on the shores of Hudson's Bay, and to 
the country lying west of it he gave the name of New 
Wales. On his return to England he published "The 
Strange and Dangerous Voyage of Captain Thomas 
James for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage tc the 
South Sea." 

James, (THOMAS C.,) M.D., an American physician 
and scholar, born in Philadelphia in 1766. He graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1788, and followed 
his profession with eminent success in his native city. 
In :8li he was appointed professor of midwifery in the 
above institution. Died in Philadelphia in 1835. He 
is said to have been versed in the Greek, Latin, French, 
and German languages, and to have possessed some 
acquaintance with the Hebrew. He contributed several 
short but beautiful poems to Dennie's "Portfolio." 

James, (THOMAS LEMUEL,) LL.D., an American 
statesman, born in Utica, New York, March 29, 1831. 
He learned the trade of a printer, was engaged in jour- 
nalism, 1851-60, held positions in the New York custom- 
house, 1860-73, was postmaster of New York, 1873-81, 
postmaster-general of the United States, 1881-82, and 
afterwards was a bank-president in New York city. 

James, (WILLIAM,) an English land-agent and sur- 
veyor, born in Warwickshire in 1771. He was the first 
to project the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, and is 
generally regarded as "the father" of the railway-system 
in England. Died in 1837. 

James, (WILLIAM,) an Englishman, known as the 
author of "The Naval History of Great Britain from 
the Declaration of War by France in 1793 to the Ac- 
cession of George IV. in 1820," (5 vols., 1822,) a work 
evincing great research. Died in 1827. 

James, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English naval officer of 
high rank, born at Milford Haven about 1721. He dis- 
tinguished himself in the East India service and in the 
American war. Died in 1785. 

James, (WILLIAM,) an American psychologist, 
bora at New York in 1842. He was educated at 
Lawrence Scientific School, and became professor of 
philosophy at Harvard in 1872. He has published 
"Principles of Psychology," "The Will to Believe, 
and Other Essays," etc. Was appointed Gifford 
lecturer on natural religion, University of Edinburgh, 

James (or Jacques, zhtk) de Vitri, (deh ve'tRe',) a 
distinguished cardinal and historical writer, born at Vitri, 
near Paris, in the twelfth century. He preached against 
the Albigenses, and about 1218 joined the crusade against 
the Saracens. He wrote, besides other works, a " His- 
tory of the East and West." Died in 1240. 

James (or Giacomo, ji'ko-mo) de Voragine, (dl 
vo-ra'je-ni,) a Romish prelate, born at Voraggio, near 
Genoa, about 1230. In 1292 he was ordained Archbishop 
of Genoa. Died in 1298. He wrote various ecclesias- 
tical works, and a famous collection of the lives of the 
saints, entitled the " Golden Legend." 

James Francis Ed-ward, called the first Pretender, 
and Chevalier de Saint George, born in 1688, was the 
son and heir of James II. of England. He was educated 
in France, and was a Roman Catholic. At the death 
of his father he was recognized as King of England by 
Louis XIV. He entered the French army, and charged 
at the head of the cavalry at Malplaquet in 1709. Lord 
Bolingbroke formed a design to secure for him the suc- 
cession to the throne, but was defeated by the death of 
Queen Anne. In 1715 the Scottish Jacobites took arms 
to assert the title of the Pretender, and, under the com- 
mand of the Earl of Mar, were defeated at Sheriffmuir. 
Another army of his partisans surrendered at Preston. 
James Francis Edward landed in Scotland in December, 
1715; but, finding his cause in a desperate state, ho 
returned to France the next month. Died in 1 758 or 1 765. 

See JESSE, "Memoirs of the Pretenders and their Adherents," 

Ja'me-spn, (ANNA,) a celebrated writer, born in 
Dublin in 1797, was the daughter of Mr. Murphy, a 
painter. She married in 1824 a barrister named Jame- 
son, with whom she went to live in Canada ; but, various 
circumstances causing a separation, Mrs. Jameson re- 
turned to England, to employ herself in literature and 
the fine arts. She was an earnest labourer for the fuller 
development of the usefulness and mental culture of the 
women of England. Her productions evince great dis- 
crimination, learning, and refinement. Among the most 
important of these we may mention "The Diary of an 
Ennuyee," (1826,) " Memoirs of Celebrated Female 
Sovereigns," (2 vols., 1831,) "The Beauties of the 
Court of Charles II.," " Lives of the Early Italian 
Painters," (2 vols., 1845,) and " The Poetry of Sacred 
and Legendary Art," (2 vols., 1848.) Died in 1860. 

Ja'me-son, (LEANDER STARR,) a British colonist, 
was born at Edinburgh in 1853. He studied medi- 
cine, went to Cape Colony, and became a physician at 
Kimberley in 1878. He became connected there with 
Cecil Rhodes, was made in 1891 administrator of the 
South Africa Company at Fort Salisbury, and in 1895 
set out with five hundred troops to aid the Uitlanders 
in their contemplated revolt against the Boer govern- 
ment. He and his force were defeated and obliged to 
surrender January 2, 1896. He was handed over to 
the British authorities, tried in London, and con- 
demned to fifteen months' imprisonment, but was 
released after a few months on account of illness. 

Ja'me-son, (ROBERT,) an eminent Scottish naturalist, 
born at Leith in 1774 or 1773. He published " Mineral- 
ogy of the Scottish Isles," (2 vols., 1800,) " A System of 
Mineralogy," (3 vols., 1804-08,) and other works. He 
was professor of natural history in the University of 
Edinburgh from 1804 until 1854. In 1819 Professor 
Jameson and Sir David Brewster founded the "Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Journal," which the former edited 
many years. He also contributed to the " Encyclopaedia 
Britannica." He had a high reputation as a professor 
Died in 1854. 

See "Edinburgh Review" for October, 1804, and April, 1805; 
" Annual Register" for 1854. 

Ja'me-sone, (GEORGE,) an eminent painter, called 
" the Van Dyck of Scotland," was born at Aberdeen in 
1586. About 1616 he went to Antwerp, where, with Van 
Dyck, he studied under Rubens. " His excellence," says 
Walpole, "consisted in delicacy and softness, with a 
clear and beautiful colouring." It is said that, in 1633, 
when Charles I. visited Edinburgh, the magistrates of 

eas/i; easj; %kard; gas/;o, U.K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasmtAis. (JEjp"See Explanations, p. 23.) 



that city employed Jamesone to paint the portraits of 
some of the Scottish monarchs. Charles was so much 
pleased with the result that he sat for his own portrait, 
and presented the artist vrith a diamond ring from his 
finger. Jameson was also a painter of historical and 
landscape scenes. Died in 1644. 

See ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, *' Lives of the Most Eminent British 
Painters," etc. ; WALPOLE, "Anecdotes of Painting :" CHAMBERS, 
" Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Jamet, zhS'ml', (PIERRE CHARLES,) a French writer, 
born near Sens in 1701. Among his works are "Meta- 
physical Essays," (1732,) "Letters on Taste and the Doc- 
trine of Bayle," (1740,) and "The Mongol Philosopher 
Dane-Che-Men-Kan," (1740.) Died about 1770. 

Jami. See JAMEE. 

Ja'mie-son, (JOHN,) D.D., a learned divine, born in 
Glasgow in 1759, became in 1797 pastor of a church in 
Edinburgh, where he remained until his death. The 
degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him by 
the College of New Jersey. He published, besides other 
works, "Socinianism Unmasked," (1788,) "The Sorrows 
of Slavery," a poem, " The Use of Sacred History," (2 
vols., 1802,) an " Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish 
Language," (2 vols., 1809,) which is highly esteemed, 
and " An Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees of 
lona," (1811.) Died in 1838. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;" 
"Edinburgh Review" for April, 1809, and May, 1828: "Monthly 
Review" for September, 1810. 

Jamieson, (ROBERT,) a Scottish scholar, born in 
Morayshire in 1780. For many years he was in the civil 
service in Edinburgh. Among his works are " Popular 
Ballads and Songs," (1806,) partly original. Died in 
London, September 2>, 1844. 

Jamin, zht'maN', (JEAN BAPTISTE, ) VICOMTE, a 
French general, born in 1772; died in 1848. 

Jamin, (JULES CELESTIN,) a French natural philoso- 
pher, born in 1818. He became professor of physics in 
the Polytechnic School at Paris. He commenced in 1858 
the publication of an important work, entitled " Cours 
de Physique." Died in 1886. 

Jamin de Bermuy, zht'maN' deh beVmii-e', (JEAN 
BAPTISTE AUGUSTE MARIE,) one of the best French 
cavalry officers of his time, was born in Bretagne in 
1773. He became colonel of the royal guards of light 
cavalry about 1807, and went to Spain, where he dis- 
tinguished himself at the battle of Ocana in 1809. As 
general of brigade, he won additional honours at the 
battle of Vitoria, in 1813. For his various services he 
was created baron of the empire and Marquis de Ber- 
muy. He fell at the battle of Waterloo, 1815. 

Jamsheed. See JEMSHEED. 

Jamshid. See JEMSHEED. 

Jamyn, zhS'maN', (AMADIS,) a French poet, born 
in Champagne about 1540. His productions attracted 
the attention of Ronsard, who became a warm friend and 
liberal patron of Jamyn and procured for him the situa- 
tion of secretary and reader to Charles IX. He wrote 
poems on various subjects, and made translations of the 
last three books of the " Iliad" and the first three of the 
"Odyssey." Died in 1585. 

Janachen, yln-a'ken, (i.e. Jan (or John) Achen.) 

Jauauachek, ya'now-sheV, (FRANCESCA MADELINA 
ROMANCE, called FANNY,) a tragic actress of rare talents, 
born in Prague, Bohemia, July 20, 1830. She appears 
in both English and German plays, but her principal 
successes have been won in Germany. 

Jane, (FREDERICK T.,) a British artist and author, 
born at Honiton, Devon, in 1865. He served as artist 
on several illustrated papers, and wrote " Blake of the 
Rattlesnake," (1895,) "To Venus in Five Seconds," 
(1897,) "All the World's Fighting Ships," (1899,) 

Janet, zhS'ni', or Janet-Lange, zhi"n&' loNzh, 
(ANGE Louis,) a French painter, born in Paris, Novem 
ber 19, 1818. A pupil of Ingres, Collin, and Vernet, he 
became noted for his military pieces, and not less so for 

those on religious subjects. Died at Paris, November 
25, 1872. 

Janet, (PAUL,) an eminent French philosopher, born 
at Paris, April 30, 1823. He held professorships of 
philosophy at Bourges and Strasburg, and later at the 
Sorbonne. His position is that of an acceptor of science 
who at the same time rejects materialism and defends 
the old philosophy. Among his numerous works are 
" Elements de Morale," (1869,) " La Philosophie fran- 
caise contemporaine," (1879,) " Lamennais," (1890,) 
"Fenelon," (1892,) etc. 

Jane'way, (JAMES,) an English nonconformist divine, 
born in Hertfordshire in 1636. He was a preacher of 
great power, and was very actively employed at the time 
of the plague both in the pulpit and in visiting the sick. 
He wrote a " Life of John Janeway," his brother, and 
"The Saint's Encouragement to Diligence," (1675.) 
Died in 1674. 

Jani, ya'nee, (CHRISTIAN DAVID,) a German phi- 
lologist, born near Halle in 1743. He published a good 
edition of Horace,- (2 vols., 1778-82,) and other works. 
Died in 1790. 

Jani?on, zhi'ne'siN', (FRANC.OIS MICHEL,) a noted 
journalist, born in Paris in 1674. Being an avowed 
Protestant, he went to receive his education in Holland, 
which became his adopted country. In early life he 
entered the army, but finally devoted himself to litera- 
ture. Among his works are " Present State of the 
Republic of the United Provinces and their Dependen- 
cies," (1729,) a production of great merit, and "Serious 
and Satirical Letters upon the Works of the Savants," 
(12 vols., 1740 et sef.) Died in 1730. 

See MORERI, " Dictionnaire Historique ;" NICBRON, " M^moires." 

Jauin, zhfnaN', (JULES GABRIEL^ a celebrated French 
critic and litterateur, born at Saint-Etienne in 1804. He 
contributed successively to the " Figaro" and the " Quo- 
tidienne," and about 1830 became one of the editors 
of the "Journal des Debats," for which he furnished a 
number of brilliant and original articles on politics and 
literature. He was for a long time the dramatic critic 
of that journal. He also wrote for the " Revue des Deux 
Mondes," etc. Among his other productions are the 
romances of" Barnave, (1831,) "New Literary Tales," 
"Journey in Italy," (1839,) and " The Nun of Toulouse," 
(1850.) He also wrote an abridgment of " Clarissa Har- 
lowe," and a "History of Dramatic Literature," (4 
vols., 1851-56.) His critiques consist mostly of literary 
gossip, written in a sparkling and polished style. He 
was admitted to the French Academy in 1870. Died 
June 20, 1874. 

Janitius, ya-nlt'se-us, or Janicki, ya-n!t'skee, (CLE- 
MENT,) a learned Polish writer, born in 1516. At fifteen 
he wrote elegant Latin poetry. Among his works is 
" Lives of the Kings of Poland." Died in 1543. 

Jannabee or Jannabt, Al, al-jan-na'bee, [Lat. AL- 
JANNA'BIUS, or simply JANNA'BIUS,] (Aboo-Moham- 
med-Mustafa moos'ta-fa,) written also Djaunaby 
and Dschannabi, an Arabian historian, of whose life 
scarcely anything is known. He wrote an abridgment 
of universal history, entitled "Bahar-al-Zokkar," from 
the creation of the world down to his own time. Died 
in 1581. 

Jannabi See JANNABEE. 

Jannabius. See JANNABEE. 

Jannaris, (ANTHONY,) a Greek philologist, born 
at Lakkoi, Crete, in 1852, nephew of the famous Cretan 
chief Michel Jannaris. He was lecturer in Greek lit- 
erature at Athens University in 1889, a leader in the 
Cretan insurrection of 1889-90, and subsequently 
wnrked six years in the British Museum, investigating 
the history of the Greek language. He published 
"Historical Greek Grammar," (1897,) and various 
works on Greek philology. 

Jannequin.zhin'kaN', (CLAUDE,) Sieurde Rochefort, 
a French traveller, sailed for Africa in 1637, and, after 
his return, published a " Voyage to Libya, to the King- 
dom of Senegal, and the Banks of the Niger," etc., (1643.) 

Jannequin, (CLEMENT.) See CLEMENT, (JACQUES.) 

Jan'ney, (SAMUEL M.,) an American writer, born in 

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; i, t, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; mgt; not; good; moon; 



Loudon county, Virginia, January n, 1801. Both his 
parents were members of the Society of Friends, or 
Quakers ; and his mind appears to have been at an early 
age deeply impressed with the truth and high importance 
of the religious principles in which he was educated. 
Besides some smaller works, he wrote " Conversations 
on Religious Subjects," (1835;) "A Teacher's Gift, 
consisting of Essays in Prose and Verse," (1840;) "An 
Historical Sketch of the Christian Church during the 
Middle Ages," (1847,) and two valuable biographies, viz., 
a "Life of William Penn," (1852,) and a "Life of George 
Fox," (1855.) His last and most important publication 
is a " History of the Religious Society of Friends from 
its Rise to the Year 1828," (4 vols., 1867.) This work 
treats, among other subjects, of the causes and events of 
the separation which occurred in the Society in 1827-28. 
The writer belonged to the anti-orthodox division of the 
Quakers ; and, though not professing strict impartiality, 
he evinced, in his treatment of this delicate and difficult 
subject, great moderation, a scrupulous regard for the 
facts of the case, and, on the whole, a liberal and kindly 
spirit. He was a highly-esteemed minister of the So- 
ciety of which he was a member. Early in 1869 he was 
appointed by President Grant superintendent of Indian 
affairs in the Northern Superintendency. Died April 30, 

Jannicke, yen'nik-keh, QOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a Ger- 
man author, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, January 7, 
1831. He became a prominent railway official. He 
published " Hand-Book of Aquarelle-Painting," " Hand- 
Book of Oil-Painting," " Principles of Ceramic Art," 
" Summary of the Literature of Ceramics," and other 
works, partly on entomology. 

Janozki, ya-nozh'kee, or Janotzkt yj-nots'kee, 
sometimes written Janisck, (JOHN DANIEL,) a Polish 
or Russian author, born at Viborg in 1720. He was 
appointed superintendent of the Zaluski Library at 
Warsaw. Among his works, which principally relate 
to the literature of Poland, are " Letters on Criticism," 
"A Dictionary of the Living Authors of Poland," and 
"Polish Literature of our Time." Died in 1786. 

J.uisemiu. See JASMIN. 

Jansen, jan'sen or yan'sen, or Jan-se'nl-us, [Dutch 
pron. yan-sa'ne-us,] (CoRNELiS,) Bishop of Ypres, cele- 
brated as the founder of the sect of Jansenists, born near 
Leerdam, in Holland, in October, 1585. He pursued his 
studies at Paris, and in 1617 was chosen professor of di- 
vinity in the University of Louvain. About 1634 he bitterly 
attacked the French government, in his " Mars Gallicus," 
for having formed a treaty of alliance with the Dutch Prot- 
estants. This provoked the enmity of Cardinal Richelieu, 
but obtained the favour of the King of Spain, who raised 
Jansenius to the see of Ypres in 1635. His principal 
production was entitled " Augustinus," (Louvain, 1640,) 
m which he advocated the doctrines of Saint Augustine 
in regard to the atonement, divine grace, free will, and 
predestination. This work was finished a short time 
previous to his death, in 1638, and by his will he referred 
it to the judgment of the Holy See ; but his executors 
published the book, and suppressed that part of the will 
which related to it. The opinions which he advocated 
were directly opposed to those advanced by the Jesuits, 
who made great efforts to obtain a decision against them 
by the pope. Finally the bishops of France reduced the 
doctrines of Jansenius to five propositions for condemna- 
tion, viz. : I. That there are divine precepts which good 
men are unable to obey for want of God's grace, although 
desirous to do so. 2. That no person can resist the in- 
fluence of divine grace when bestowed. 3. That for 
human actions to be meritorious, it is not requisite that 
they should be exempt from necessity, but only from 
constraint 4. That the Semi-Pelagians err grievously in 
maintaining that the human will is endowed with power 
of either receiving or resisting the aids and influences 
of preventive grace. 5. That whoever maintains that 
Jesus Christ made expiation by his sufferings and death 
for the sins of all mankind is a Semi-Pelagian. Innocent 
X. condemned the first four of these propositions as 
simply heretical, but the last as rash, impious, and in- 
jurious to the Supreme Being. Many bulls were also 
issued by the succeeding popes, by which the Jansenists, 

several of whom were among the most learned and emi- 
nent ecclesiastics of France, were deprived of office and 
declared to be heretics. Louis XIV., at the instigation 
of his Jesuit confessor, ordered them to be persecuted 
and their monastery at Port-Royal to be suppressed. 
Notwithstanding these attempts to crush them, the Jan- 
senists continued to increase, comprising among their 
champions Pascal, Arnauld, Nicole, and many other 
celebrated men. 

See LKYDHCKHR, "Historia Jansenismi," 1695; BAYLB, "His- 
torical and Critical Dictionary;" SAINTH-BKUVB, "Port- Royal," 
tomes i., ii. ; HEESBR, " Histonsch Verhaal van de Geboorte, Leven, 
etc van C. Jansenius," 1727: "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"n&ale." 

Janseu, yan'sen, (HENDRIK,) a noted writer and trans- 
lator, born at the Plague in 1741. He fixed his residence 
in Paris about 1770, where he became librarian to Tal- 
leyrand. His works were chiefly of a historical and 
philosophical character. Died in 1812. 

Jansenius. See JANSEN. 

Jansenius, yan-sa'ne-us, (CORNELIS,) a learned Flem- 
ish ecclesiastic, born at Hulst in 1510. In 1568 he was 
ordained first Bishop of Ghent. Of his works we may 
mention " Concord of the Evangelists," and a " Para- 
phrase on the Psalms." Died in 1576. 

Jansenius, (JAKOB,) a Dutch scholar, born at Am- 
sterdam in 1547, became in 1595 regius professor of the- 
Sacred Scriptures at Louvain. Among his works are 
Expositions of the Prophet Job, of the Psalms of David, 
and of the Gospel of John. Died in 1625. 

Janson, yan'son, (KRISTOFFER NAGEL,) a Norwegian 
poet, born at Bergen, May 5, 1841. He published sev- 
eral volumes of poetry and novels, including " Torgrim," 
(1862,) "Fraa Bygdom," (1865,) "Han og ho," (1868,) 
and " Norske Digt," ( 1 867.) He wrote " Fra Dansketidi," 
(1875,) a novel, and other works, including the strongly 
effective drama "A Woman's Fate," (1879.) In 1882 
he became a Unitarian preacher, removed to the United 
States in 1884, and returned to Norway in 1893. 

Janson or Jenson, zh8N's6N', (NICOLAS,) a French 
engraver, printer, and type-founder, settled in Venice 
about 1470. He produced there a number of celebrated 
editions between 1470 and 1480. He is called the in- 
ventor of the Roman type now generally used. Died 
about 1481. 

Janssen, ylns'sen, or John'son, (CORNELIS,) a noted 
artist, born in Amsterdam in 1590. In 1618 he visited 
England, where he was employed by James I. to paint 
the portraits of the royal family. He was also patronized 
by the nobility. He possessed neither the freedom nor the 
grace of Van Dyck, but in other respects was regarded as 
his equal, and m finishing was considered even superior 
to him. His carnations have been particularly admired ; 
and his pictures yet retain their original lustre, in conse- 
quence perhaps of the ultramarine which he used. Died 
in 1665. 

Janssen, ylns'sen, (JOHANNES,) MONSIGNOR, a Ger- 
man priest and historian, born at Xanten, April 10, 1829. 
He was educated at Louvain, Bonn, and Berlin, and in 
1880 was made a prothonotary to the pope. Among his 
numerous works is a " History of the German People," 
(1876; 3d vol., 1884,) written from the ultramontane 
stand-point. Died December 23, 1891. 

Janssen, (PETER,) a German historical and por- 
trait-painter, born in 1844. He became director of 
the Academy at Diisseldorf in 1895. 

Janssen, (PIERRE JULES CESAR,) a French as- 
tronomer and physicist, born at Paris, February 22, 
1824. He held professorships in the Lycee Charle- 
magne and the Ecole speciale d'Architecture, and in 
1875 was appointed director of the observatory at 
Meudon. In 1892 he founded a meteorological ob- 
servatory at the top of Mont Blanc. 

Janssens, ylns'sens,(ABRAHAM,) a celebrated painter, 
born at Antwerp in 1569. His designs were elegant and 
spirited. He was a good colorist, and a rival of Rubens. 
He excelled in painting subjects illuminated by torches, 
where the brilliant light and deepest shade were placed 
in a striking contrast. His most important works are 
the " Resurrection of Lazarus," and a " Descent from the 
Cross." Died at Antwerp in 1631. 

as/&; gass; ghard; gas/; G, H, ^giMural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. (JE^="See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Jans'sens, (Dutch pron. yans'sens,) (FRANCIS,) D.D., 
a Roman Catholic bishop, born at Tilburg, Netherlands, 
October 17, 1843. He was educated at the American 
College, Louvain, was ordained a Catholic priest in 1867, 
and came to America in 1868. He was appointed Vicar- 
General of Richmond, Va., in 1872, Bishop of Natchezin 
iSSi.and Archbishop of Louisiana in iSSS. Died in 1897. 

Janssena, (JAN WILLEM,) a distinguished Dutch 
general, born at Nymwegen in 1762. In 1802 ha was 
appointed governor and general-in-chief of the colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope, where he was defeated by the 
English, who took possession of that country in 1806. 
After the abdication of Louis Bonaparte, under whom 
he had held the office of minister of war, Napoleon made 
him Governor-General of Holland and the East Indies. 
In this capacity he bravely defended Batavia against the 
Englishjn iSn, but was finally obliged to surrender. 
Died in 1835. 

Janssens, (VICTOR HONORIUS,) a noted Flemish 
painter, born at Brussels in 1664. He studied in Rome 
the works of Raphael, selected Albano for his model, 
and excelled all his contemporaries in that style. At 
the expiration of eleven years he returned to Brussels, 
where he painted numerous large pictures for palaces 
and churches. Died in 1739. 

Janazopn. See KOSTER. 

Januario. See JANUARIUS. 

Jan-u-a'rI-us, [Fr. JANVIER, zhdN've-4'; It. JANUA- 
RIO, ya-noo-a're-o,] SAINT, Bishop of l^enevento, was 
beheaded during the persecution of Diocletian, about 
305. A cathedral was erected over his grave at Naples, 
where it is believed that his blood exerts great power in 
checking the eruptions of Vesuvius. 

Ja'nus, an ancient Latin deity, represented with two 
faces. He was regarded as the opener of the day and 
as having charge of the gates of heaven. He seems to 
have presided over the commencement of enterprises. 
The word Janua (" gate") is said by some to have been 
derived from him ; also the name of the month January. 
The temple of Janus Quirinus at Rome was kept open 
in time of war and closed during peace. It has been 
conjectured by some scholars that the name and attri- 
butes of Janus may be traced to Ganesa, (or Ganesha,) 
the Hindoo deity of prudence and circumspection, who, 
among his other offices, had those of presiding over the 
commencement of undertakings, guarding gates and 
doors, etc. 

See GUJGNIAUT, " Religions de 1'Antiquite 1 ," Paris, 1825-29, vol. 
ii. book v. sect 2, chap. iii. ; KEIGHTLBY, " Mythology." 

Janvier. See JANUARIUS. 

Janvier, zhoN've-4', (ANTIDE,) an ingenious and cele- 
brated horologist, was born at Saint-Claude, in France, 
in 1751. He invented numerous improvements for 
watches and for different kinds of astronomical appa- 
ratus. In 1784 he became watchmaker to the king. 
Died in 1835. 

Janvier, (Dom RENE AMBROISE,) a learned French 
monk, born in 1614. He made a Latin translation of 
the " Rabbi David Kimchi's Hebrew Commentary on 
the Psalms." Died in 1682. 

Janvier, (THOMAS ALLIBONE,) an American 
author, born at Philadelphia in 1849. He has pub- 
lished "Stories of Old New Spain," "The Aztec 
Treasure House," "The Uncle of an Angel," etc. 

name Margaret Vandergrift,) has published a num- 
ber of juvenile stories and " A Dead Doll and Other 

Japet See IAPETUS. 

Japetus. See IAPETUS. 

Ja'pheth, [Heb. n3\] a patriarch, one of the three 
sons of Noah, and the supposed ancestor of the Cauca- 
sian race. (See IAPETUS.) 

See Genesis vi, vii., be. 

Japix, Japicx, or Japiks, yj'piks, (GvsBERT,) a 
celebrated Frisian poet, born at Bolsward in 1603. But 
few incidents in his early life are known. Japix was the 
first, and in fact the only, writer in Frisian of any note of 
that period, or as late as 1763, as we are told by Bos- 
well. Died in 1776. 

Japp, jSp, (ALEXANDER HAY,) LL.D., a Scottish 
author, known by the pseudonym of H. A. PAGE. He 
was born at Dun, near Montrose, in 1839, and graduated 
at the University of Edinburgh. He was editor of the 
" Sunday Magazine." His works include " Lives" of 
Hawthorne, (1870,) De Quincey, (1877,) and Thoreau, 
(1878,) " Golden Lives,"(i87i.) " Noble Workers,"(i873,) 
"German Life and Literature," "De Quincey Me- 
morials," (1891,) " Hours inMyGarden, "(1893, )etc. 

Jaquelot See JACQUELOT. 

Jaquotpt, zht'ko'to', (MARIE VICTOIRE,) a skilful 
French painter on porcelain, born in Paris in 1778. She 
copied several works of Raphael on porcelain, and 
painted the dessert-service presented by Napoleon I. to 
the Czar of Russia after the peace of Tilsit. Died in 1855. 

Jarchi, zhaVshe', (SOLOMON BEN ISAAC,) sometimes 
called Raschi, a distinguished Jewish writer, born at 
Troyes, in France, about 1040. After finishing his edu- 
cation at the Jewish Academy in that city, he travelled 
through Egypt, Western Asia, Greece, Russia, and Ger- 
many. On his return to France he wrote Annotations 
on the Five Books of Moses, the Mishna, and the Gemara, 
These works obtained a high reputation, and procured 
for the author the title of " Prince of Commentators." 
Died in 1105. 

Jardin or Jardyn. See Du JARDIN. 

Jar' dine, (GEORGE,) born in Lanarkshire, Scotland, 
in 1742, was professor of logic in the University of Glas- 
gow from 1774 to 1824, and made improvements in tha 
mode of teaching. He published "Outlines of Philo- 
sophical Education," (18:8.) Died in 1827. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;" 
"Monthly Review" for July, 1819. 

Jardine, (Sir WILLIAM,) a Scottish naturalist, born 
in Edinburgh about 1800. He studied botany, orni- 
thology, etc. He published, besides other works, " Illus- 
trations of Ornithology," (3 vols., 1829-45.) He was 
one of the authors of the "Naturalist's Library," (40 
vols., 1833-43,) and joint editor of the "Edinburgh Phi- 
losophical Journal." Died November 21, 1874. 

Jardinier, zhtR'de'ne-i', (CLAUDE DONAT,) a French 
engraver, born in Paris in~f 726. Among his works is the 
" Virgin and the Infant Jesus," from C. Maratta. Died 

in 1774- 

Jardins, des, da zhtR'daN', (MARIE CATHERINE,) 
MADAME DE VILLEDIEU, a talented and profligate French 
authoress, was born in 1640. She removed to Paris, 
where she supported herself by writing romances and 
dramas. Her works were quite successful, and, not- 
withstanding her very exceptionable conduct, she was 
much courted by persons of distinction. Her active 
and vivid imagination produced a new era in French 
romances, changing their old and tedious style into that 
of the modern novel. Died in 1683. 

Jard-Fanvillier, zhiR'pfiN've'ye-i', (Louis ALEX- 
ANDRE,) a French politician, born near Niort in 1757. 
In 1792 he was elected to the National Convention, 
where he distinguished himself by his bold defence of 
the king. Napoleon created him baron of the empire 
and president of the court of exchequer. Died in 1822. 

Jardyn or Jardin, (KAREL DE.) See DUJARDIN. 

Jarnac, de, dehzhjR'ntk', (Gui CHABOT,) SEIGNEUR, 
a French soldier, who in 1547 killed La Chateigneraye 
in a duel which was fought in the presence of King Henry 
II. Died about 1560. 

See TAVANNES, " Me'moires ;" BRANTOME, "Me'moires," tomeiii. 

Jainowich, yaR'no-vik', or Giornovichi, joR-no- 
veeTcee, (GIOVANNI MARIA,) a celebrated and eccentric 
violinist, born at Palermo, Sicily, in 1745. He spent 
several years in France, Prussia, and England. He sub- 
sequently visited Saint Petersburg, where he died in 1804. 

Jaroslaf. See YAROSLAF. 

Jar'rett, (THOMAS,) an English philologist and cler- 
gyman, born in I So;, graduated at Cambridge in 1827. 
He published " A New Hebrew Lexicon," " A Sketch 
of Sanscrit Grammar," (1875,) etc - Died March 7, 1882. 

Jarrige, zhi'rezh', (PIERRE,) a French Jesuit, born at 
Tulle in 1605. He embraced Protestantism, and wrote 
a work against the society of which he had been a mem- 
ber, entitled "The Jesuits upon the Scaffold ;" but sub- 

a, e. I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, u, jf, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; m?t; not; good; moon; 




sequently he was reconciled to them, and published a 
refutation of his previous work. Died in 1660. 

Jarry, zhi're', (NICOLAS,) a French calligraphist, born 
in Paris about 1620, was famous for the beauty of his 

Jarry, du, dii zht're', (LAURENT JuUhard zhii-e'- 
yaV,) a celebrated ecclesiastic, poet, and orator, born 
near Saintes, in France, about 1658. He went to Paris, 
where he was patronized by Bossuet and the Due de 
Montausier. In 1714 he gained a poetical prize at the 
French Academy over Voltaire and other competitors. 
He wrote "The Evangelical Ministry, or Reflections 
upon the Eloquence of the Pulpit," (1726,) "Poems, 
Christian, Heroic, and Moral," and several other works. 
Died in 1730. 

See MoKiRi, " Dictionnaire Historique." 

Jars, zhiR, (GABRIEL,) a distinguished mineralogist, 
and member of the French Academy of Sciences, born 

same purpose. He died in 1 769, leaving manuscripts from 
which his brother compiled "Observations upon a Great 
Number of Gold and Silver Mines," (3 vols., 1774-81.) 
See QUBRARD, "La France Litte'raire." 

Jars, de, deh zhtR, (FRANgois DE Rochechouart 
rosh'shoo-f R',) CHEVALIER, a French officer and cour- 
tier. He was arrested by Cardinal Richelieu in 1632, 
because he refused to give evidence in the prosecution 
of his friend Chateauneuf, keeper of the seals. After 
an imprisonment of eleven months in the Bastille, and 
twenty-four examinations, during which nothing could 
be extorted from him that would criminate Chateauneuf, 
he was convicted on false evidence and sentenced to 
death. A reprieve, however, arrived from the king after 
Jars had placed his head upon the block. He obtained 
his liberty after a long imprisonment Died in 1670. 

See RICHELIEU, "Memoires." 

Jar'ves, (JAMES JACKSON,) a writer and traveller, born 
in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1818. He produced, besides 
other works, a " History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich 
Islands," (1843,) "Scenes and Scenery in the Sandwich 
Islands, "(1844,) "Art Hints," (1855,) afterwards enlarged 
and republished as " Art Studies," " The Art Idea, Sculp- 
ture, Painting, and Architecture in America," (1865,) 
" Art Thoughts," (1869,) and " Italian Rambles," (1883.) 
Died in Switzerland in 1888. 

Jar'vis, (ABRAHAM,) D.D., Bishop of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, was born at Norwalk, in Connecticut, 
m !739- He graduated at Yale in 1761, and became 
Bishop of Connecticut in 1797. Died in 1813. 

Jarvis, (EDWARD,) M.D., an American statistician, 
born at Concord, Massachusetts, January 9, 1803. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 1826, and took his pro- 
fessional degree at the Massachusetts Medical School in 
1830. Among his works are " Practical Physiology," 
(1848,) "Primary Physiology," (1849,) and other school- 
books on physiology and health, besides a large number 
of reports, memorials, tables, and other papers regarding 
public health, mortality-rates, education, longevity, in- 
crement of population, insanity, and other matters per- 
taining to state medicine. Died October 31, 1884. 

Jar'vis, (JOHN,) an artist, born in Dublin about 1749, 
had a great reputation for his paintings on glass and his 
exquisite manner of finishing single subjects. Among 
his principal works is the west window of New College 
Chapel, Oxford, from a design of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
Died in 1804. 

Jarvis, (JOHN WESLEY,) a distinguished artist, born 
in the north of England in 1780, came at an early age to 
New York, where he gained a high reputation by his 
portraits. He was also noted for his eccentricities and 
genial humour. Died January 12, 1840. 

See DUNLAF, "Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in 
America;" TUCKBRMAN, " Book of the Artists. M 

Jarvis, (SAMUEL FARMER,) D.D., LL.D., an Ameri- 
can clergyman and author, son of Bishop Jarvis, was 
born in Middletown, Connecticut, in 1786. He graduated 
at Yale in 1805, and was for some time professor of 
Oriental literature in Washington (now Trinity) College 

at Hartford, and from 1837 to 1842 was rector of Christ 
Church in his native town. He wrote " A Chronological 
Introduction to the History of the Church," etc., (1845,) 
and " The Church of the Redeemed ; or, The History 
of the Mediatorial Kingdom," (1850.) Died in 1851. 

Jasikov or Ja2Jkov. See YAZIKOF. 

Jasmin, zhis'maN', or Jansemin, zhSNSs'maN', 
(JACQUES or JAQUOU,) the "Barber Poet of Agen," born 
at that town in 1798. His poems, which are written 
in the Proven9al patois, enjoy the highest popularity in 
France, and display great powers of humour and pathos, 
with a charming simplicity of diction. Among the most 
admired are "The Curl-Papers," ("Los Papillotos,") 
and "The Blind Girl of Castel-Cnillc*," ("L'Abuglo de 
Castel-Cuille'.") The latter has been translated into 
English by Longfellow. Died in 1864. 

See SAINTE-BEUVE, "Causeries du Lundi;" " Nouvelle Biogra- 
phic Generate ;" " Foreign Quarterly Review" for October, 1849. 

Ja'son, [Gr. 'laowv,] a semi-fabulous Greek hero, cele- 
brated as the leader of the Argonautic expedition, which 
was supposed to have occurred before the siege of Troy. 
The Argonauts went to Colchis to fetch a golden fleece 
which was guarded by a dragon. Jason succeeded in 
this enterprise by the aid of Medea, a sorceress, whom 
he married. (See MEDEA.) 

Jason, tyrant of Pheras, and chief magistrate of Thes- 
saly, was ambitious and enterprising. He obtained 
control of Thessaly in 374 B.C., and aspired to be master 
of all Greece. He was assassinated in 369 B.C. 

Jas'per, (\\'ILLIAM,) (known in history as SERGEANT 
JASPER,) a brave soldier of the American Revolution, 
born in South Carolina about 1750. When the American 
flag was shot away in the attack on Fort Moultrie, June 
28, 1776, he leaped outside the walls of the fort, amidst 
a perfect storm of cannon-shot, replaced the flag, and 
returned to his post without injury. For this gallant 
service Governor Rutledge presented to him his own 
sword. He afterwards served with distinction under 
Marion, and was killed at Savannah in October, 1779- 

Jastrow, yis'trov, (MARCUS MORDECAI,) Ph.D., a 
Jewish scholar, born at Rogasen, Prussian Poland, June 
5, 1829. He studied at Posen, Berlin, and Halle, grad- 
uating at the latter university in 1856, was preacher at 
Warsaw, 1858-62, and rabbi at Mannheim, Warsaw, and 
Worms, 1862-66, in which year he removed to the United 
States and became a rabbi in Philadelphia. His prin- 
cipal works are " Lectures," in Polish, (1862,) "Jewish 
Laws," in Polish, (1859,) "Four Hundred Years of Jew- 
ish History," (1865,) " Episodes of Jewish History," and 
a "Complete Talmudic Dictionary," a colossal work. 
not yet finished, 

Jaszay, ya'si, (PAUL, or PAL,) a Hungarian historian, 
born at Szant6 in 1809. He became a secretary to the 
Batthyanyi ministry, and died in 1852. He wrote two 
valuable histories, "The History of the Hungarian 
People after the Battle of Mohacs," (1846, incomplete,) 
and " History of the Hungarian People from the Oldest 
Times to the Publication of the Golden Bull," (1855.) 

Jaubert, zhoTjaiR', (FRANC.OIS,) COMTE, a French 
lawyer, born at Condom in 1758. In 1804 he became 
president of the Tribunate. In 1806 he was appointed 
councillor of state. Died in 1822. 

Jaubert, (HIPPOLYTE FRANC.OIS,) a French minister 
of state, and naturalist, a nephew of the preceding, was 
born in Paris in 1798. He became minister of public 
works in 1840. He published " Illustrationes Plantarum 
Orientalium," (2 vols., 1842-46.) Died Dec. 5, 1874. 

See " NouveUe Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Orientalist, born in Provence in 1779, accompanied Na- 
poleon to Egypt as first secretary-interpreter in 1799. 
He was appointed, after his return, professor of Persian 
in the College of France, was elected to the Academy 
of Inscriptions in 1830, and made a peer of France in 
1841. He contributed to the "Journal Asiatique," and 
wrote a number of learned works. Died in 1847. 

See E. BIOT, "Notice biographique sur M. Jaubert ;" QUBRARD, 
"La France Litteraire." 

Jaucourt, de, deh zho'kooR', (ARNAIL FRANCOIS,) 
MARQUIS, a French politician, born in Paris in 1757, 
was a moderate member of the Legislative Assembly 

t; 9 as*; ghard; gas/;G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. (JEg^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




in 1791. In Jane, 1814, he acted as minister of foreign 
affairs in the absence of Talleyrand. He founded the 
Protestant Bible Society of Paris. Died in 1852. 

Jauoourt, de, (Louis,) CHEVALIER, an accomplished 
French writer and scholar, born in Paris in 1704. He 
studied at Geneva, Cambridge, and Leyden, and was a 
pupil of Boerhaave in medicine. He published in 1734 
a " History of the Life and Works of Leibnitz," which 
is much admired. He wrote many articles on natural 
philosophy, natural history, literature, etc. for the great 
French Encyclopaedia of Diderot His principles were 
more consistent with the Christian religion than those 
of the other Encyclopaedists. He wrote a voluminous 
Medical Lexicon, but lost the manuscript at sea, and 
contributed largely to the " Bibliotheque raisonne'e des 
Ouvrages des Savants de 1'Europe," (1728-40.) Died 
at Compiegne in 1779. 

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale;" MM. HAAG, "La France 

JaufEret, zho'fi4', (GASPARD JEAN ANDRE JOSEPH,) 
a French writer on theology, born in Provence in 1759, 
became chaplain to Napoleon about 1804, Bishop of Metz 
in 1806, and Archbishop of Aix in 1811. Died in 1823. 

Jauflret, (Louis FRANCOIS,) a brother of the pre- 
ceding, was born in Paris in 1770. He was secretary of 
the Academy of Marseilles, and wrote several valuable 
juvenile books. Died about 1850. 

Jaugeon, zho'zh6N', (N.,) an able French mechani- 
cian, who wrote several works on natural history and 
physiology. Died in 1725. 

Jault, zho, (AUGUSTIN FRANCOIS,) a physician and 
Orientalist, born in Franche-Comte^ in 1700, became 
professor of Greek and Syriac in the Royal College at 
Paris. He translated Ockley's " History of the Sara- 
cens" (1748) from the English, and several medical works 
from the Latin. Died in 1757. 

Jauregui y Aguilar, de, di How-ra'gee e 1-ge-laR', 
(JUAN,) Chevalier de Calatrava, a Spanish poet and 
painter, born at Toledo about 1570. In 1607 he visited 
Rome, where he studied Italian and improved himself 
in the art of painting. He translated into his native 
tongue the "Pharsalia" of Lucan and the "Aminta" of 
Tasso, (1607.) The latter is an excellent version. He 
introduced a superior style among the Spanish painters. 
Died in 1650, or, according to some, in 1640. 

See TICKNOR, " History of Spanish Literature ;" QUILLJET, " Dic- 
tionnaire des Peintres Espagnols." 

Javello, ya-vel'lo, (CRISOSTOMO,) a learned philoso- 
pher and theologian of the Dominican order, was born 
near Milan about 1471. 

Jav-o-le'nus, (PRiscus,) a Roman jurist, supposed to 
have lived under the reigns of Nerva and Hadrian. He 
wrote an " Epitome of the Libri Posteriores of Labeo," 
and several treatises on law. 

Jay, zr4, (ANTOINE,) a French journalist and littira- 
teur, born in the Gironde in 1770. He was for many 
years chief editor of the " Constitutionnel," a daily paper 
of Paris, and the " Minerve." In politics he was liberal. 
He spent seven years in the United States, 1795-1802. 
In 1832 he was chosen a member of the French Academy. 
His most important work is a " History of the Ministry 
of Cardinal Richelieu," (1815,) which is highly praised 
by Henri Martin. Died in 1854. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Jay, (HARRIETT,) an English novelist and actress, 
born near London, September 22, 1857. She published 
"The Queen of Connaught," (1875,) "Dark Colleen," 
(1876,) "Two Men and a Maid," (1881,) and other 
works. She went upon the stage in 1881. She was a 
sister-in-law ol Robert Buchanan, and became his second 
wife in 1884. 

Jay, (JOHN,) an illustrious American statesman, first 
chief justice of the United States, was born in New York, 
December 12, 1745. He was descended on his father's 
side from Pierre Jay, a Huguenot merchant of La Ro- 
chelle, who fled to England on the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes. Jay graduated at King's (now Columbia) 
College in 1764, and was admitted to the bar of New 
York in 1 768. At this period he combined in a remark- 
able degree the dignity and gravity of manhood with the 
ardour of youth. His talents soon procured for him 

both an extensive legal practice and great influence in 
the political assemblies called to consider the aggressive 
policy of the British government Elected to the first 
Continental Congress at Philadelphia in 1774, he took 
a leading part in all its proceedings, and, as one of a 
committee of three, drew up the address to the people 
of Great Britain, which at once procured for its author 
the reputation of being one of the ablest and most elo- 
quent writers in America. He also prepared the address 
issued by Congress in 1775 to the people of Canada. In 
the general debates he took strong ground in favour of 
the central authority and against separate colonial action. 
Having been recalled from Philadelphia in May, 1776, 
to take part in the deliberations of the New York pro- 
vincial Congress, his name does not appear on the 
Declaration of Independence, which, however, received 
his cordial support He exerted great influence in the 
convention which met in August of the same year to 
frame a State government for New York. To arouse 
the people from the despondency occasioned by the 
disasters to our arms, he prepared, in December, an 
address to the country, which was issued by the con- 
vention and ordered by Congress to be translated into 
German. He also reported to the New York conven- 
tion, in March, 1777, a bill of rights, and had a chief 
share in framing the Constitution. Before its adjourn- 
ment, May, 1777, the convention appointed Jay chief 
justice of New York. 

In December, 1778, he again took his seat in Congress, 
and a few days after was chosen its president His dig- 
nified and impartial discharge of the duties of this posi- 
tion won the esteem of all parties. In September, 1779, 
he resigned the offices both of president and chief justice, 
to accept the appointment of minister to Spain to nego- 
tiate for a loan of $5,000,000 and for the free navigation 
of the Mississippi. After many months of vexatious 
and fruitless labours at Madrid, he proceeded to Paris, 
and took part with Adams, Franklin, and others in ne- 
gotiating the treaty of peace between the United States 
and Great Britain, signed September 3, 1783. Jay re- 
turned to New York in July, 1784, and, learning that 
Congress had already appointed him secretary of foreign 
affairs, then probably the most important office in the 
government, he accepted this position in December 
following, and discharged its duties until the election of 
Washington as President of the United States in 1789. 
To answer the objections of the opponents to the Federal 
Constitution as it came from the General Convention of 
1787, Jay united with Hamilton and Madison in writing 
"The Federalist" "No constitution of government," 
says Chancellor Kent, " ever received a more masterly 
and successful vindication." Jay contributed greatly 
towards overcoming the majority against the Constitution 
in the New York convention called to adopt or rejec* 
it in 1788, (at first the vote stood only eleven for, to 
forty-six against it ; afterwards thirty for, to twenty-seven 
against,) and on the reorganization of the government 
under it in 1789 he was offered by Washington, it is said, 
the choice of the offices in his gift He accepted that of 
chief justice of the supreme court " His general learn- 
ing and ability," says Daniel Webster, " and especially 
the prudence, the mildness, and the firmness of his char- 
acter, eminently fitted Mr. Jay to be at the head of such 
a court" In 1792 Jay received a majority of the votes 
for Governor of New York ; but, on some technical 
grounds, George Clinton, the Republican candidate, was 
declared elected. In writing of this result to his wife, he 
said, " A few years will put us all in the dust ; and then 
it will be of more importance to me to have governed 
myself than to have governed a State." In 1794 Jay 
accepted with reluctance the appointment of special 
minister to England to negotiate a settlement of the dif- 
ficulties between the two countries, well knowing that 
in the state of public feeling no adjustment that could be 
effected would give satisfaction to all parties. He con- 
cluded a treaty on the igth of November of the same year. 
It provided, among other things, that pre-revolutionary 
debts owed to British subjects should be paid by the 
United States, that the British government should indem- 
nify Americans for losses sustained by illegal captures, etc. 
(About $10,000,000 were afterwards paid on this account) 

a, e,T, 5, u, y,long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon; 




This treaty was at once assailed with almost unexampled 
violence by the party favourable to France. Mobs lighted 
bonfires with it in the principal cities, and in Boston Jay 
himself was burned in effigy. On the other hand, Ham- 
ilton defended the treaty with an ability that extorted 
the admiration even of its opponents, and Fisher Ames, 
in one of the greatest efforts of American eloquence, 
declared that the " treaty had justly raised the character 
of the nation." It was finally carried into effect by a 
vote of fifty-eight to fifty-one. While Jay was absent 
in England, he was elected, without his knowledge or 
consent, Governor of New York, an office which he 
held for six years. It was under his administration that 
slavery in that State was abolished. In writing to a 
friend, in 1780, he had declared, "Till America comes 
into this measure, [the abolition of slavery,] her prayers 
to Heaven for liberty will be impious." Five years later 
(1785) he was made president of a society in New York 
"to promote the manumission of slaves." Having de- 
clined a re-election at the close of his second guberna- 
torial term, Jay was nominated and confirmed by the 
Senate to succeed Oliver Ellsworth in his former office 
of chief justice of the United States; but this honour he 
also declined, and for the remainder of his life resided 
on his estate at Bedford, Westchester county, New York. 
He died May 17, 1829. "In lofty disinterestedness," 
says Hildreth, " in unyielding integrity, in superiority 
to the illusions of passion, no one of the great men of 
the Revolution approached so near to Washington," 
(as Jay.) Jay was a member of the Episcopal Church, 
and was a man of deep religious as well as earnest moral 
convictions ; the Bible is said to have been his con- 
stant study. In stature he was somewhat less than six 
feet in height ; he was well formed, but rather thin, face 
colourless, with deep-blue eyes, and aquiline nose. 

See a " Life of John Jay, with Selections from his Writings," by 
his son, WILLIAM JAY, 2 vols., 1833; JAMES RENWICK, " Lives of 
John Jay and Alexander Hamilton," 1840; HENRY FLANDERS, 
Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the United States," 
1855 ; " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," voL 
u. ; " North American Review" for July, 1823, and October, 1833. 

Jay, (JOHN,) an eminent lawyer, a grandson of the 
preceding, and a son of Judge William Jay, was born in 
New York in 1817. He graduated at Columbia College 
in 1836, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1839. 
He distinguished himself as an opponent of slavery, and 
was counsel for several fugitive slaves in the courts of 
law. From 1869 to 1875 he was minister to Austria, 
and from 1883 to 1888 president of the New York 
State Civil Service Commission. He was twice chosen 
president of the Union League of New York. Died 
May 5, 1894. 

Jay, (WILLIAM,) a popular English dissenting minis- 
ter and writer, born at Tisbury, Wiltshire, in 1769. He 
was the pupil and protege of the Rev. Cornelius Winter. 
He began to preach about the age of sixteen, and be- 
came in 1791 minister of Argyle Chapel, Bath, where 
he continued to preach for sixty-two years. He was 
called the "prince of preachers" by the eminent John 
Foster. Among his works are " Morning and Evening 
Exercises," (1842,) "Lectures on Female Scripture 
Characters," (1854,) a "Life of Cornelius Winter," 
"Mornings with Jesus," (1854,) and "Evenings with 
Jesus," (1854.) Died in December, 1853. 

Jay, (WILLIAM,) an American philanthropist, second 
son of Chief- Justice Jay, was born in New York in 1789. 
He graduated at Yale in 1807, and on the death of his 
father, in 1829, succeeded to the family estate at Bedford. 
He had previously, in 1820, been appointed first judge 
of Westchester county, in which office he was continued 
till superseded, in 1842, on account of his anti-slavery 
opinions. He early entered upon his philanthropic 
labours, and continued to exert himself in behalf of 
the temperance reform, the abolition of slavery, educa- 
tional and missionary enterprises, Sunday-schools, tract 
and Bible societies, etc., for the remainder of his life. He 
was for several years the president of the American 
Peace Society, and was one of the chief founders of the 
American Bible Society. His principal works are the 
" Life of John Jay, with Selections from his Writings," 
(2 vols., 1833,) "An Inquiry into the Character and 

Tendency of the American Colonization and American 
Anti-Slavery Societies," (1835,) "A View of the Action 
of the Federal Government in Behalf of Slavery," (1839,) 
" War and Peace," (1848,) and " A Review of the Causes 
and Consequences of the Mexican War," (1849.) Died 
at Bedford, New York, in 1858. 

Jay, le, (Gui MICHEL.) See LE JAY. 

Jayadeva or Djayadeva, jl-a-da'va, a celebrated 
Hindu poet, known as the author of the " Gita Govinda," 
("Song of Krishna,") a famous Sanscrit poem in honour 
of Krishna. The time and circumstances of his life are 
unknown. An Oriental critic refers to Jayadeva as a 
poet in the following terms : " Whatever is delightful 
in the modes of music, . . . whatever is exquisite in 
the sweet art of love, whatever is graceful in the strains 
of poetry, all thit let the happy and wise learn from 
the songs of Jayadeva." 

See MOOR, "Hindu Pantheon;" "Asiatic Researches," vol. iii 
p. 207. 

Jazet, zhjPzi', (JEAN PIERRE MARIE,) a French en- 
graver, born in Paris in 1788. He perfected the art of 
engraving in aquatint, and reproduced the works of 
Horace Vernet and other masters. Died in 1871. 

Jeacocke, ja'kok, ? (CALEB,) a baker of London, 
known as the author of the " Vindication of the Moral 
Character of the Apostle Paul against the Charges of 
Hypocrisy and Insincerity brought by Bolingbroke, Mid- 
dleton, and Others," (1765.) Died in 1786. 

Jeaffreson, jef'fer-sn, (JOHN CORDY,) an English 
author, born at Framlingham, in Suffolk, January 14, 
1831. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, 
where he graduated in 1852. In 1859 he was called to 
the bar at the Middle Temple. He has published 
"Crewe Rise," (1854,) "The Rapier of Regent's Park," 
(1882,) and a dozen other novels, "Novels and Novel- 
ists," (1858,) " A Book about Doctors," (1860,) " A Book 
about Lawyers," (1866,) "The Real Lord Byron," 
(1883,) " Lady Hamilton and Lord Nelson," (1889,) 
"Victoria, Queen and Empress," (1893,) etc. 


Jean Bon Saint-Andr6, zh8N b6N saN'toN'dRi', 
BARON, a French revolutionist, born at Montauban in 
1749. He studied theology, and became a Protestant 
minister. He was chosen deputy to the National Con- 
vention in 1792, joined the Jacobins, voted for the death 
of the king, and was elected one of the committee of 
public safety. He was appointed prefect of Mayence, 
(Mentz,) where he won great esteem by the firmness, in 
tegrity, and wisdom of his administration. Died in 1815. 

Jean Jacques. See ROUSSEAU. 

Jean de Matha. See JOHN OF MATHA, SAINT. 

Jean de Paris, zhoN de pt're', a French Dominican, 
and professor of theology at Paris, wrote " De Regia 
Potestate et Papali," in which he maintained the caus? 
of King Philip against the pope. Died in 1304. 

Jean Paul. See RICHTER. 

Jeanes, jeenz, (HENRY,) an English divine, born at 
Allensay, in Somersetshire, in 1611. He wrote a treatise 
on "Abstinence from Evil," one entitled "The Image 
Unbroken," (1651,) in defence of Charles I., and a work 
in reply to the " Iconoclastes" of Milton. Died in 1662. 

Jeanne d'Albret, zhtn dil'bRi', or Joan, Queen of 
Navarre, born in 1528, was the only child of Henri 
d'Albret, King of Navarre, and Marguerite, sister of the 
French monarch Francis I. Her earliest suitor was Philip, 
the son of Charles V. of Germany ; but Francis I. opposed 
the union, and gave her in marriage to Antoine de Bour- 
bon, Duke of Vendome, in 1548. Through her husband's 
influence she embraced the Calvinistic faith, caused it to 
be introduced into Navarre, and in a short time was re- 
garded as one of the chief supporters of Protestantism in 
France. On the I3th of December, 1553, she gave birth to 
a son, afterwards known as the illustrious Henry IV. In 
I 555> w i'h ner husband, she succeeded to the sovereignty 
of Navarre. Two years later, her husband, having been 
appointed lieutenant-general of France, was killed at 
the siege of Rouen. Jeanne died at Paris in 1572. She 
was distinguished for her talents, virtues, and heroic 

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais :" DB THOO, " Historil 
sui Temporis;" D'AuBlGNB, " Me"moire." 

eas.4,- 9asj; ghard; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in Mil. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Jeanne d'Arc. See JOAN OF ARC. 

Jeanne of Naples. See JOAN OF NAPLES. 

Jeanne of Navarre. See JOAN OP NAVARRE. 

Jeauiiin, zhJ'naN', (PIERRE,) a French statesman and 
diplomatist of high reputation, born at Autun in 1540. 
He held an office at Dijon in 1572, when a royal order 
came for the massacre of the Protestants. Although he 
was a zealous Catholic, he persuaded the local authori- 
ties to disobey or suspend the execution of the order, 
which in a few days was countermanded. He afterwards 
became president of the Parliament of Dijon. In 1594 
he gave his adhesion to Henry IV., who employed him 
on important foreign missions. He gained the confidence 
ofthe king in a high degree. After the death of Henry 
IV., (1610,) the queen, Marie de Me'dicis, appointed 
Jeannin controller of the finances, and confided to him 
the chief direction of affairs. He died in 1622, leaving 
" Memoirs of his Negotiations," (1656.) 

Jeanron, zh8N'r6N', (PHILIPPE AUGUSTS,) a French 
painter, born at Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1809. Died 1877. 

Jeaurat, zh5'rt', (EoME SEBASTIEN,) a French as- 
tronomer, born in Paris in 1724. He published in 1750 
a valuable "Treatise on Perspective." In 1753 he was 
appointed professor of mathematics in the Military School 
of Paris, where he caused an observatory to be estab- 
lished. Among his works is " Observations on the Solai 
Eclipse of 1793." He became a member ofthe Institute 
in 1796. Died in 1803. 

Jebb, (JOHN,) M.D., a celebrated divine, born in Lon- 
don in 1736. In 1768 he delivered a course of lectures 
on the Greek Testament at Cambridge. He obtained 
the living of Ovington, in Norfolk, in 1764, and became 
chaplain to the Earl of Harborough. Having subse- 
quently embraced Socinian views, he resigned all his 
ecclesiastical appointments and commenced the study 
of medicine. He obtained his degree at Saint Andrew's, 
and practised with success. He was much engaged in 
political controversy, and earnestly advocated the Amer- 
ican cause during the Revolutionary war. Died in 1786. 

Jebb, (JOHN,) an Irish Protestant bishop and clas- 
sical scholar, born at Drogheda in 1775, was educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin. He published, in 1819 or 
1820, an important work on "Sacred Literature," which 
is highly praised by several critics. " It has the highest 
claims," says T. H. Home, " to the attention of every 
biblical student." In 1823 he was appointed Bishop of 
Limerick. Among his works is " Practical Theology," 
(2 vols., 1830.) Died in 1833. 

Jebb, (Sir RICHARD,) BART., son of Dr. Samuel Jebb, 
noticed below, was born at Stratford, in Essex, in 1 729. 
He studied medicine in London, and afterwards at the 
University of Leyden, where he obtained the degree of 
M.D. He became physician-extraordinary to George 
III. about 1777, and physician-in-ordinary to the Prince 
of Wales in 1780. Died in 1787. 

Jebb, (RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE,) a British scholar, 
born at Dundee, August 27, 1841. He was educated at 
the Charterhouse, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated in 1862 and received a Fellowship. 
In 1875 he was made Greek professor in Glasgow Univer- 
sity, in 1889 regius professor of Greek at Cambridge, 
and in 1891 was elected to Parliament for Cambridge. 
Among his works are " The Attic Orators," " Modern 
Greece," " Growth and Influence of Classical Greek 
Poetry," (1893,) etc. His greatest work is his edition 
of Sophocles, (6 vols., 1883-97.) 

Jebb, (SAMUEL,) M.D., a noted English physician 
and classical scholar, born in Nottinghamshire, was an 
uncle of John Jebb, M.D., noticed above. He embraced 
the principles of the nonjurors, and became librarian to 
the celebrated Jeremy Collier. He edited the "Dialogue 
of Justin Martyr with Trypho the Jew, in Greek and 
Latin," the " Opus Majus" of Roger Bacon, and several 
other works. Died in 1772. 

Jee-jeeb-hoy', (Sir JAMSETJEE,) BART., a Parsee mer- 
chant, born in Bombay, July 15, 1783. He acquired great 
wealth as a merchant, and was distinguished for his re- 
markable benevolence and large charities. He was made 
a baronet in 1857, and died April 15, 1859. His son, of 

the same name and titles, (born i8n,died July n, 1877,) 
was also distinguished for his charities and public spirit 
The third baronet of this name was born March 3, 1851, 
and before his succession to the title bore the name of 
Manockjee Cursetjee. 

Jef fer-spn, (JOSEPH,) a distinguished comedian, born 
in Philadelphia, of a family of actors, February 20, 1829. 
In early youth he went upon the stage, and rapidly rose 
to a very high rank in his profession. The characters 
of " Rip Van Winkle" and " Bob Eccles" are those in 
which he has attained the greatest celebrity. 

Jefferson, (THOMAS,) an eminent American statesman, 
and the third President of the United States, was born, 
April 2, 1743, at Shadwell, Virginia, near the spot which 
afterwards became his residence with the name of Mon- 
ticello. He was the oldest son in a family of eight 
children. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a man of 
great force of character and of extraordinary physical 
strength. His mother, Jane Randolph, of Goochland, 
was descended from an English family of great respecta- 
bility. Young Jefferson began his classical studies at 
the age of nine, and at seventeen he entered an advanced 
class at William and Mary College. On his way thither 
he formed the acquaintance of Patrick Henry, who was 
then a bankrupt merchant, but who afterwards became 
the great orator of the Revolution. At college Jefferson 
was distinguished by his close application, and devoted, 
it is said, from twelve to fifteen hours a day to study. 
He became well versed, we are told, in Latin, Greek, 
Italian, French, and Spanish, making at the same time 
a respectable proficiency in his mathematical studies. 
After a five years' course of law under Judge Wythe, 
he was admitted to the bar in 1767. His success in the 
legal profession was remarkable ; his fees for the first 
year amounted to nearly three thousand dollars. In 
1769 Jefferson commenced his public career as a member 
of the Virginia House of Burgesses, in which he had, 
while a student of law, listened to Patrick Henry's great 
speech on the Stamp Act. 

In 1773 he united with Patrick Henry and other pa- 
triots in devising the celebrated committee of corre- 
spondence for disseminating intelligence between the 
colonies, of which Jefferson was one of the most active 
and influential members. Elected the next year to a 
convention to choose delegates to the first Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia, he drew up for their instruc- 
tion his famous " Summary View of the Rights of British 
America," which, though rejected by the convention as 
being too radical, was subsequently issued by the House 
of Burgesses, and, after some revision by Edmund Burke, 
passed through several editions in Great Britain. June 
I, 1775, Jefferson reported to the Assembly the reply of 
Virginia to Lord North's conciliatory proposition, and 
on the 2ist of the same month took his seat in the 
Continental Congress. His reputation as a statesman 
and accomplished writer at once placed him among the 
leaders of that renowned body. He served on the most 
important committees, and, among other labours, drew 
up the reply of Congress to the above proposal of Lord 
North, and assisted John Dickinson in preparing, in be- 
half of the Colonies, a declaration of the cause of taking 
up arms. The rejection of a final petition to the king 
having at length destroyed all hope of an honourable 
reconciliation with the mother-country, Congress, early 
in the session of 1776, appointed a committee to draw 
up a declaration of independence, of which Jefferson was 
made chairman. In this capacity he drafted, at the re- 
quest ofthe other members of the committee, (Franklin, 
Adams, Sherman, and R. R. Livingston,) and reported to 
Congress, June 28, that great charter of freedom known 
as the " Declaration of American Independence," which, 
on July 4, was adopted unanimously, and signed by every 
member present except John Dickinson of Pennsylvania. 
It may be doubted if in all history there be recorded so 
important an event, or if a state paper has ever been 
framed that has exerted, or is destined to exert, so great 
an influence on the destinies of a large portion of the 
human race. The Declaration of Independence, says 
Edward Everett, " is casual to anything ever born on 
parchment or expressed in the visible signs of thought." 
" The heart of Jefferson in writing it," adds Bancroft, 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, s/iort; a, e, i, g, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; nSt; good; moon; 





'and of Congress in adopting it, beat for all humanity." 
In October following, Jefferson resigned his seat in 
Congress, and also the appointment of commissioner to 
France, to take part in the deliberations of the Virginia 
Assembly. A State Constitution had previously been 
adopted, to which he had furnished the preamble ; and 
he now applied himself to a radical revision of the laws 
of the commonwealth, in which he was engaged for two 
years and a half. Among other reforms, he procured 
the repeal of the laws of entail, the abolition of pri- 
mogeniture, and the restoration of the rights of con- 
science, reforms which, he believed, would eradicate 
"every fibre of ancient or future aristocracy." He also 
originated a complete system of elementary and collegiate 
education for Virginia. 

In June, 1779, Jefferson succeeded Patrick Henry as 
Governor of Virginia, and held the office during the 
most gloomy period of the Revolution. He declined 
a re-election in 1781, assigning as a reason that at that 
critical juncture "the public would have more confidence 
in a military chief." Two days after retiring from office, 
his estate at Elk Hill was laid waste, and he and his 
family narrowly escaped capture by the enemy. Jefferson 
was twice appointed, in conjunction with others, minister- 
plenipotentiary to negotiate a treaty of peace with Great 
Britain, viz., in June, 1781, and in November, 1782, 
but was prevented, by circumstances beyond his control, 
from action in either instance. Returned to Congress 
in 1783, he reported to that body, from a committee of 
which he was chairman, the definitive treaty of peace, 
(concluded at Paris, September 3, 1783,) acknowledging 
the independence which had been announced in the De- 
claration of July 4, 1776. He also proposed, and carried 
through Congress at its next session, a bill establishing 
the present Federal system of coinage, which took the 
place of the English pounds, shillings, pence, etc., and 
reported a plan of government for the territory of the 
United States. In May following, (1784,) Congress ap- 
pointed him minister-plenipotentiary to act with Frank- 
lin and Adams in negotiating treaties of commerce and 
amity with foreign powers; and in 1785 he succeeded 
Dr. Franklin as resident minister at Paris. It was during 
this sojourn in France, which was one of the happiest 
periods of Jefferson's life, that he formed that strong 
predilection for the French nation over the English 
which marked so conspicuously his subsequent career. 
He published, while abroad, his famous "Notes on Vir- 
ginia," relating to politics, commerce, manufactures, etc., 
(Paris, 1784,) which at once attracted general attention 
throughout Europe. Having obtained permission to 
return to America, he left Paris in September, 1789, and 
reached Virginia soon after the election of Washington 
as first President of the United States. The Federal 
Constitution, then recently adopted, did not meet with 
his approval. He declared that he did not know whether 
the good or the bad predominated. Subsequently, how- 
ever, he thought more favourably of it. In organizing 
the government, Washington offered him a seat in his 
cabinet as secretary of state, which Jefferson accepted. 

With Washington's administration began the fierce 
struggles between the two great political parties of the 
country, the Republicans and Federalists, the former 
under the lead of Jefferson, and the latter under that 
of Alexander Hamilton, then secretary of the treasury. 
Jefferson opposed Hamilton's funding system, his United 
States bank, and other financial measures ; and when the 
war broke out between England and France he was ir 
favour of aiding the latter with our arms, while Hamilton 
advocated the observance of a strict neutrality. These 
differences between the two rival chiefs, which were the 
occasion of many stormy discussions in the cabinet and 
of an almost unexampled political excitement throughout 
the country, culminated shortly after the dismissal of the 
French minister Genest, (Genet,) and Jefferson resigned 
his office, December 31, 1793, and retired to Monticello. 
At the close of Washington's second term he was again 
called into public life, as the Presidential candidate of 
the Republican party, John Adams being the nominee of 
the Federalists. In the ensuing election Adams received 
the highest number of votes, and was declared President ; 
and, according to a rule then in force, Jefferson, being 

the nert highest candidate, became Vice- President. By 
virtue of this office he took his seat, March 4, 1797, 
as president of ihe Senate. The disputes with France, 
and other difficult questions, rendered the administration 
one of extraordinary turbulence. At its close, Jefferson 
and Adams were again the respective candidates of the 
Republican and Federal parties. In this election the Re- 
publicans triumphed, but cast an equal number of votes 
for Jefferson and Aaron Burr, seventy-three: Adams 
received but sixty-five. As it was necessary that the 
person chosen to the first office should have a plurality 
of votes, the election, in these circumstances, devolved 
upon the House of Representatives, which, on its thirty- 
sixth ballot, declared Jefferson President and Burr Vice- 
President, their terms of office to commence March 4, 
1801. Jefferson was re-elected in 1804 by an electoral vote 
of one hundred and forty-eight to twenty-eight, and in 
1809 retired voluntarily from office, after a prosperous ad- 
ministration of eight years. Among the important events 
that occurred during his term of office were the purchase 
of Louisiana, (1803,) the brilliant victories of our fleets in 
the Mediterranean, and peace with Morocco and Tripoli, 
in 1803, Lewis and Clark's overland exploring expedi- 
tion to the Pacific, sent out by the President in 1804, the 
arrest and trial of Aaron Burr for treason, 1807, and the 
attack, the same year, of the British war-frigate Leopard 
on the American frigate Chesapeake, which led to Jeffer- 
son's embargo act and ultimately to the second war with 
Great Britain. Washington and Adams had opened Con- 
gress with a speech ; but fefferson preferred a written 
message, as being more democratic. He also initiated 
the policy of removing incumbents from office on the 
grounds of a difference in political opinion. After par- 
ticipating in the inauguration of his friend and successor, 
James Madison, Jefferson retired to Monticello, where 
he passed the remainder of his life in attending to hia 
private affairs, receiving the numerous calls of friends 
and strangers, and in the exercise of a most liberal hos- 
pitality. In 1819 he took the chief part in founding the 
University of Virginia, at Charlottesville, near Monti- 
cello, and acted as its rector till his death, which occurred 
on the same day with that of John Adams, July 4, 1826, 
the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The following epitaph, written by himself, is 
inscribed on his tombstone, a small granite obelisk, at 
Monticello : " Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author 
of the Declaration of Independence, of the Statute of 
Virginia for Religious Freedom, and Father of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia." As the author of the Declaration of 
Independence and the founder of the Republican (Demo- 
cratic) party, Jefferson has probably exerted a greater 
influence on the institutions of this country than any other 
American except Washington. He was regarded as the 
very embodiment of democracy. All titles of honour 
even that of Mr. were distasteful to him. Dressed 
in the plainest apparel, he was as accessible to the 
yeoman in his every-day garments as to a foreign dig- 
nitary of state. In his intercourse with others he was 
distinguished for his affability. His conversation was 
fluent, imaginative, various, and eloquent. " In Europe," 
wrote the Due de Liancourt, "he would hold a distin- 
guished rank among men of letters." His adroitness in 
politics and in the management of men has rarely been 
surpassed. In religion he was what is denominated a 
free-thinker. "His instincts," says Bancroft, "all in- 
clined him to trace every fact to a general law, and to 
put faith in ideal truth." Slavery he considered a moral 
and political evil, and declared in reference to it that he 
"trembled for his country when he remembered that 
God is just." His extreme views of State rights in 
later life were very much modified, and he owned that 
it was necessary for the general government sometimes 
to show its teeth." 

In his prime, J>fferson was six feet two and a half 
inches in height, with a sinewy, well-developed frame 
angular face, but amiable countenance, and ruddy com- 
plexion delicately fair. He had deep-set, light-hazel eyes, 
and hair of a reddish chestnut colour, very fine. He 
was married in 1772 to Mrs. Martha Skelton, daughter 
of John Wales, a distinguished Virginia lawyer. She 
brought him a large dowry in lands and slaves, about 

c as k; c as s; g hard; g as/V G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 




equal in value to his own property; but his liberalit) 
and generous living left him insolvent at his death. One 
daughter and ten grandchildren survived him. "The 
Memoirs, Correspondence, and Private Papers of Thomas 
Jefferson," in 4 vols. Svo, edited by his grandson, Thomas 
Jefferson Randolph, was published at Charlottesville in 
1829, and republished in London and Boston the same 
year, and in New York in 1830. In 1848 his manuscripts 
were purchased by Congress, and published under the 
title of " The Writings of Thomas Jefferson," in 9 vols. 
?"0, 1853-55. His " Manual of Parliamentary Practice" 
it still in use among legislative bodies in this country. 

See, in addition to the works already mentioned, HENRY S. RAN- 
DALL, " Life of T. Jefferson," 3 vols., 1858 ; GEORGE TUCKER, " Life 
of Thomas Jefferson." 1836 : B. L. RAYNER, " Life of Thomas Jef- 
ferson," 1834; THEODORE DWIGHT, "Character of T. Jefferson," 
1839; W. LINN, " Life of T. Jefferson," 1835: NICHOLAS BIDDLE, 
"Eulogy on T. Jefferson," 1827; GBISWOLD, "Prose Writers of 
America:" DUYCKINCK, " Cyclopedia of American Literature,' 
Tol. i. ; "Edinburgh Review" for July, 1830, and October, 1837. 
"North American Review" for April, 1830, and January, 1835: 
"Westminster Review" for October, 1830: and an excellent article 
on Jefferson in the " New American Cyclopzdia," (by JOHN E. 

Jeffery or Jeffrey, (JOHN,) an English divine, born 
at Ipswich in 1647. He was chosen rector of Kirton 
and Falkenham, in Suffolk, in 1687, and was appointed 
Archdeacon of Norwich in 1694. He published the 
religious works of Sir Thomas Browne. Dr. Jeffrey was 
strongly opposed to religious controversy. Died in 1720. 

See " Life of Jeffery," prefixed to his " Sermons." 

Jeffery or Jeffrey, (THOMAS,) an English dissent- 
.iig minister, born at Exeter about the year 1700. He 
was the author of several religious works, in which he 
displayed great ability. Of these we may mention "The 
True Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion," 
and " The Divinity of Christ proved from Holy Scrip- 
ture." Died about 1728. 

Jeffrey, (FRANCIS,) LORD, a distinguished Scottish 
critic and essayist, born in Edinburgh on the 23d of Oc- 
tober, 1773. He was sent to the University of Glasgow 
in 1787, and removed in 1791 to Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, where he remained but a few months. In 1794 he 
was admitted an advocate to the Scottish bar, but for 
several years obtained scarcely any practice. About 
this time he became a member of the Speculative Soci- 
ety of Edinburgh, where he formed the acquaintance of 
several young men afterwards eminent in the literary 
and political world. Among these were Sydney Smith 
and Henry (afterwards Lord) Brougham, with whom he 
projected the "Edinburgh Review," the first number 
of which was issued in October, 1802. Three numbers 
were edited by Smith ; but upon his removal to London 
the entire charge devolved upon Jeffrey, who held the 
position of editor for the ensuing twenty-six years. It 
was successful from the first, and in a short time the 
circulation had increased to about nine thousand, and 
in 1813 it considerably exceeded twelve thousand. As 
Jeffrey himself expressed it, "it stood on two legs, the 
one being the criticism of current literature, the othei 
being Whig politics." The commencement of the "Ed- 
inburgh Review" formed a new era in English literature, 
and completely changed the style of the popular maga- 
zines. Jeffrey was the principal contributor ; and his 
articles in both politics and criticism attracted great atten- 
tion. Scott, Byron, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Moore, and 
other distinguished poets of that period were severely 
sometimes unjustly criticised ; but most of them after- 
wards became warm friends of the great reviewer. About 
1802 he married his second-cousin, Catherine Wilson, 
who died in 1805. In 1813 he married an American lady 
in New York, named Charlotte Wilkes. Though Jeffrey- 
devoted so much of his time to editorial labours, his 
practice as a lawyer greatly increased. In rapidity, flu- 
ency, and eloquence he had no equal at the Scottish bar. 
Once, while conducting the prosecution of a libel-suit 
at Glasgow, he poured forth such a torrent of words that 
the opposing counsel declared " that, by calculation with 
his watch, that man had actually spoken the English 
Janguage twice over in three hours." In 1820 he was 
elected lord rector of the University of Glasgow. Nine 
(rears later he became dean of the faculty of advocates, 
and thereupon resigned the editorial chair of the 

'Edinburgh Review." In 1830 he was elected to the 
first Parliament of William IV. He continued in Par- 
liament four years, and held the office of lord advocate 
of Scotland under the administration of Grey. He re- 
ceived the appointment to a Scottish judgeship in 1834, 
with the honorary title of Lord. As a judge he was 
highly esteemed for his conscientiousness and his busi- 
ness qualifications. Lord Jeffrey's contributions to the 
" Edinburgh Review" extend over a period of nearly 
fifty years, and amount to over three hundred articles. 
The greater part of these were published, in 4 vols., in 
1843. Died in January, 1850. 

See LORD COCKBURN, "Life of Lord Jeffrey," i vols., :35: 
ALLIKONE, " Dictionary of Authors ;" " Quarterly Review" for July, 
1852; "Blackwood's Magazine" for September and October. 1852: 
"Eraser's Magazine" for May, 1852; "North British Review" for 
May, 1850, and August, 1852. Foi an able, though somewhat severe, 
review of Jeffrey's character as a critic, see article entitled " British 
Critics," published in the second volume of WHIPPLH'S " Essays and 
Reviews," New York, 1849: (it first appeared in the " North Amer- 
ican Review" for October, 1845.) 

Jeffrey, (RoSA VERTNER,) an American novelist, 
born at Natchez, Mississippi, in 1828. Her maiden 
name was GRIFFITH, the name Vertner being that of an 
aunt who adopted her. When seventeen years old, she 
married a Mr. Johnson, of Lexington, Kentucky, and 
after his death married Mr. Alexander Jeffrey. Among 
her works are "Poems," (1857,) "Daisy Dare," etc., 
(1871,) "Crimson Hand, and other Poems," (1881,) and 
the novels " Woodburn" (1863) and " Marah," (1884.) 

Jeffreys, (Lord GEORGE,) Baron Wem, the infamorj 
minion of James II., was born at Acton, in Denbighshire, 
and studied law at the Middle Temple. At first he pro- 
fessed to be a Roundhead, and was chosen recorder of 
London, and city judge. During his practice at the Old 
Bailey bar he had acquired a boundless command of the 
language in which the depraved express hatred and con- 
tempt ; and on the bench he hesitated not to pour forth 
torrents of oaths, curses, and vituperative epithets on 
attorneys, jurymen, witnesses, and prisoners. Age and 
merit were treated in the same manner ; for when Baxter 
was brought before him, on a charge of nonconformity, 
he railed in such a manner at that eminent divine and 
his counsel that it was impossible to obtain a fair trial. 
His voice and manners were always disagreeable ; but 
these, which he considered natural advantages, he had 
improved to such a degree that in his paroxysms of rage 
few could hear him unmoved. His eye had a terrible 
fascination for the prisoner on whom it was fixed. He 
appeared to delight in misery merely for its own sake. 
Such was the man who became the court favourite of 
James and chief justice of England. Jeffreys, perceiving 
that he had obtained all that could be expected from 
his old friends, sought the favour of the court. He 
received great attention from the Duke of York ; but 
the king regarded him with contempt and disgust Not- 
withstanding these views, however, Jeffreys was soon 
made chief justice of the king's bench. Upon James's 
accession to the throne he was raised to the peerage, 
with the title of Baron Wem, and was subsequently 
made lord high chancellor of England. He gained great 
notoriety during the trials of those who had participated 
in the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth. Pen can 
scarcely portray the atrocities committed under his juris- 
diction. He delighted in torturing, burning, hanging, 
and beheading men, women, and children, after the 
merest shams of trials. All these actions appeared to 
give great satisfaction to his sovereign. Yet his decisions 
are said to have been generally just and impartial where 
political purposes were not to be subserved. When the 
Prince of Orange came to England, the lord chancellor 
attempted to escape to the continent ; but as he was 
in a beer-house at Wapping, dressed as a sailor, he 
was discovered by an atton.ey whom he had formerly 
abused. This person gave the information to the popu- 
lace, who immediately seized Jeffreys and carried him 
before the mayor, from whence he was sent to the 
Lords. Hy them he was committed to the Tower, where 
he died in 1689, from the effects of his intemperance and 

See WOOLRYCH, "Memoirs of the Life of G. Jeffreys," 1827; 
LORD CAMPBELL, "Lives of the Lord Chancellors," 1856; MAC- 
AULAY, " History of England," vols. i. and ii. 

a, e. I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J>, short; a, f, i, 9, obscure; far, till, lit; mSt; n6t; good; moon; 




Jeffreys, (GEORGE,) in English poet, born in North- 
amptonshire in 1678. He studied at Cambridge, and 
was admitted to the bar, but never practised. Among 
his productions were several aagedies, and an oratorio, 
entitled "The Triumph of Truth." Died in 1755. 

See BAKER, " Biographia Dramatica." 

Jeffreys, (JOHN GWYN,) a Welsh naturalist, born at 
Swansea, January 18, 1809. He became a solicitor, and 
in 1856 was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but retired 
from the profession in 1866. His principal work is 
"British Conchology," (5 vols., 1862-69.) Died in 1885. 

Jeffries, jeffrez, (JOHN,) M.D., an American physi- 
cian, born in Boston in 1744. He graduated at Harvard 
in 1763, and took his medical degree at Edinburgh. In 
the Revolution he sided with the British, and became 
surgeon-major to the royal army in America. In 1780 
he resumed his profession in London. While making 
some investigations in atmospheric temperature, in 1785, 
he crossed from England to France in a balloon. This 
was the first successful experiment in aeronautics on 
an extensive scale. He returned to Boston in 1789, 
and died in 1819. 

JehSn-Geer or JahSngir, je-hSn'geer', written also 
Djahanguir, Djehanguire, Djahan Gbyr, and 
Dschehangir, (i.e. the "Conqueror of the World,") 
one of the Mogul emperors of Hindostan, succeeded his 
father, the great Akbar, in 1605. Jehangeer left Memoirs 
of his own life. He died in 1627. He inherited nothing 
of the ability of his father. It was during the reign of 
this emperor that the celebrated embassy of Sir Thomas 
Roe arrived from England at the court of Deihi. 

See COLLIN DH BAR, " Histoire de 1'Inde;" " London Quarterly 
Review" for March, 1834. 

Je-ho'a-naz, [Heb.inxirv; Fr. JOACHAZ, zho'fkiz',1 
son of Jehu, ascended the throne of Israel 856 B.C., and 
reigned seventeen years. 

See II. Kings xiii. 1-10. 

Jehoahaz, also called Shallum, succeeded his father 
Josiahon the throne of Judah, and reigned three months 
Died about 610 B.C. 

See II. Chronicles xxxvi. 1-4. 

Jehoash. See JOASH. 

Je-hoi'a-kim. [Heb. D'p'irr ; ?r. JOACHIM, zho'f- 
klN ', ] whose name was changed by Pharaoh-Necho 
from Eliakim, succeeded to the throne of Judah 608 B.C., 
and reigned eleven years. 

See II. Chronicles xxxvi. 4-9. 

Je-hoi'a-kin or Jec-o-nl'ah was the son of the pre- 
ceding, whom he succeeded as King of Judah in 597 B.C., 
and reigned three months. 

See II. Kings vx.v. ; II. Chronicles xxxvi. 8-10. 

Je-ho'ram or Jo'ram, [Heb. D">liT,j King of Israel, 
son of Ahab, succeeded to the throne 896 B.C. He was 
killed in battle by Jehu in 884 B.C. 

See 1 1. Kings i.-x. 

Jehoram or Joram, son of Jehoshaphat, ascended 
the throne of Judah 893 or 892 B.C. Died in 885 or 884. 

See II. Kings viii. 15-25; II. Chronicles xxi. 

Je-hosh'a-phat, [Heb. OStyirV; Gr. 'luoa^ar; Fr. 
TOSAPHAT, zho'zi'fSt',1 King of Judah, a son of Asa, was 
born about 950 B.C. He began to reign in 914, formed 
an alliance with Ahab, King of Israel, and reigned 
twenty-five years. He had a high reputation for piety 
and justice. 

See II. Chronicles xvii.-xxii. 

Je'hu, [Heb. XIH',] King of Israel, was an officer in 
the army of King Jehoram, when he was anointed king 
by a young prophet sent by Elisha in 884 B.C. He killed 
Jehoram, and reigned about twenty-eight years. 

See II. Kings ix. and \. 

Jek'yll, (Sir JOSEPH,) a distinguished lawyer and 
statesman, born in Nottinghamshire in 1664. He was 
a prominent member of the Whig party during the reign 
of Queen Anne, and was knighted upon the accession 
of George I. He was afterwards master of the rolls, and 
privy councillor. Died in 1738. 

Jekyll, (JOSEPH,) M.P., a witty English barrister, 
born about 1752, was distinguished by his talent for 
epigram and repartee. He became solicitor-general to 
the Prince of Wales in 1805. Died in 1837. 

Jelal-ed-Deeu or Djelal-Eddin, jeh-lil' ed-deen', 

(i.e. the "Splendour (or Glory) of Religion,") written also 
Jalal-ed-Deen and Djalal-Eddin, King of Khorasmia, 
who succeeded his father, Ala-ed-Deen, in 1218, was re- 
nowned for his military ability and enterprise. He fought 
numerous battles against Jengis Khan with various suc- 
cess. It is said that he afterwards abandoned himself to 
indolence and pleasure, and when a Mongol army in- 
vaded his capital he fled, and was killed, in 1231. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale." 

Jelal-ed-Deeu-Roomee, (Jelal-ed-Din-Raml or 
Djelal-ed-dyu-Roumy,) jeh-lal' ed-deen-roo'mee, one 
of the most eminent Persian poets, born at Bulkh or 
Balkh, in Khorassan, about 1200. His father was a 
noted doctor and preacher of the Soofee sect, who set- 
tled at Iconium, (Konieh,) in Asia Minor, (called in Arabic 
and Persian Room, because it was part of the empire 
of Rome.) At his death, in 1233, Jelal-ed-Deen became 
the chief of the Soofees. His "Mes'newee" ("Mesnewi") 
or "Mesnevee," (i.e. poem with rhyming couplets,) less 
correctly written " Metsnewee" or " Metsnevi," is re- 
garded as an excellent model of the mystical style. 
"This precious pearl of the ocean of mysticism departed 
from this fragile world" in 1272. 

Jelf, (RICHARD WILLIAM,) D.D., an English clergy- 
man and author, born in London in 1798. He graduated 
in 1820 at Oxford, and became a Fellow of Oriel and a 
tutor, was made canon of Christ Church in 1831, was 
Bampton lecturer in 1834, and in that year became prin- 
cipal of King's College, London. He wrote several 
theological works. Died at Oxford, September 19, 1871. 

Jelf, (WILLIAM EDWARD,) D.D., a brother of the pre- 
ceding, was born in Gloucester in 1811. He was educated 
at Eton, and at Christ Church, Oxford, graduating in 
1833. His "Greek Grammar" (1842-45) added greatly 
to his fame. He also edited the "Ethics" of Aristotle. 
Died October 18, 1875. 

Jellachich von Buzim, von, fon yel'la-KiK' fon 
boot'sJm, (FRANZ,) BARON, an Austrian general, born in 
1746, fought with distinction in the principal campaign? 
of the French Revolution, and rose to be lieutenaut- 
field-marshal in 1800. Died in 1810. 

Jellachich von Buzim, von, (JOSEPH,) Ban of Cro- 
atia, son of the preceding, was born at Peterwardein in 
1801. In the revolution of 1848 he was appointed Bar., 
or commander-in-chief, of the Croats, and had the prin- 
cipal share in the victory of Schwechat, near Vienna, 
over the Hungarians. He gained several advantages 
over General Bern, but was at length defeated, (1849,) and 
forced to retreat with considerable loss. Died in 1859. 

See BALLEYDIEH, " Histoire de la Guerre de Hongrie." 

Jel'lett, (JOHN HEWITT,) an Irish mathematician, 
born at Cashel, December 25, 1817. He graduated at 
Dublin University, took orders in the Episcopal Church 
was made a Fellow of Trinity College in 1840, a pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy in 1848, and provost of the 
university in iSSr. He published various able mathe- 
matical treatises. Died in 1888. 

Jellinek, yel'le-nek', (ADOLPH,) a German philologist, 
of Jewish extraction, born in Moravia in 1821, wrote on 
the Cabala and on Oriental philology. Died in 1893. 

See JOST, " Adolphe Jellinek et la Kabbale," 1852. 

Jem or Djem, j Jm, sometimes called Zizim, a Turkish 
prince, born in 1459, was a son of Mahomet II., and 
younger brother of Bayazeed, (Bajazet.) At the death of 
his father he aspired to sovereign power, but was de- 
feated in battle by Bayazeed, (1481.) Jem became an exile, 
passed some years in France, and died in Italy in 1495. 

Jemlah or Djemlah, je'm'la, [Hindoo pron. jumla,] 
(Mohammed, mo-ham'med,) called AMEER (or EM?R) 
AL OMRA, (i.e. " Prince of the Nobles,") a famous states- 
man and general, born near Ispahan. In 1652 he entered 
the service of Aurung-Zeb, and was raised to the rank of 
first vizier of the Mogul empire. Having been appointed 
Viceroy of Bengal, he commanded in 1659 an expedition 
against Assam, in which he displayed great talents and 
prudence. Died in 1665. 

See "JfouveUe Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 

Jemsheed or Jemshid, jSm-sheed', written also 
Djemchyd, Dschemschid, and Jamshid, an ancient 
Persian king, supposed to have ascended the throne 
about 800 B.C. He greatly improved and embellished 

eas/J,- ijasj; g/4ur</; gas/V G, a, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMif. 

Explanations, p. 25.) 




the city of Istakhar, or Persepolis, the ruins of which are 
now known by the name of Chilminar, (" Forty Pillars.") 
Tradition ascribes to him the introduction of the solar 
year among the Persians, and the invention of tents. He 
was dethroned by Zohak, an Arabian. 

See ATKINSON, "Abridgment of the Shah Nameh of Firdausi;" 
D'HERBELOT, " Bibliotheque Orientale." 

Jemshid or Jemschid See JEMSHEED. 

Jengis Khan, jen'gis Kin, (written also Djenguiz 
Khan. Dschengis Chan, Tchenguyz TThan Chingia 
Khan, and in various other modes,*) a celebrated Tartar 
conqueror, born in 1 164, was the son of a Mongolian chief. 
Having subdued a number of Mongol and Tartar tribes, 
he caused himself to be proclaimed khan of the nation, 
and about 1210 invaded China, took Peking, (1215,) and 
in a few years gained possession of the northern prov- 
inces. In 1218 he marched against Mohammed Koteb- 
ed-Deen, King of Khorasmia, whom he defeated, and 
afterwards destroyed Bokhara, Samarcand, and other 
cities. Having subjected the whole of Persia, he gained 
a victory over the King of Tangoot, and was proceeding 
towards the south of China, when he died in 1 227, leaving 
the principal part of his empire to his son Oktai. Jengis 
Khan is said to have caused the destruction of five mil- 
lions of human beings. He gave a code of laws, which 
is still called by his name. 

See DE GUIGNES, " Histoire ge'nirale des Huns," etc. : PBTIS 
DB LA CROIX, " Histoire du grand Genghizcan ;" A. RBMUSAT, 
" Nouvelles Melanges Asiatiques;" VON HAMMER-PURGSTALL, 
" Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak," 1840; ANTOINB 
GAUBM, "Histoire de Gentchiscan," 1739: ABOOLFBDA, " Annales 
Moslemici :" KARAMZIN, " Histoire de Russie." 

Jeuicheu or lenichen, ya'ne-Ken, (GoTTLOB AU- 
GUST,) a German jurist and bibliographer, born at Leipsic 
in 1709; died in 1750. 

Jenisch, von, fon ya'nish, (BERNHARD,) BARON, a 
German Orientalist, born at Vienna in 1743, became 
in 1772 keeper of the Imperial Library. He pub- 
lished "Persian Anthology," ("Anthologia Persica," 
1778,) and a "History of the Early Kings of Persia 
after the Establishment of the Mohammedan Religion," 
(" Historia priorum Regum Persarum post firmatum in 
Regno Islamismum ex Mohamede Mirkhond," 1792.) 
Died in 1807. 

Jenischius, ya-nis'Ke-us, (PAUL,) a Dutch or Flemish 
writer, born at Antwerp in 1558. He published "Thea- 
trum Animarum." Died in 1647. 

Jenk'in, (ROBERT,) an English divine, born in the 
isle of Thanet in 1656. He was educated at Cambridge, 
and received several preferments ; but, refusing to take 
the oaths of allegiance to William and Mary, he was 
deprived of them all. He wrote "The Reasonableness 
of the Christian Religion," (1696,) and several other 
works. Died in 1727. 

Jenkin or Jenk'yn, (WILLIAM,) an English Puritan 
minister, born at Sudbury in 1612. He preached many 
years in London, and published an " Exposition of the 
Epistle of Jude," (1652,) which is called an excellent 
work. His ministry was highly commended by Baxter. 
He died in Newgate prison in 1685. 

See J. SHERMAN, " Memoir of William Jenkin," 1839. 

Jgnk'ins, (ALBERT G.,) an American general, born 
in Cabell county, Virginia, about 1830. He represented 
a district of Virginia in Congress, 1857-61. He served 
under General Lee at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863, and 
was killed at the battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 

JSnk'ins, (DAVID,) a Welsh judge, was born in Gla- 
.norganshire in 1586. After the commencement of the 
civil war he condemned to death several persons who 
had fought against the king. He was taken prisoner by 
the Parliamentary forces, and confined in the Tower, in 
1645. Having been brought before the House of Com- 
mons on a charge of high treason, he refused to kneel, 
and called the House "a den of thieves." He was fined 
jiooo, and imprisoned in Newgate. He was released 
about 1660. He wrote several legal works. Died in 1667. 

See WOOD. " Athenae Oxonicnses." 

Jenk'ins, (EDWARD,) an English author,* born at 
Bangalore, (Orissa,) in India, in 1838. He was educated 

* This name is written in more tlinn twenty different modes, not 
counting such forms (like Gentchiscan) as are manifest errors 

at McGill College, Montreal, and at the University of 
Pennsylvania. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn 
in 1X64, was agent-general for Canada, 1874-76, and sat 
in Parliament as an "Anti-Republican Liberal" of ad- 
vanced social views, 1874-80. Among his works are 
"Ginx's Baby," " Lord Bantam," " Little Hodge," "The 
Church and the Law," " A Paladin of Romance," and 
several other books and pamphlets treating on social, 
political, and colonial questions. 

Jenk'ins, (HENRY,) an Englishman, celebrated for 
his longevity, born in Yorkshire in 1501 ; died in 1670. 

Jenkins, (JOHN,) an English musician and composer, 
born at Maidstone in 1592; died in 1678. 

Jenkins, (JoHN S.,) an American author, born at 
Albany, New York, February 15, 1818. He published, 
besides other works, " Lives ot the Governors of the 
State of New York," a "Lite of Silas Wright," and a 
"Life of Jackson," (1847.) Died September 20, 1852. 

Jenkins, (Sir LEOLINE,) a British civilian and states- 
man, born in Glamorganshire in 1623. He fought on the 
king's side in the civil war, and on the death of Charles 
became tutor to several families in Wales. He was sub- 
sequently obliged by Parliament to leave the country. 
After the restoration he was chosen principal of Jesus 
College, Cambridge. In 1665 he was appointed judge 
in the court of admiralty, and in 1672 ambassador to 
Holland. On his return he became secretary of state. 
He was twice chosen member of Parliament for the 
University of Oxford. His letters and manuscripts, con- 
taining valuable diplomatic information, were published, 
in 2 vols., in 1724. Died in 1685. 

Jeuk'iii-son, (ANTHONY,) an Englishman, travelled 
in Russia and Persia about 1560. His Adventures were 
published by Hakluyt and Purchas. 



JSnks, (BENJAMIN,) an English religious writer, born 
in 1646, was curate of Kenley and Harley. He wrote 
" Prayers and Offices of Devotion," (1697.) and " Medi- 
tations on Important Subjects," (1701.) Died in 1724. 

Jenks, (EDWARD,) an English historian, born at 
Clapham in 1861. He became connected as lecturer 
and professor with Oxford, Cambridge, and other uni- 
versities, and published " Constitutional Experiments 
of the Commonwealth," (1891,) " Law and Politics in 
the Middle Ages," (1897,) etc. 

Jgn'ner, (EDWARD,) M.D., celebrated for having in- 
troduced the practice of vaccination, was born at Berke- 
ley, in Gloucestershire, England, in 1749. He studied 
surgery at Sodbury, and afterwards went to London, 
where he attended the lectures of the celebrated John 
Hunter, with whom he formed an intimate friendship. 
He commenced practice at Berkeley, and obuined a 
high reputation for skill. His attention was first called 
to the subject of vaccination by hearing a countrywoman 
remark that she could not take the smallpox, because she 
had had the cow-pox. Upon investigating the subject, 
he ascertained that milkers frequently caught a disease 
from an eruption on '.he cow's udder, and that to such per- 
sons it was impossible to communicate the smallpox by 
inoculation. Jenner related the circumstance to several 
eminent men in the profession ; but they treated it with 
ridicule. By further experiments he clearly demonstrated 
the fact that from one of the several eruptions to which 
cows were subject, the true cow-pox, as he termed it, 
could be propagated to the human body, and then from 
one person to another, and that this was a preventive of 
the smallpox. After nearly twenty years of experiments, 
he published " An Enquiry into the Causes and Effects 
of the Variola; Vaccinas," (1798;) and soon after more 
than seventy physicians and surgeons signed a declara- 
tion of their entire confidence in the truth of Jenner's 
theory. He was rewarded by Parliament for his dis- 
covery by a present of jio,ooo in 1802, and a grant of 
, 20.000 in 1807. He also received marks of distinction 
from the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia. 
Died in 1823. 

See DR. JOHN BARON, " Life of Dr. Jenner," 1817; DR. V*L 
TIN " Notice historique surle Docleur Jenner," Nancy. i8v * 
UOP, "Hulde aan E. Jenner," Rotterdam, 1813; J. A. DurAD. 
" Notice historique sur le Dr. E. Jenner," 1824. 

i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, tat; met; not; good; moon; 




Jenner, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English physician, 
born at Chatham in 1815, graduated in London in 1844. 
He became professor of anatomy in University College 
in 1848, and professor of clinical medicine there in 
1857. He was appointed physician-in-ordinary to the 
queen in 1862, and physician-in-ordinary to the Prince 
of Wales in 1863. He established the difference be- 
tween typhus and typhoid fevers, and published " Lec- 
tures and Essays on Fever and Diphtheria," (1893.) 
He was president of the Royal College of Physicians 
1881-88. Died December 11, 1898. 

J6n'ning8, (DAVID,) a learned dissenting minister, 
born in Leicestershire, England, in 1691. He was ap- 
pointed to an Independent church in Wapping, where 
he preached about forty years. He wrote " An Appeal 
to Reason and Common Sense for the Truth of the 
Holy Scriptures" "An Introduction to the Knowledge 
of Medals," (1763,) and a "Treatise on Jewish Antiqui- 
ies," (1766, often reprinted.) Died in 1762. 

Jennings, (HENRY CONSTANTINE,) an English an- 
tiquary and virtuoso, born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, in 
1731. He had a passion for the collection of medals, 
antiquities, and works of art, by the purchase of which 
he ruined his fortune. Died in 1819. 



Jensen, (ADOLPH,) a German musician and com- 
poser, born at Konigsberg in 1837. He was espe- 
cially distinguished as a song-writer. Died in 1879. 

Jensen, ( WILHELM,) a German novelist, born near 
Kiel in 1837. He studied medicine, and after 1860 
engaged in journalism, editing several important news- 
papers. His novels are especially noteworthy for their 
fine descriptions of the sea. His principal works are 
" Lieder aus Frankreich," (1871,) and " Rumen- 
steine," ( 1888, English translation 1895.) 

Jensoii, (NICOLAS.) See JANSON. 

Jeu'yus, (SOAME,) a distinguished writer and politi- 
cian, born in London in 1704, was educated at Cam- 
bridge. At the age of twenty he married a young lady 
of a large fortune, from whom he soon after separated. 
He was several times elected to Parliament, and in 1755 
was made a lord of trade. In politics he was a Tory. 
His writings are conspicuous for elegance of style, wit, 
and discrimination. Among them we may mention "A 
Free Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil," (1757,) 
"View of the Internal Evidence of the Christian Reli- 
gion," (1776,) a work which attracted great attention, 
and several poetical productions. Died in 1787. 

Jeph'son, (ROBERT,) a dramatic writer, and captain in 
the English army, was born in Ireland in 1736. He wrote, 
besides other works, the tragedies of " Braganza," (1 775,) 
and " The Count of Narbonne," which were successful, 
and a poem entitled "Roman Portraits," (1797.) He 
was master of the horse under twelve successive viceroys 
of Ireland. Died in 1803. 

Jeph'thah, [Heb. JinS',] a judge of Israel, about 
1200 B.C. 

See Judges xi. and xii. 

Jequitmhonha, de, da zha'ke-teen-yon'ya, (FRAN 
Cisco G6 ACAIBA DE Montesuma, originally named 
a Brazilian statesman, born at Bahia, March 23, 1794. 
In 1808 he became a Franciscan monk, but soon aban- 
doned his profession, went to Coimbra, studied medicine 
and law, and graduated in 1816. Banished from Brazil 
in 1823, he entered the Senate in 1851. Died in 1870. 

Jer'dan, (WILLIAM,) a writer and critic, born at 
Kelso, in Scotland, in 1782. He became a journalist, 
and in 1817 established the " Literary Gazette," which 
he edited in an able manner until 1850. He published 
an interesting work, entitled " Men I have known," 
(1866.) Died in 1869. 

Jereer, Jerir, or Djerir, jgh-reeR', [in German, 
DSCHKRIR,] or, more fully, Jereer-Ibn-Ateeyah-At- 
temeeniee, (Attemimi,) Ib'n a'tee'yah at-te-mee'mee, 
surnamed ABUO- (Ai:0-) HAZRAH, (a'boo haz'ra,) a 
celebrated Arabian poet, who lived at Bassora, (Basra,) 
whence he was called EL-BASREE, (or -BASRY.) He 

whence he was called EL-BASREE, (or -BASRY.) He 
as k; if as s g haril: g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R. /. 

excelled in almost every kind of poetry, in panegyric, 
and in amatory pieces, but was most distinguished for 
his wit and satiric powers. He died about 730 (or, 
according to some authorities, about 700) A.r>. 

JSr-e-mi'ah, I Heb. iTDT or ID'OT ; Lat. JEREMI'AS ; 
Fr. JEREMIE,' zha'ra'me'; Ger. JEREMIAS, ya-ra-mee'is ; 
It. GEREMIA, ja-ra-mee'a,] a prophet of Judah, who 
lived about 600 B.C., was one of the four great prophets 
of the Bible. He was the author of the greater part of 
the book in the Old Testament which bears his name, 
and of all the book of Lamentations. He is called 
JEREMY in the New Testament. (Matthew xxvii. 9.) 
Died about 580 B.C. 

Jeremiah was Patriarch of Constantinople in 1572. 
The Lutherans sent him a copy of the Confession of 
Augsburg, hoping to obtain his approval of it ; but, on 
the contrary, he condemned it in many of his writings. 

Jeremie. See JEREMIAH. 

Jeremie, jer'e-me, (Sir JOHN,) an eloquent lawyer, 
born in Guernsey in 1795, at tne a g e * twenty was 
admitted to the bar. In 1824 he was appointed chief 
justice of Saint Lucia, in the West Indies. When he first 
went to that island he was opposed to the abolitionists ; 
but, improving the opportunities which he possessed 
of investigating the subject at slavery, he formed very 
different views. During the time that he held office in 
Saint Lucia he ably enforced the laws for the ameliora- 
tion of the condition of the slaves. On his return to 
England, in 1831, he published " Four Essays on Colonial 
Slavery." In 1836 he became justice of the supreme 
court of Ceylon, and four years later Governor and Cap- 
tain-General of Sierra Leone, where he died in 1841. 
He was the author of a " Letter on Negro Emancipation 
and African Civilization." 

Jerichau, yek'i-Kow, (JENS ADOLF,) a Danish sculp- 
tor of distinction, was born at Arsens, April 17, 1816; 
died at Copenhagen, July 25, 1883. His wife, ELIZA- 
BETH JERICHAU-BAUMANN, was born at Warsaw, No- 
vember 19, 1819, and died at Copenhagen, July n, 1881. 
She had a good reputation as a painter. 

Jerlr. See JEREER. 

Jerningham,jer'ning-am, (EDWARD,) an English poet, 
born in 1727. Of his productions we may cite "The 
Rise and Fall of Scandinavian Poetry," " Essay on the 
Mild Tenour of Christianity," and "The Shakspeare 
Gallery," which was praised by Edmund Burke. Died 
in 1812. 

Jer-o-bo'am [Heb. D>'3V] I, first King of Israel, 
was elected king by the ten tribes who had revolted 
from Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, 975 B.C. Died 
about 954 B.C. 

See I. Kings xi. to XV. ; II. Chronicles ix. to xiv. 

Jeroboam H., a son of Joash, became King of Israel 
in 834 or 825 B.C., and reigned forty-one years. 

See II. Kings xii. 

Jerome, je-rom' or jeVpm, [Lat. HIERON'YMUS; Fr. 
JER&ME, zhi'rom'; Ger. HIEROM, hee'rom ; It. GIRO- 
LAMo,je-rol'a-mo; Sp. GERONIMO, Ha-ron'e-mo,| SAINT, 
or, more fully, Eu-se'bl-usHi-er-on'jr-musSo-phro'- 
nl-us, one of the most learned of the Latin Fathers of 
the Church, was born at Stridon, in Dalmatia or in Pan- 
nonia, about 340 A.D. After receiving his education at 
Rome, he visited Gaul, where he collected a valuable 
library. He next travelled through Thrace, Pontus, and 
Cappadocia, and finally fixed his residence in Syria. He 
subsequently went to Jerusalem to study Hebrew. About 
382 he returned to Rome, and became secretary to Pope 
Damasus. Upon the death of that pontiff he removed 
to a monastery at Bethlehem, where he died in 420 A.D. 
A large portion of his writings were of a controversial 
character, exhibiting great learning, eloquence, and in- 
genuity, though too often betraying bigotry, passion, and 
bitterness. But the works by which he will ever be 
remembered and honoured are a treatise on the " Lives 
and Writings of the Elder Christian Fathers," " Com- 
mentaries on the Prophetical Books of the Old Testa- 
ment, the Gospel of Saint Matthew, and several of the 
Epistles of Saint Paul," and a translation of the Old and 
New Testaments into Latin, known in the Romish 
Church as the " Vulgate." 

See ERASMUS, "Vita Doctoris Hieronymi," BSIe, 1319; SCHROKH, 

'rilliii; s as s; th as in this, 

Explanations, p. 23. ; 




" Kirchenpeschichte," vol. xi. : MARTIANAY, " Vie de Saint- Jerome," 
1706; F. Z. COLLOMBET, " Histoire de Saint-Jerome," 1844; Josd 
DE SIGUENZA, " Vida de San Geronimo," Madrid, 1595 ; SEBASTIANO 
DOLCI," Maximus Hieronymus Vitassua: Scriptor," etc, 175? ; VILLE- 
MAIN, "Tableau de ['Eloquence chre'tienne a-j quatrieme Siecle," 
1857: ViNCENZo ROMANI, " Compendio storico della Vita e degli 
Scritti di S. Girolamo," 2 vols., 1844; ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allge- 
meine Encyklopaedie. " 
Jerome OF SANTA F6, (san'ta fa,) a learned Spanish 

few, who lived about 1420. His Hebrew name was 
OSHUA LARCHI. After making a careful examination 
of the prophecies in regard to the Messiah, he was con- 
vinced of the truth of Christianity. He wrote a treatise 
on the errors of the Jewish faith, and another against 
the Talmud. 

Jerome de fcardie. See HIERONYMUS. 
Jerome of Prague, [Lat. HIERON'YMUSPRAGEN'SIS,] 
f ne of the most distinguished followers of John Huss, 
was born in the city from which he took his surname. He 
studied at the Universities of Paris, Heidelberg, and Co- 
logne, each of which conferred upon him the diploma of 
D.D. About 1400 he became acquainted with John Huss, 
whose doctrines he soon after began to preach with great 
effect in Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland. In 1415, when 
Huss was arrested, Jerome prepared to go to Constance 
to defend him. Being informed, however, of the great 
hostility felt there towards reputed heretics, he retired 
to Eberlingen, and afterwards attempted to return to 
Bohemia, but was arrested, and placed in the custody 
of the Prince of Salzburg, who sent him in chains to 
Constance, where he was thrown into prison and treated 
with great cruelty. On a third examination before the 
council, he signed a recantation of the doctrines of Huss 
in regard to transubstantiation ; but a few months after he 
bitterly repented of this, and declared that fear of a cruel 
death alone induced him to do it. He was thereupon 
condemned as a heretic, and sentenced to be burnt on 
the 3Oth of May, 1416. He suffered with the greatest 
firmness, serenity, and Christian heroism, and his death 
excited the highest admiration even in his enemies. 

Jerome, ((EROME KI.APKA,) an English humourist, 
born at Walsall in 1859. He was successively clerk, 
school-master, actor, and journalist, being editor of 
"Idler" 1892-97, and of "To-Day" 1893-97. His 
first and greatest success as a humourous writer was 
with "Three Men in a Boat," (1889.) He subse- 
quently published numerous other works. 

JSr'ram, (CHARLES,) an English theologian, born in 
1770, was vicar of Chobham, Surrey. He published, 
besides other works, "Conversations on Infant Baptism," 
(3d edition, 1826.) Died about 1853. 

See " Memoirs of C. Jerram," by his son, 1855. 

Jer'rold, (DOUGLAS WILLIAM,) celebrated as a hu- 
mourist, a journalist, and a dramatical and satirical 
writer, was born in London in 1803. He was the son 
of the manager of Sheerness Theatre, where he imbibed 
his taste for dramatic literature. He was apprenticed 
to a printer in London, in which situation he diligently 
improved his leisure hours in the study of literature and 
the languages. Shakspeare was his favourite book. His 
first production was an essay on the opera of " Der Frei- 
schiitz," which he enclosed anonymously to the editor 
by whom he was then employed. The article was highly 
commended, and Jerrold had the satisfaction of placing 
it in type. Thus encouraged, he wrote "Black-Eyed 
Susan," (about 1824,) one of the most popular dramas 
ever acted on the English stage. This was followed by 
several other plays of great merit. He afterwards be- 
came a contributor to " Punch," the popularity of which 
was rapidly increased by his satirical and witty produc- 
tions. He also edited successively " The Heads of the 
People," "The Illuminated Magazine," "The Shilling 
Magazine," and " Lloyd's Weekly." All of these were 
very successful, and the last had an immense circulation. 
Many of his writings have been issued in volume form 
among which we may mention " Mrs. Caudle's Curtain 
Lectures," (new edition, 1846,) "Chronicles of Clover- 
nook," (1846,) "Saint Giles and Saint James," (1851,) 
^"Prisoner of War," "Time Works Wondei." (1854,) 
^ antf tbt" Bubbles of the Day." Died in 1857. 

Jerjrold, (\\ 'ALTER COPELAND,) grandson of the 

preceding, was born at Liverpool in 1865. He became 
a journalist, and published biographies of Faraday, 
Gladstone, and Holmes, " Electricians and their Mar- 
vels," (1895,) and various other works. 

Jerrold, (WILLIAM BLANCHARD,) a son of Doug- 
las, was born at London in 1826. He published, be- 
sides other works, "A Brage-Beaker with the Swedes, 
or Notes from the North," (1853,) "Life of Douglas 
Jerrold," (1859,) " Chronicles of a Crutch," (1860,) " Two 
Lives," (1865,) "Up and Down in the World," (1866,) 
"The Children of Lutetia," "The Gavroche Party," 
(1870,) " London, a Pilgrimage," (1872,) " Life of Napo- 
leon III.," (1874,) etc. He succeeded his father as editor 
of "Lloyd's Weekly News." Died March 10, 1884. 

Jerusalem, ya-roo'za-ISm', (JoHANN FRIEDRICH 
WILHELM,) a celebrated Protestant divine and pulpil 
orator, born at Osnabriick, in Germany, in 1709. He 
was appointed in 1740 court preacher to Duke Charlei 
of Brunswick, and soon after became tutor to his son, 
Prince Charles William. Through his influence the 
Caroline College was established at Brunswick. In 1771 
he was created vice-president of the consistory at Wol- 
fenbiittel. He published, besides sermons, "Contem- 
plations on the Principal Truths of Religion," (5 vole., 
1768-79.) Died in 1 789. 

Jer'vis, (JOHN,) Earl of Saint Vincent, and admiral of 
the British fleet, born at Meaford, in Staffordshire, in 
1734. He entered the navy when ten years old, and in 
1760 became a post-captain. In 1778 he commanded an 
eighty-gun ship in Keppel's action against the French, 
and in 1782 captured the Pegase, of seventy-four guns. 
He sat in Parliament several years for various boroughs, 
until the commencement of the French Revolution, when 
he sailed at the head of a squadron to the West Indies, 
with the rank of rear-admiral. He captured Martinique, 
Guadeloupe, and Saint Lucia. In 1795 he was made 
admiral of the blue, and commander of the naval force in 
the Mediterranean. He encountered the Spanish fleet 
off Cape Saint Vincent in February, 1797, and, though 
their force was double his own, he gained a complete 
victory. For this exploit he received the thanks of both 
Houses of Parliament, and a pension of 3000, and was 
raised to the peerage, with the titles of Earl of Saint Vin- 
cent and Baron Jervis of Meaford. He was appointed 
first lord of the admiralty in 1801, and retired from that 
office in 1804. He became admiral of the fleet in 1821. 
Died in 1823. 

Jesabel, the French of JEZEBEL, which see. 

Jesi, ya'see, (SAMUELE,) an Italian engraver, born at 
Milan about 1789, executed a number of excellent plates, 
after Raphael. Died in 1853. 

Jesid. See YEZEED. 

Jes'se, (EDWARD,) an English naturalist and writer, 
published, besides other works, " Gleanings in Natural 
History," (3 vols., 1832-35,) and "Scenes and Tales of 
Country- Life," (1844.) Died in 1868. 

Jesse, (JOHN HENEAGE,) an English poet and his- 
torical writer of the present age. Among his works are 
" Memoirs of the Court of England during the Reign of 
the Stuarts," (4 vols., 1839-40,) and "Memoirs of the 
Pretenders and their Adherents," (1845.) Died in 1874. 

Jes'sel, (Sir GEORGE,) an English judge, was born in 
London, of Jewish parents, in 1824. He was educated 
at University College, London, and in 1847 was called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn. In 1865 he was made a bencher 
and Queen's counsel, was sent to Parliament in 1868 as 
a Liberal, became solicitor-general in 1871, was knighted 
in 1872, and in 1873 was appointed master of the rolls 
and sworn of the Privy Council. He was regarded as 
the best equity lawyer in Great Britain. Died March 21, 

Jesseuius, ye's-sa'ne-us, (JoHANN,) a physician, born 
in Hungary in 1566, was employed by the Emperor of 
Germany. In 1621 he was condemned and executed for 
having attempted to incite his countrymen to revolt 
against the house of Austria. 

Jes'sey, (HENRY,) a learned English divine, born in 
Yorkshire about 1600. He was ordained after the Epis- 
copal forms, and obtained a living. He subsequently 
became minister of a Baptist congregation. He com- 

i, e, i, 3*6, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e., j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n&t; good; moon; 




menced a new translation of the Bible, but, from the 
persecutions which he suffered for his religious belief, 
was unable to finish it. He died in prison in 1663. 

Jes'sopp, (AUGUSTUS,) an English author, born 
at Cheshunt in 1824. He became rector at Seaming 
in 1879. His works include " Arcady, for Better for 
Worse," (1887,) "Trials of a Country Parson," 
(1890,) "Random Roaming," (1893,) "Frivola," 
(1896,) etc. 

Jes'up, (MORRIS KETCHUM,) an American philan- 
thropist, born at Westport, Connecticut, in 1830. 
He was very active in reform movements, including 
the Five Points Mission, the Suppression of Vice, the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Young Men's 
Christian Association, etc. He became president of 
the Museum of Natural History in 1881, and presented 
it a $100,000 collection of native woods. 

Jeuiie, le, leh zhun, (JEAN,) a celebrated French 
preacher, born in Franche-Comte in 1592; died in 1672. 
His sermons were published in 10 vols. 

Jevhery or Djevhery, jev'ha-ree, (Ismaeel-Ibu- 
Ham'mad,) an Arabian lexicographer, born at Farab. 
After travelling through various countries, he settled at 
Nishapoor, in Persia, where, in 999, he published one 
of the most perfect of Arabian dictionaries, of which 
Golius made extensive use in his "Lexicon Arabicum." 
Died about 1005. 

Jev'on, (THOMAS,) an English dramatic writer and 
actor, who died in 1688, aged about thirty-five. 

Jev'pns, (FRANK BYRON,) an English antiquarian 
writer, born in 1858. He became classical tutor at 

Kimberworth, November 24, 1816. Among his publica- 
tions are "The Ceramic Art of Great Britain," (2 vols., 
2000 engravings,) " The Stately Homes of England," 
(partly by S. C. Hall,) "Mountain, River, Lake, and 
Landscape Scenery of Great Britain," (4 vols. lolio,) 
"The Wedgwoods," "Life of William Hutton," "His 
tory of Plymouth," "Hand-Book of Englisn Coins," 
" History of the County of Derby," etc. Died in 1886. 

Jews'bur-jf, (GERALDINE ENDSOR,) younger sister 
of Mrs. Fletcher, noticed below, was born at Manchester 
in 1821. She published a number of novels, among 
which may be named "Zoe, or the History of Two 
Lives," (1845,) "Marian Withers," (1851.) and "The 
Sorrows of Gentility," (1856.) Died Sept. 22, 1880. 

Jewsbury, (MARIA JANE,) an English authoress, 
.born in Warwickshire about 1800. Among her principal 
works are "Phantasmagoria, or Sketches of Life and 
Literature," (1825,) "Lays of Leisure Hours," (1829,) 
and "Three Histories." Having been married in 1832 
or 1833 to the Rev. William Fletcher, she accompanied 
him to India, where she died in 1833. 

Jex-Blake, (THOMAS WILLIAM,) D.D., an English 
educator, born in London, January 26, 1832. He was 
educated at Rugby, and at University College, Oxford, 
graduating in 1855. He became a Fellow of Queen's 
College, was made principal of Cheltenham College in 
1868, and head-master of Rugby in 1874. Among his 
works are " Long Vacation in Continental Picture-Gal- 
leries, " (1858,) "Life by Faith," (1875,) "Higher 
Religious Education," (1896,) etc. 

Jez'e-bel, [Heb. 

Fr. J^SABEL, zhi'zfbH',] a 

daughter of Ethbaal, King of the Zidonians, and wife of 

Durham University in 1882 and was senior proctor , Ahab) K; f Israe] _ She was notorious for her cruelty 
1896-98. He wrote " The'Prehistoric Antiquities of , and ;u fai(h _ g he wa kil]ed b bei thrown out o f a 
the Aryan Peoples," (1890,) "A Manual of Greek , window by the or( j er o f j enu . 
Antiquities," (1895,) "An Introduction to the His- Jezid or Jezed. See YEZEED. 

tory of Religion," (1896,) etc. Jezzar or Djezzar Ahmed, jez'zar iH'med, a Pasha 

Jev'pns, (WILLIAM STANLEY,) an English economist j of Acre and Sidon, notorious for his cruelty, was born 

and author, born at Liverpool, September i, 1835. He 
was a grandson of William Roscoe, the historian. He 
was educated at University College, London, and grad- 
uated in 1862 as M.A., after having spent five year&as an 
officer of the mint at Sydney, Australia. He was, 1866 
-76, professor of logic and mental and moral philosophy 
at Owens College, Manchester, and in 1875 became pro- 

fessor of political economy in University College, London. 
Among his works are " Pure Logic," (1864,) "The Coal 
Question,"! 1865,) " Elementary Lessons in Logic,"(i87oJ 
"Theory of Politi 
(1876,) " Political Economy 

in Bosnia. After being a slave of Ali Bey in Egypt, he 
became governor of Cairo. In 1775 he was appointed 
Pasha of Acre and Sidon, and about 1 784 he received 
the Three Tails. In 1799 he was defeated by the French, 
and shut himself in Saint-Jean-d'Acre, which, with the 
aid of Sir Sidney Smith, he successfully defended against 
Bonaparte. Died in 1804. 

Jhering, von, fon ya'rlng, (RUDOLF,) an able German 
jurist, born at Aurich, in East Friesland, August 22, 1818. 
He was educated at Heidelberg, Munich, and Gottingen. 
He held professorships of Roman law successively at 
Basle, Rostock, Kiel, Giessen, Vienna, and Gottingen. 

tive Logic," (1880.) He was drowned, August 13, 1882. ' He published the celebrated " Spirit of the Roman Law," 
Jew'ell or Jew'el, (JOHN,) Bishop of Salisbury, one ( ? vols., 1852-65.) One of his popular works, " The Strug- 
of the earliest champions of the Episcopal Church, born gle about Law," (" Der Kampf urns Recht," 1872,) 
at Buden, in Devonshire, in 1522. He studied at Oxford, . has been very frequently translated. Died in 1892. 
and graduated in 1540. Under the reign of Edward VI. j Jina, jin'a, [a Sanscrit word signifying "victorious,"] 
he openly avowed the Protestant faith, and assisted Peter ' one o f tne mall y names applied to Vishnu : also the 
Martyr in his dispute with the Catholic theologians at J name o f a celebrated sage, (called also JAINA, jl'na,) 
Oxford. After the accession of Mary he fled to Ger- tne founder o f tj le se ct of Jains or Jainas. It is also the 
many, (1555,) and at Strasburg again met Martyr, whom t j t ] e O f eac [j o f tne sa i,,t s wno have been deified by the 
he assisted on some of his works. When Elizabeth j a j ns As the Hindoos have no trustworthy annals, it 
ascended the throne, Jewell returned to England, and seems impossible to determine positively the historical 
was ordained Bishop of Salisbury in 1559 or 15- I" j character of the Jains. They are commonly regarded as 
this position he continued to labour diligently for the | a dj v j s i on or offshoot of the Booddhists. Thus much is 
advancement of the Protestant religion. He died in j certa j n> tnat j n SO me of their tenets and customs the 
1571, greatly esteemed for his eminent piety and vast j j a j ns c l ose ly resemble the Booddhists. They have a. 
theological knowledge. His writings are principally p ecu ij ar sacred language (not now in use) called the 
of a controversial nature, and are still highly valued. .. j a j, la p ra k r jt." 

The most important of these is " Apologia Ecclesiae gee MOQR| ., Hindu P;lntheon _-. and an exce iient article on ih. 
Anglicans," ("Apology for the Church of England, Jaios, by ME. RHYS DAVIDS, in the " Encydopzdia Briunnica." 
1562,) written in elegant Latin, and translated into ji rece k yee'Ret-chek, (HERMENEGILD,) a Bohemian 
English by the mother of Lord Bacon. Versions were 
also rendered of it into various European languages ; 
and it is said to have done more for the promotion of 
the Reformation than any other work. 

Jew'ett, (SARAH ORNE,) an American author, born I born at Huhemnauth, October 9, 1825. He became con- 

Jirecek, yee'Ret-chek, (HERMENEGILD,) a con< 
(Czech) jurist, brother of Joseph Jirecek, was born at 
Hohenmauth, April 13, 1827. His principal works are 
on Bohemian and Moravian law. 

Jirecek, (JOSEPH,) a Bohemian (Czech) historian, 

Mate of the bayfight," (1882,') and other novels. Hungary. His writings have special reference to the 

Jew'itt, (LLEWELLYN,) an English author, born at literary history of the Slavs of Austria. Died in 1888. 

as A; 5 as i; g harj; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. 1 2^=See Explanations, p. 23. ) 



Jirecek, (KO.NSTANTIN JOSEPH,) a son of Joseph 
Jirecek, was born at Vienna, July 24, 1854, and became 
general secretary of the Bulgarian ministry of public 
instruction. Me published a " Bibliography of Bulgarian 
Literature," ( 1 872,) a History of the Bulgarians," (1876,) 
and valuable works on the resources and trade of the 
Balkan peninsula. In 1884 he was appointed professor 
of history at Prague. 

Jo'ab, jlleb. 3Sr,| chief captain of the armies of 
Israel under King David. 

See II. Samuel iii., iv., x., xviii.. xix., XX. ; I. Kings ii. 

Jo'a-ehim, |It. GioACCHiNo,jo-ak-kee'no,|an Italian 
monk, founded the monastery of Flora, in Calabria. He 
wrote several heretical works, in which he advanced 
the doctrines of tritheism. Died in 1202 or 1207. 

Joachim, (GEORGE.) See RHETICUS. 

Joachim, yo'a-Kim, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German 
historian and medallist, born at Halle in 1713. He was 
professor of history and law at Halle, and wrote several 
works on history and numismatics. Died in 1667. 

Joachim, (JOSEPH,) an eminent Hungarian (Jewish) 
violinist, composer, and teacher, born at Kiltsee, near 
1'resburg, June 28, 1831. He made his first public ap- 
pearance when only seven years of age. He has visited 
London, and made a tour of the principal cities in Ger- 
many. Since 1868 he has resided in Berlin as head of 
the High School for Musical Execution, attached to the 
Royal Academy of Arts. 

Joachim Murat. See MURAT. 

Joan or Jo-an'na [Fr. JEANNE, zhin ; It Gio- 
VANNA, jo-van'na| I., Queen of Naples, a daughter of 
Charles, Duke of Calabria, was born in 1327. She was 
married to Andrew, Prince of Hungary, and in 1343 suc- 
ceeded her grandfather, Kobert, King of Naples. In 1345 
Andrew was murdered by conspirators, probably with 
the connivance of Joan, who soon after married Prince 
Louis of Tarentum. To avenge the death of Andrew, 
Louis, King of Hungary, invaded Naples and expelled 
Joan from the kingdom. Having gained the favour of the 
pope by ceding Avignon to him, she was restored to the 
throne in 1352. She was married in 1376 to her fourth 
husband, Otho of Brunswick, but continued to be child- 
less. In 1381 Naples was invaded by Charles Durazzo, 
who captured Joan and put her to death in 1382. 

See " Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily," London, 2 vols., 1824; 
GIANNONE, " Storia civile del Regno di Napoli;" V. MIGNOT, " His- 
toire de Jeanne I, Reine de Naples," 1764; D. CRIVBLLI, " Delia pnma 
e della seconds Giovanna, Regine di Napoli," 18 *a ; *' Nouvelle Bio- 
graphic Generate, " (under "Jeanne.") 

Joan (or Giovanna) H., daughter of the Duke of 
Durazzo, succeeded her brother Ladislaus on the throne 
of Naples in 1414. She was notorious for her licentious 
conduct and the number of her favourites. She died iti 
1435, leaving the kingdom in a very unsettled state. 

See D CRIVKLLI, " Delia prima e della seconda Giovanna, Regine 
Ji Napoli." iX,j; "Nnnvellp Rincraphie OnrWe." 

Joan, POPE, supposed by most authorities to be a fabu- 
lous character, is placed by several writers in the ninth 
century. I laving assumed male attire, she went to Rome, 
and became so celebrated for her ecclesiastical know- 
ledge that upon the death of Leo IV. she was unani- 
mously elected pope. She was, however, one day seized 
with the pains of childbirth as she was proceeding to the 
Lateran Basilica, and died in the street, after a pontificate 
of two years, five months, and four days. She was buried 
without honours. Other accounts state that upon the 
discovery of the imposture she was stoned to death by the 
populace. David Blonde], a Protestant historian, was 
the first to show this story to be a fiction, although it was 
in circulation as early as the thirteenth century. 

See J. LKNFANT, " Histoire de !a Papesse Jeanne," 1730; S. 
BARING GOULD, " Curious Myths of the Middle Ages," 1867; DOL- 
LiNiiER, " Papsi-Fabeln," 1803. 

Joan, Queen of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and 
Isabella the Catholic, was married in 1496 to Philip, 
Archduke of Austria. In 1500 she gave birth to Prince 
Carlos, afterwards Charles V. of Germany. She soon 
after lost her reason ; and when, upon the dearh of Isa- 
bella, she became Queen of Castile, it was necessary that 
5 r-gent should be appointed. Died in 1555. 

See PRKSCOTT, " History of Ferdinand and Isabella:" MARIANA, 
"Hisloria de Kspana." 


(Jeanne,) daughter and heiress of Henry I 
of Navarre, and queen of Philippe le Bel of France, 
was born in 1272. Upon her marriage with the French 
monarch she retained authority over her hereditary do- 
minions of Navarre and Champagne. She carried on 
a successful war against the Castilians and Aragonese, 
assisted her husband in the councils and administration 
of affairs in France, established a college in Navarre, 
and was a liberal patroness of learning. In 1297, Count 
de Bar having invaded Champagne, the queen marched 
against him at the head of her troops, cut his army in 
pieces, and carried him prisoner to Paris. Died in 1305. 

Joan d'Albret See JEANNE D'ALBRET. 

Joan of Arc, or Jeanne Dare, zhin dink, Mir named 
M pii'sf 1' doR'li'oN',] the most illustrious of the hero- 
ines of history, was born in the hamlet of Dom-Remy, 
in Lorraine, about 1411. She was the daughter of 
poor and religious peasants, who implanted in her heart 
at an early age the seeds of that exalted enthusiasm 
which subsequently obtained so absolute an ascendency 
over her character. At this time the rival factions of 
the Orleanists or Armagnacs and the Burgundians deso- 
lated France by their wars. The former supported the 
claims of Charles VII.; while the latter had sworn al- 
legiance to Henry V. of England. Joan from infancy 
had imbibed the principles of the Orleanists, by whom 
she was surrounded. Her devotion to their cause was 
increased by the cruelties which she frequently saw the 
enemy commit. She was untiring in her efforts to re- 
lieve the sufferings of the poor around her, and even sold 
her bed and the greater part of her clothing in order to 
procure them supplies. She afterwards stated that as 
early as the age of thirteen she received commands from 
Heaven to go and liberate France. These commands 
continued to be repeated ; but her parents endeavoured 
to suppress her enthusiasm. She. however, obtained 
the assistance of an uncle, who introduced her to De 
Baudricourt, the commander of a neighbouring fortress, 
before whom her voices, as she termed them, had or- 
dered her to lay her divine commission. That officer at 
first treated her assertions with scorn ; but finally, on 
account of the disasters that his prince had suffered, he 
gave her the assistance which she had requested, and 
in February, 1429, with a guard of five or six men, she 
set out on her journey for C.hinon, where Charles then 
held his court. At this time his cause appeared to be 
almost desperate. Orleans, which was the only place of 
importance that remained to him, was closely besieged 
by the English. Joan appeared before him, and declared 
that her mission was to raise the siege and to conduct 
him to Rheims to be crowned. At this period she had 
reached her eighteenth year, and possessed a very beau- 
tiful countenance and noble form. Charles was convinced 
of the truthfulness of her statements, and, notwithstand- 
ing the opposition of his ecclesiastics and courtiers, 
raised her to the rank of a military commander, and 
placed a considerable body of troops at her disposal. 
She entered Orleans about the last of April, 1429, with 
a convoy of provisions, and in one week raised the siege. 
In battle Joan displayed great personal bravery. She 
subsequently gained the battles of Jargeau and Patay, in 
the latter of which the noted Talbot was made prisoner. 
Several important cities surrendered to her without resist- 
ance ; and in less than three months from the time that she 
received her military command, Charles was crowned at 
Rheims, in the cathedral consecrated to the coronation of 
the French sovereigns. She then petitioned the king that 
she might be permitted to return home ; but he prevailed 
on her to continue in the army. The following spring, as 
she was making a sortie against the Burgundians near 
Compiegne, she was captured by them and subsequently 
handed over to the English, who, with the Bishop of 
Beauvais and the University of Paris, urgently demanded 
her execution as a sorceress. The King of England 
granted their request, and Joan, after a mock-trial at 
Rouen, was condemned to be burnt. On the 3istof 
May, 1431, she was dressed in the garb of the victims of 
the Inquisition, and, amidst the clamours of assembled 
thousands, conducted to the stake, where, in i. short 
time, her body was consumed. She died declaring that 

i, e, i,o. u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, y, short; a,e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; m8t; not; good; moon; 




her voices had not deceived her, and with the name ol 
Jesus on her lips. Many of those who had most eagerly 
sought her death were melted to tears ; and even the 
executioner declared that he had committed an unpar- 
donable sin. A secretary of the King of England also 
said, " We are lost ! we have burned a saint." Thus 
perished the Maid of Orleans, against whom not the 
slightest crime could be proved. If the inspiration which 
she received came not from the source to which she 
attributed it, it was at least the offspring of bravery, of 
generosity, of patriotism, of those virtues which nave 
raised to immortality so many of the great and good. 
In the high-coloured and eulogistic account given of 
her by Michelet, he remarks, "She had the goodness of 
the ancient martyrs, but with this difference : the early 
Christians remained pure and virtuous only in retiring 
from the encounter and in separating themselves from 
the struggles and temptations of the world, while she 
was benign in the fiercest conflicts, good among the bad, 
gentle even in war; 'into war, that triumph of the devil, 
she carried the spirit of Heaven.' This tenderness of 
heart she had for all men. She wept after the victories, 
and relieved the sufferings of the wounded English." 
Her death stamped indelible infamy on all the parties 
connected with the war, on the Burgundians for de- 
livering her to her inveterate enemies, on the English 
and their French allies for their inhuman cruelty and 
thirst for revenge, and on her own prince and party for 
not making a powerful attempt to save her. 

See BARTHRI.KMY DK BHAUREGARD, " Histoire de Jeanne a" Arc," 
2 vols., 1847 ; DESJARDINS, "Vie de Jeanne d'Arc," 1854 ; VALLEI 
DE VIRIVILI.H, " Nouvelles Recherches sur la Famllle, etc. de Jeanne 
Dare," 1854: LENGLET-DUPRESNOY, " Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc," 
1753: LK BRUN DE CHARMKTTES. "Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc," 
4 vols., 1817: ALPHONSE DE LAMARTINE, "Jeanne d'Arc," 1852; 
JULES MICHELET, "Jeanne d'Arc," 1853; R. M. EVANS, " Storv 
of Joan of Arc," 1847: A. M. MENEGHEI.LI, " Giovanna d'Arc." 
Padua, 1841: MJCHELET, "History of France;" CARL LIEBELT, 
" Diiewica Orleanska ustep dziejow Francyi," Posen, 1847: GUI or 
GOERRES. "Die Jungfrau von Orleans," 1834: HARRIET PARR, 
" Life and Death of Jeanne d'Arc," 1866; THOMAS DE QUINCEY, 
"Miscellaneous Essays." 

Joan |Sp. JUANA, Hoo-Jn'ya] Henriquez, (Jn-ree' 
k?th,) Queen of Aragon and Navarre, daughter of Fred- 
erick Henriquez, of the blood-royal of Castile, and 
admiral of that kingdom. In 1444 she was married to 
John II. of Aragon, and in 1452 gave birth to Ferdinand 
the Catholic. She was a princess of great energy of 
character and of uncommon mental endowments ; and 
to her advice and assistance many of the successes of 
John II. are to be attributed. Died in 1468. 

Joanes, Hn-a'nes, or Juane8, Hoo-a'nes, (VlNCENTE,) 
an eminent Spanish painter, born in Valencia in 1523, 
studied at Rome, and was regarded as the greatest artist 
of the Valencian school. Died in 1579. Among his 
most important works may be mentioned Christ after 
death borne by the angels, the Saviour with the two 
prophets, and a Saint Francis. 

Joannes. See JOHN. 

Joannes Comnenus. See CALO-JOANNES. 

Joannes Massiliensis. See CASSIAN, (JoHN.) 

Joannet, zho'f'ni', (CLAUDE,) a French litttrateur, 
born at Pole in 1716; died in 1789. 

Joanny, zho't'ne', the assumed name of JEAN BAP- 
TISTE BERNARD BRISSEBARRE, a famous French tragic 
actor, born at Dijon in 1775, and who is said to have 
been nearly equal to Talma. Died in 1849. 

Joao (or Joam) OF PORTUGAL. See JOHN. 

Joao or Juan, surnamed DE Dios or DE DIEU. See 

Jo'ash [Heb. BW] O r Je-ho'ash, King of Judah, 
nd son of Ahaziah. He ascended the throne when 
seven years of age, and reigned virtuously forty years. 
He was assassinated by his servants in 838 B.C. 

See II. Chronicles xxiii. and xriv. ; II. Kings xi. and xii. 

Joash or jelioash, King of Israel, succeeded his 
father, Jehoahaz, 839 or 840 B.C., and reigned sixteen years. 

See 11. Kings xiii. : II. Chronicles xxv. 17. 

Job, [Heb. 2VX; Gr. 'Iu/3; Arabic, AIYOOR, (AlYOUB 
or AlYUB,) I'yoob'; Ger. HIOB, hee'op ; It. GIOBBE, 
job'ba, | a patriarch of Uz, (a country which is believed 
by many to be the same as Idumaea,) who is supposed to 
have lived in a very remote antiquity. One of the most 
sublime books of the Old Testament bears his name and 

gives an account of his life and virtues. By many it has 
been thought that Job was an allegorical character ; but 
there appears to be little reason for this supposition. 
He is mentioned by the prophet Ezekiel, (xv. 16,) and 
by Saint James, (v. n,) as a real person. Much con- 
troversy has arisen about the age in which he lived, and 
the author of the book ; but both these points remain 
unsettled. This work was written in Hebrew, with a 
mixture of Arabic. 

Job or Aiyoob, I'yoob', (SOLOMON,) an African 
prince, son of a king of Bondoo, in Senegambia. In 
1730 he was sold to the English, who carried him to 
Maryland, where he became a slave. His story interested 
General Oglethorpe and others, who ransomed him and 
sent him to England in 1733. He was presented at 
court, and attracted much attention. He produced an 
interesting geographical account of his native country, 
and wrote from memory, it is said, three copies of the 
Koran. He returned to Bondoo about 1735. 

Jobard, zru/baV, (J. B. A. M.,) a writer on social 
economy, born in Haute-Marne, France, in 1792. He 

lived in Belgium. 

Died in 1861. 
zho'ba' du'vaT 


Ftux,) a French painter, born at Carhaix, July 16, 1821. 
He went to Paris in 1829, and was a pupil of Paul De 
laroche. He is best known by his refined and delicate 
religious pictures and his portraits. Died April 2, 1889. 
Jobert, zho'baiR', (Louis,) a French Jesuit and anti- 
quary, born at Paris in 1637. For some time he was 
a professor of rhetoric in his native city, and afterwards 
became celebrated as a preacher. He was the author 
of several treatises on medals. Died in 1719. 

Jobert de Lamballe, zho'baiR' deh IftN'bil', (AN- 
TOINE JOSEPH,) an eminent French surgeon, born at 
Lamballe in 1799. He lectured in Paris, and published, 
besides other works, a "Treatise on Plastic Surgery," 
("Traite de Chirurgie plastique," 2 vols., 1849.) He 
became surgeon to the emperor in 1854. Died in 1867. 
Jo-cas'ta or Jo-cas'te, |Gr. 'loKuori) .- Fr. JOCASTE. 
zho'ktst',] sometimes called Epicaste, the wife of Laius, 
and the mother of CEdipus. According to tradition, she 
was married to CEdipus without knowing who he was, 
and hung herself after she discovered the relationship 
between them. 

Jo9'e-lyn, (ADA MARIA,) an English novelist, 
born at Aldershot in 1860. She has written "A Big 
Stake," (1892,) "A Regular Fraud," (1896,) " Miss 
Rayburn's Diamonds," (1897,) etc. 

Jo9'e-lyn, (ROBERT,) LORD, M.P., an English poli- 
tician, born in 1816, visited China about 1840, and pub- 
lished "Six Months in China." Died in 1854. 

Jo-cha'nan or Jo-ha'nan Ben !B-lI-e'zer, a Jewish 
rabbi, born in Palestine about 184 A.D. He compiled 
the "Jerusalem Gemara," a part of the Talmud. He is 
said to have died in 279 A.D. 

Jocher or Joecher, yb'Ker, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB,) 
an eminent German scholar and writer, born at Leipsic 
in 1694. He became professor of philosophy and his- 
toiyat Leipsic about 1730. His most important work 
is a " Universal Dictionary of Learned Men," ("Allge- 
meines Gelehrten-Lexikon," 4 vols., 1750-51,) which is 
highh esteemed. Supplements have been published by 
Adehing and others. Died in 1758. 

Jochmus, yoK'mus, (ALBRECHT,) a German general, 
born at Hamburg in 1808. About 1838 he was sent by 
Lord Palmerston to Constantinople to plan a campaign 
in Syria. He became general-in-chief of the allied 
armies of England and Turkey in December, 1840. He 
was appointed minister of foreign affairs by the Archduke 
fnhn, Vicar of the German empire, i" May, 1849, and 
resigned in December of that year. Died in 1881. 
Jocundus. See GIOCONDO, (GIOVANNI.) 
Jode, de, deh yo'deh, (ARNOLD,) son of Pieter, Jr., 
noticed below, was born about 1636. He is said to 
have been inferior to his grandfather and father as an 
engraver. While in London, in 1667, he engraved for 
Charles I. "Mercury Instructing Cupid," by Correggio. 
Among his other works is "The Infant Jesus embracing 
Saint John." 

Sec BASAN, " Dictionnaire des Graveurs." 

as k; c as s ; g hard: g as/; G, H, K, S uUural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. ( J=See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Jode, de, (PIETER.) a Flemish engraver, born in 1570 ; 
died in 1634. Among the most important of his pro- 
ductions may be mentioned "The Last Judgment," by 
Cousin, and "Jesus Christ giving the Keys to Saint 
Peter," by Rubens. 

Jode, de, (PIETER or PETRUS,) Jr., son of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Antwerp about 1606. He engraved 
numerous pictures from Rubens, Van Dyck, Titian, and 
other artists. Among his best works is "The Visita- 
tion of the Virgin," after Rubens. Died after 1660. 

Jodelle, zho'del', (ETIENNE,) Lord of Lymodin, born 
at Paris in 1532. He was one of the seven French poets 
termed the " Pleiades." He is said to have been the first 
to write plays in the French language and to introduce 
choruses after the Greek manner. It is said that his 
fluency of composition was so great that on a wager he 
composed in one night five hundred Latin v rses on a 
given subject. He died poor in 1573. His principal 
production was the tragedy of "Cleopatra," (1552.) 

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" BAVLE, " His 
torical and Critical Dictionary;" NICERON, "Memoires;" SAINTP 
BBUVE, " Poe"sie Francaise au seizieme Siecle." 

Jo-do'cus (or Jus'tus) OF GHENT, known also by 
the Italian name of GIUSTO DA GUANTO, a Flemish 
painter, who about 1465-74 painted "The Communion 
of the Apostles" at Urbino. Very little is known about 

Jo'drelL, (RICHARD PAUL,) an English dramatic 
writer, born in 1745. He produced "A Widow and no 
Widow," a farce, "The Persian Heroine," a tragedy, 
(1786,) and " Philology of the English Language," (1820.) 
Died in 1831. 

Joecher. See JOCHER. 

Jo'eL, [Meb. *7Wj Gr. 'Iuri\] one of the twelve minor 
Hebrew prophets, is supposed to have lived in the reign 
of Uzziah, about 800-750 B.C. A passage of his prophecy 
is quoted in Acts ii. 17. 

Joerdens. See JORDENS. 

Joffredus. See JOUKFROI. 

Jof frid, an English abbot of Lincolnshire, lived in 
the twelfth century. Peter de Blois, a writer of the time 
of Henry II., states that Joffrid was the founder of the 
University of Cambridge. 

Jogues, zhog, (ISAAC,) a French Jesuit, born at Or- 
Wans in 1607, spent many years in Canada as a missionary. 
He was killed by the Mohawks in 1646. 

Johann, (princes of Germany.) See JOHN. 

Johanneau, zho'S'no', (LOI,) a French antiquary, 
born near lilois in 1770. He was one of the founders 
of the Academic Celtique. In i8'l he became imperial 
censor of books. He wrote on botany, Celtic monuments, 
and other subjects. Died in 1851. 

Johannaeus, (FINNUS.) See JONSSON, (FiNN.) 

Johannes, the Latin for JOHN, which see. 

Johannes Antiochenus. See JOHN OK ANTIOCH. 

Johannes Cliniacus. See CLIMACUS. 

Johannes Secundus. See EVERARD, (JOHANNES.) 

Johannot, zho'S'no', (CHARLES,) eldest son of Fran- 
cois, noticed below, was born at Frankfort about 1790. 
He was a skilful engraver, and produced illustrations of 
the life of Saint Genevieve of Brabant. Died in 1825. 

Johannot, (CHARLES HENRI ALFRED,) an engraver 
and painter, second son of Francois, noticed below, 
was born at Offenbach in 1801. He acquired a high 
reputation for his vignette-designs illustrating the French 
translations of Byron, Scott, and Cooper. Among his 
best paintings are "The Entrance of Mademoiselle 
Montpensier into Orleans during the Fronde.'' and " Marv 
Stuart leaving Scotland." Died in 1837. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale." 

Johannot, (FRANCOIS,) a German designer and en- 
graver, of French extraction, was born in Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, and lived about 1790. He settled at Paris with 
his partner, Charles Andre. 

Johannot, (ToNY,) a painter and wood-engraver, a 
son of the preceding, was born at Offenbach in 1803. 
He gained a wide reputation as a designer and engraver 
of vignettes for books. Among the works which he 
illustrated are " Werther," the plays of Moliere, " Manon 
Lescaut," " Jerome Paturot," and " The Vicar of Wake- 
field." Died in Paris in 1852. 

John |Gr. 'ludwrif ; Lat. JOHAN'NES ; Fr. JEAN, zhflN ; 
It GIOVANNI, jo-vin'nee] THE DIVINE, commonly called 
SAINT JOHN THE EVANGELIST, with his brother James, 
was among the first to become a disciple of our Saviour 
when He commenced his ministry. John was made 
one of the twelve apostles ; and his gentle, loving spirit 
appears to have especially endeared him to his divine 
Master. He spoke of himself as "the disciple whom 
Jesus loved." He was with his Master in the garden of 
Gethsemane. When our Saviour was nailed to the cross, 
He commended his mother to the care of the beloved 
disciple. After the resurrection and ascension of Jesus, 
Saint John became one of the most prominent of the 
propagators of the Christian religion. Syria and Asia 
Minor were the principal scenes of his labours. We 
are told by Tertullian and Saint Jerome that under the 
reign of Domitian, by the order of a Roman proconsul, 
he was immersed in a caldron of boiling oil, and that in 
this terrible ordeal he was miraculously preserved, so 
that he sustained not the slightest injury. After this 
he was banished to the isle of Patmos, where he wrote 
the Apocalypse, or Revelation. He also wrote three 
Epistles, and the Gospel according to Saint John. He 
is supposed to have died at Ephesus in 99 A.D., at the 
age of ninety-tour. 

In recent years there has been a sharp discussion as to 
the authorship of Saint John's Gospel. Orthodox theolo- 
gians in general, with many Unitarians, like Ezra Abbot 
and E. H. Sears, assert that Saint John was its author. 

Among all the disciples of Christ, John appears to 
have most fully comprehended the character and spirit 
of his divine Master. He first announced in clear and 
concise terms the 'gr fiat central truth of Christianity, 
that "God is love," a truth which, in his view, finds 
its fullest proof in the great fact that God gave His 
Son for the salvation of the world. (See John iii. 16, 
17 ; and I. Epistle iv. 8, 9, 10.) The soul of "the be- 
loved disciple" seems ever filled with the one theme. 
Love, not fear, is to be the motive of obedience : " If ye 
love me, keep my commandments." The love to which 
he refers is not a mere sentiment, but a living power: 
" This is the love of God, that we keep his command- 
ments." (See John xiv. 15, 21, 23; I. Epistle iv.) 

See F. A. THOLUCK, " Commentary on the Gospel of John," the 
;th edition of which was translated into English by DR. C. P. 
KRAUTH, Philadelphia, 1859: WEGSCHHIDER, Introduction to the 
Gospel of Saint John," Gouingcn, i3oo ; ABBOT, " The Authorship 
of the Fourth Gospel ;" E. H. SEARS, "The Fourth Gospel the 
Heart of Christ," 1872. 

John I., surnamed ZIMIS'CES, |Gr. T(i/uaKf/(,] became 
Emperor of the East in 969 A.D. He carried on a suc- 
cessful war against the Rossi, or Russians, and quelled 
serious disturbances in his eastern provinces. He died 
of poison, as he was returning to Constantinople, in 975. 
He is said to have been a man of superior talents. 

John IH., of the family of Ducas, surnamed VATAT'- 
ZES, born in Thrace in 1 193, succeeded his father-in-law, 
Theodore Lascaris, in 1222, as Emperor of the East. 
Constantinople being then in possession of the Latins, 
John fixed his capital at Nicaea, in Bithynia. In 1235 he 
besieged Constantinople, but was repulsed. He, how- 
ever, reconquered all the other possessions belonging to 
the Greek Empire which had been taken by the Latins. 
John was a liberal patron of the useful arts, and did much 
to promote the welfare of his subjects. Died in 1255- 

John IV. (Las'caris) succeeded his father Theodore 
as Emperor of the East in 1259, when he was aged but 
six years. He was deprived of the crown in 1261 by 
Michael Palaeologus, who put out his eyes and im- 
prisoned him during the remainder of his life. 


John VI., (Palaeol'ogus,) born in 1332, was a son ot 
Andronicus, whom he succeeded on the imperial throne 
of Constantinople in 1341. He was afterwards impris- 
oned by one of his sons. During these intestine troubles 
the Turks attacked the capital, and forced John to con- 
clude a disgraceful treaty. He left the throne to his son 
Manuel. Died in 1391. 

John VII. (Palaeologus) succeeded his father Man 
uel on the throne of Constantinople in 1425. Being 
unable to oppose the Turkish invaders, he sought the 
Assistance of the Latins ; and, in order to cement the 

S, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, fi, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; in6"5n; 




He succeeded his father Henry (Henrique) II. 
He subsequently invaded Portugal, but met 

union, he formed a reconciliation between the Eastern 
and Western Churches, which, however, lasted but a 
short period. Died in 1448. He was succeeded by his 
brother, Constantine XIII. 

See Ls BBAU, " Histoire du Gas- Empire." 

John [Sp. JUAN, Hoo-an'] I., son of Peter (Pedro) IV., 
was born in 1350, and ascended the throne of Aragon in 
1387. Died in 1395. 

John (Juan) II., King of Aragon and Navarre, born 
in 1397, was one of the bravest and most enterprising 
of the Spanish sovereigns. In 1425 he ascended the 
throne of Navarre, as the husband of Queen Blanche, 
and three years later was appointed by his brother Al- 
fonso V. to the government of Aragon. Blanche died 
soon after, and in 1447 he married Joan Henriquez, of 
the blood-royal of Castile, who became the mother of 
Ferdinand the Catholic. He became King of Aragon in 
1458. He carried on long and successful wars against 
Henry IV. of Castile and Louis XI. of France. He also 
suppressed a formidable rebellion of the Catalans. Died 
in 1479. 

See PRESCOTT, " Ferdinand and Isabella," chap. ii. ; ERSCH und 
GRUBEK, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

John (Juau) I., King of Castile and Leon, was bom 
in 1358. 
in 1379. 

with a total defeat at Aljubarota in August, 1385. Died 
in 1390. 

John II., King of Castile and Leon, son of Henry 
(Henrique) III., born in 1404, was proclaimed sovereign 
two years later. He carried on successful wars against 
the Kings of Aragon and Navarre and the Moors of 
Granada. By his first wife, Maria of Aragon, he left 
three children, one of whom succeeded him as Henry 
(Henrique) IV. By his second queen, Isabella, he had a 
daughter, afterwards illustrious as Isabella the Catholic. 
Though a feeble sovereign, he was a liberal patron of 
learning, and his reign was distinguished for the revival 
of literature in Castile. Died in 1454. 

See PRSSCOTT, "Ferdinand and Isabella," chap. i. ; ERSCH und 
GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

John (Hans, bans) I. OF DENMARK and II. OF 
SWEDEN, son of Christian I., of the house of Oldenburg, 
born in 1455, ascended the throne in 1481. About the 
year 1500 the Swedes rebelled against him because he 
had garrisoned the fortresses with Danish and German 
troops. He was finally obliged to resign all claims to the 
Swedish crown. Died in 1513. 

John, King of England, surnamedSANSTERRE,(" Lack- 
land,") the youngest son of Henry II. by his queen, Elea- 
nor of Guienne, was born at Oxford in 1166. The king 
at first created him Earl of Montague, in Normandy, and 
in 1178 made him Lord of Ireland, In 1189 he married 
the daughter and sole heiress of William, Earl of Glou- 
cester. The same year he was a confederate in the 
rebellion of his brother Richard. On the accession of 
the latter to the throne he gave John several earldoms, 
including about one-third of the kingdom. Soon after 
Richard's departure on the crusade for the Holy Land, 
John formed plans to obtain the crown on the event of 
the king's death, in opposition to the rights of his nephew 
Arthur, Duke of Bretagne, whom Richard had recognized 
as his heir. When John was informed of his brother's 
imprisonment in Germany, he immediately attempted to 
usurp the throne, but was kept in check by the loyalty 
of the nobles. On the king's return to England, in 
1194, he deprived John of all his estates and compelled 
him to make a humble submission. Richard died in 
France in 1199, leaving his kingdom to John, who was 
then with him. That prince hastened to establish his 
authority in Normandy and his other dominions, and 
was crowned at Westminster in May, 1199. In 1201 he 
obtained a divorce from his wife, and married Isabella 
of Angouleme. Philip Augustus of France espoused 
.he cause of Arthur, who commenced hostilities against 
John and gained several victories, but was subsequently 
taken prisoner by his uncle and conveyed to Rouen. 
Nothing further was heard from him ; but the probability 
is that he was murdered. The war afterwards went 
entirely against the King of England, who in the course 
of two years lost the greater part of his continenta) 

possessions. During this period he drew upon himself 
the hostility of the Roman pontiff by insisting on his 
right to appoint the Archbishop of Canterbury, that see 
being then vacant. The pope excommunicated him and 
laid the kingdom under an interdict, (1208.) John, how- 
ever, paid no attention to the thunders of the Vatican, 
but imprisoned or banished the bishops and clergy who 
obeyed the pope's orders. Meanwhile he reduced Lle- 
wellyn, a Welsh prince, to subjection, and suppressed a 
rebellion in Ireland. Finally the pope, having formally 
deposed him and absolved his subjects from their oaths 
of allegiance, instigated the French king to invade Eng- 
land. John, perceiving his danger, made an abject sub- 
mission to the papal legate, and resigned to him the 

kingdoms of England and Ireland, (1213.! 
then forbidden to prosecute his enterprise. 

Philip was 
For a long 

time John's tyranny had excited the hatred of his barons. 
This was increased by Langton, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who, presenting them with the charter of Henry I., 
exhorted them to obtain the' liberties therein granted. A 
numerous body of barons solemnly swore to regain their 
rights or to levy an unceasing war on the king. King 
John, being supported by the pope, scornfully refused *o 
make any concessions to the barons, who raised a power- 
ful force and marched to London, where the citizens 
gladly received them. On the I5th of June, 1215, John 
consented to grant all that they required, and signed at 
Runnymede the famous Magna Charta. Scarcely had 
he done this before he induced the pope to absolve him 
from these obligations and to excommunicate several 
of his opponents. He also brought into England large 
bodies of foreign troops, and gained several victories 
over the barons. The latter then chose Louis, Dauphin 
of France, as their king. This prince landed at Sand- 
wich in May, 1216. John would probably have been 
successful, (for dissensions were already breaking out in 
the camp of Louis,) had he not been carried off by a 
fever in October of that year. John has left one of the 
darkest names in the history of the English kings. He 
was extremely cruel, fickle, and licentious, without a 
redeeming virtue. He had, by his queen Isabella, five 
children, the eldest of whom succeeded him as Henry 
III. The second, Richard, was elected King of the 
Romans in 1257. 

See HUMS, "History of England;" HALLAM, "Constitutional 
History of England ;" JOSEPH BERINGTON, " H istory of Henry II. 
and of Richard I. and John, his Sons," 1790; LINGARD, "History 
of England." 

John [Fr. JEAN, zhftN] I., a posthumous son of Louis 
X., King of France, was born in 1316. Though he lived 
but eight days, he is recorded among the French mon- 

See N. DE MoNMERQuri, "Dissertation historique sur Jean I. 
Roi de France," 1844- 

John (Jean) H., surnamed LE BON, ascended the 
throne of France upon the death of his father, Philip 
of Valois, in 1350. Charles, King of Navarre, having ac- 
cepted an invitation to meet John at Rouen, was there 
imprisoned, and several of his lords put to death. The 
people of Navarre applied to England for assistance, and 
Edward the Black Prince invaded France at the head of an 
army. John marched against him with 60,000 men, was 
defeated and made prisoner at the battle of Poitiers, fought 
in 1356, and conducted to London, where he was received 
with great honour by Edward III. While he remained 
in England a civil war broke out in France with the peas- 
antry, known in history by the name of" La Jacquerie." 
In this revolt the castles of the nobility were plundered 
and burnt and the inmates massacred. These ravages 
continued for two years, until the dauphin, assisted by 
several powerful lords, defeated the peasants, putting 
thousands of them to the sword. In 1360, peace having 
been concluded between France and England, John re- 
turned to his capital ; but, finding much opposition made 
by the nobles to the conditions of the treaty, he again 
visited England, to confer with King Edward. He wa 
soon after taken ill, and died in London in 1364. 

See SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais:" FROISPART, "Chroni- 
cles;" MICHELET, "Histoire de France;" HENRI MARTIN, "His- 
toire de France." 


as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/'; G, H, H,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as ; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




John m. OF NAVARRE, or Jean d'Albret, zhoN 
JJl'bRj', began to reign in 1494. In 1512 Ferdinand 
the Catholic invaded Navarre and drove John from the 
throne. Died in 1516. 

John I, King of Poland, a son of Casimir IV., was 
born in 1459, and succeeded his father in 1492. He 
waged war against the Tartars and Turks. Died in 1501. 



John [ Port. JoAo or JOAM, zho-owN'] I, surnamed TH E 
GREAT, King of Portugal, the natural son of Peter I., 
was born in 1357. On the death of his brother F-rdi- 
nand, in 1385, he assumed the regal power in opposition 
to the rights of Ferdinand's daughter Beatrix, who had 
married John I., King of Castile. This led to a war with 
Spain, in which the Portuguese monarch gained several 
important victories and firmly established his power. He 
subsequently carried on a successful war against the 
Moors of Africa. During his reign the Portuguese com- 
menced those maritime expeditions which soon after 
rendered them so celebrated. Under the command of 
his son, Prince Henry, they discovered Madeira, the 
Canaries, the Azores, and several places on the western 
coast of Africa. Died in 1433. 

See LA CLBDE, " Hisioire ge'ne'rale de Portugal :" FERNANDO 
LOPEZ, "Chromca del Rev Joio I.," 3 vols., 1644; MANOBL MOM- 
THIRO. "Joannes Portugal!* Reges," 1742. 

John (Joao) II., King of Portugal, surnamed THE 
PERFECT, son of Alfonso V., was born in 1455, and 
ascended the throne in 1481. At the age of sixteen 
years he fought against the African Moors and took Ar- 
zile and Tangiers, and five years later gained the battle 
of Toro over the Castilians. Soon after his coronation 
he quelled a powerful conspiracy formed against him 
by his nobles. He encouraged the spirit of enterprise 
among the Portuguese, and fitted out a squadron destined 
for the East Indies and the Eastern Seas. Died in 1495. 

See VASCONCELI.OS, " Vida y Acciones del Rey Don Juan II.," 
1639, (translated into French, 1641 ;) DAMlAo DE GOES, "Chronics 
do Principe Dom Joao Rey," etc., 1567; " Nouvelle Biographic 

John iJoaoi III., King of Portugal, born in 1502, 
succeeded his father, Emanuel the Great, in 1521. In 
1524 he married Catherine of Austria, to whose brother, 
Charles V., he gave his sister Isabella in marriage. He 
colonized Brazil, and sent to the Eastern Seas a fleet, 
by which Japan was discovered. He established the 
Inquisition in Portugal and its colonies. Died in 1557. 

John (Joao) IV., surnamed THE FORTUNATE, chief 
of the dynasty of Braganza, was born in 1604. He threw 
off the authority of Spain, to which Portugal had been 
subjected since the days of Philip II., and became king 
in 1640. He enacted many wise and beneficial laws, and 
died, greatly regretted by the nation, in 1656. 

See VERTOT, " Histoire des Revolutions de Portugal," 1689. 

John (Joao) V., King of Portugal, born in 1689, suc- 
ceeded his father, Peter II., in 1707. He joined the allies 
against France and Spain about 1702. After the peace 
of Utrecht (1713) he devoted his time to the encourage- 
ment of education and commerce. Died in 1750. 

See " Vida, Successes e Fallecimento do Rey Joao V'.," Lisbon, 
1750; FERDINAND DENIS, "Portugal." 

John (Joao) VI. of Portugal, was born in 1769, and 
was appointed Regent of Portugal in 1793 on account of 
the derangement of his mother, Maria I., who was then 
queen-regnant. In 1807, when the French invaded 
Portugal, he sailed to Brazil, where he received the title 
of emperor. He returned in 1821, soon after which the 
Brazilians revolted and declared themselves independent. 
Died in 1826. 

See " Histoire de Jean VI, Roi de Portugal," 1827; " Nouvelle 
Biographic Ge'ne'rale." 



John (Johan, yo'han) I., King of Sweden, the last 
of the dynasty of Sverker, succeeded Eric in 1216. He 
was very active in establishing Christianity. Died in 1222. 


John HI., King of Sweden, the second son of Gus- 
tavus Vasa, was born in 1537. He married Catherine 
Jagellon, daughter of Sigismund, King of Poland. In 
1560 he visited England, to negotiate a marriage between 

us elder brother Eric and Queen Elizabeth, in which he 
was unsuccessful. In 1568 he deposed Eric and ascended 
the throne in his stead. Influenced by his queen, he 
attempted to re-establish the Catholic religion, but was 
eflectually resisted by his brother Charles, Duke of 
Sudermania, at the head of the Protestants. Died 
in 1592. 

John, King, or Emperor, of Abyssinia, was known as 
Prince Kassai or Kasa, (Lij Kassa,) and was Under- 
Governor of Adowa. In 1867 the Emperor Theodore 
made him one of the kings of Tigre. In 1868 he as- 
sisted the English in their march against Theodore, after 
whose fall John received from the conquerors large 
amounts of military stores. Civil wars followed, but in 
1872 John was crowned at Axoom. la 1876 he repelled 
an Egyptian invasion, and in 1879 he received the alle- 
giance of Menilek, King of Shoa. Died Marcli 12, 1)589. 

John (Jean) I., Duke of Bretagne, was born in 1217. 
Having attempted to check the papal encroachments, 
the pope excommunicated him, and he was obliged to 
g-> to Rome to obtain absolution. Died in 1284. 

John IL, son of the preceding, was born in 1 239. He 
married Beatrix, daughter of Henry III. of England, 
from whom he received the title of Count of Richemont. 
He was also made a peer of France by Philippe le Bel. 
He was killed at the ordination of Clement V. at Lyons 
by the falling of a wall. 

John HI., Duke of Bretagne, surnamed THF. GOOD, 
succeeded his father, Arthur II., in 1312. He is said 
to have been a just and benevolent prince. Died in 

John IV., Duke of Bretagne, known as JEAN DE 
MONTFORT, half-brother of the preceding, was born in 
1293. John (Jean) III., having no children, willed the 
dukedom to Charles de Blois ; but Jean de Montfort, re- 
garded by many as the legitimate heir, soon reduced all 
the towns and provinces to his subjection, and went to 
England to render homage to King Edward for his estates. 
On his return he was summoned before the court of peers 
to prove his claims to Bretagne. The peers decided 
against him, and he raised an army to defend his rights, 
but was shortly after taken prisoner by the Duke of Nor- 
mandy and confined in the tower of Louvre at Paris. 
In the mean time the war was carried on with energy 
by his duchess, Jeanne of Flanders. At the expiration 
of nearly four years, John escaped, disguised as a mer- 
chant. He died soon after, in 1345. 

See DARU, " Histoire de Rretasne." 

John (Jean) V., (or John IV, according to some 
authorities,) Duke of Bretagne, born in 1338, was a 
son of the preceding. lie married Mary, a daughter 
of Edward III. of England. By a decisive victory over 
his competitor, Charles de Blois, at Auray, in 1364, he 
obtained possession of Bretagne. He afterwards fought 
for the English against the French, who drove him out 
of Bretagne about 1374 ; but he was soon restored. Died 
In 1399. 

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais." 

John (Jean) VI., son of the preceding, became Duke 
of Bretagne in 1399, when he was ten years of age. He 
carried on a war against the Count of Penthievre and 
the Duke of Burgundy, and afterwards joined the Eng- 
lish under the Duke of Bedford against France. Died 
in 1443. 

John, surnamed THE FEARLESS, [Fr. JEAN SANS FEUR, 
zhoN SON pUR,| Duke of Burgundy, born at Dijon in 
1371, was the eldest son of Philip the Bold. At the age 
of twenty-five he assisted Sigismund, King of Hungary, 
against the Turks, by whom he was made prisoner at the 
battle of Nicopolis. When taken before the Sultan Baya- 
zeed, (Bajazet.) he evinced so much courage that that 
sovereign gave him his liberty and the surname of SANS 
PEUR, (the "Fearless.") After his return to France he 
was engaged in fighting the English and in political in- 
trigues at the French court. He was appointed guardian 
of the dauphin of France in 1406. He caused the assas- 
sination of his rival, the Duke of Orleans, in I. .07, and 
obtained almost unlimited power in the kingdom. He 
was murdered in 1419, at the instigation of the dauphin, 
son of Charles VI. 

i. e. I. o, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, f, 6, u, 5?, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n6t; good, moon ; 




John, IGer. JOHANN, yo'hln,] surnamed THE CON- 
STANT, a son of the Elector Ernest, was born in 1467, 
and became Elector of Saxony in 1 525. He was a zealous 
defender of the Protestant faith, and in 1530 caused the 
Confession of Augsburg to be proclaimed in the Diet 
assembled at that city. Died in 1532. 

See EXSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie. " 

John |Lat. JOHAN'NES; Fr. JEAN, zhON ; It. GIO- 
VANNI, jo-vin'nee| I., a native of Tuscany, was raised to 
the Roman see upon the death of Hormisdas, in 523. 
He was sent on an embassy to Constantinople by King 
Theodoric to obtain toleration for the Arians ; and on 
his return, having displeased that monarch, he was 
thrown into prison, where he died in 526. 

John n., surnamed MERCURIUS, was a native of 
Rome, and succeeded Boniface II. in 532 or 533. Died 
in 535. 

John IH, a native of Rome, succeeded Pelagius I. 
in 560. Died about 573, and was succeeded by Bene- 
dict I. 

John IV., a Dalmatian, succeeded Severinus in 640. 
He condemned the doctrines of the Monothelites and the 
edict of the emperor Heraclius, called "The Exposition 
of Faith," which was issued in their defence. Died in 
642, and was succeeded by Theodorus. 

John V., a native of Antioch, in Syria, was chosen 
pope on the death of Benedict II., in 685, and died in 
687. Conon succeeded him. 

John VI., a Greek, succeeded Sergius I. in 701. During 
his pontificate Wilfred, Archbishop of York, was tried 
and acquitted of the charges preferred by the English 
clergy. Died in 705. 

John VII., a native of Greece, was elected successor 
to the preceding. Died in 707. Sisinnius succeeded 

John VHI., (called John IX. by those who admit the 
truth of Pope Joan's history,) was a native of Rome, and 
succeeded Adrian II. in 872. He crowned the emperor 
Charles the Bald, and afterwards Charles le Gros. He 
confirmed Phocius Patriarch of Constantinople. In 878 
the Saracens invaded Italy and compelled him to pay 
tribute. Died in 882. He was succeeded by Martin II. 

See ARTAUD DB MONTOR, " Histoire des souverains Pontifes." 

John IX., an Italian, became pope in 898, after the 
death of Theodore II. Died about 900. 

John X was elected in 91 5, through the influence of his 
mistress Theodora, as successor to Lando. He crowned 
Berengarius as emperor. Subsequently, with the assist- 
ance of this sovereign, he marched against the Saracens, 
who had invaded Italy, defeated them, and drove them 
from the country. At this time Guido, Duke of Tus- 
cany, with his wife, the infamous Marozia, possessed 
great power in Rome. John, having offended them, was 
seized in his palace by their soldiers and put in prison, 
where he is said to have been killed in 928. 

John XI., elected pope in 931, was the son of Maro- 
zia, as some suppose, by Pope Sergius III. Alberico, 
another son of Marozia, raised a revolt against his 
mother, whom he imprisoned with John in the castle 
of Sant' Angelo. The latter died about 936, and was 
succeeded by Leo VII. 

John XI I., son of Alberico, was elected successor to 
Agapetus II. in 956, when he was but eighteen years old. 
He changed his name from Octavianus. Four years 
later he crowned Otho I. Emperor of Germany and 
King of Italy. Subsequently he became so notorious for 
his oppression and licentiousness that Otho returned to 
Rome in 963 and caused John to be deposed and Leo 
VIII. to be chosen in his place. But, as soon as Othu 
left Italy, John entered Rome at the head of a powerful 
party, drove out Leo, and committed great atrocities. 
He died in 964. One of his mistresses, named Joan, 
exercised much influence at Rome during his pontificate ; 
and it has been suggested that this may have given rise 
to the story of " Pope Joan." 

See BARONIUS, "Annales." 

John XIII., Bishop of Narni, was raised to the papal 
see in 965 by the influence of the emperor Otho I. The 
Romans, however, being opposed to this election, im- 
prisoned John. Otho marched to Rome, liberated him, 
ind hanged several of his opponents. John crowned 

Otho II., son of Otho I., as emperor. Died in 972, and 
was succeeded by Benedict VI. 

John XIV., Bishop of Pavia, was raised to the papal 
see, as successor to Benedict VII., about 984. After a 
pontificate of nine months, he was deposed by Boniface 
VII. and put in prison, where he is supposed to have 
been poisoned in 985. 

John XV., elected successor to John XIV., died a few 
days after. By some he is left out of the order of popes. 

John XVI., a native of Rome, became pope about 
986. During his pontificate, a patrician, named Cres- 
centius, caused great disturbances and drove the pope 
from Rome. He was, however, reinstated in his au- 
thority by the emperor Otho. Died in 996, and was 
succeeded byGregory V. 

John XVU . whose previous name was PHILACA- 
THIUS, a native of Calabria, and Bishop of Piacenza, was 
chosen pope in 997 by the faction of Crescentius, in op- 
position to Gregory V. Otho III., espousing the cause 
of the latter, executed Crescentius with his adherents, 
and imprisoned John after having horribly mutilated him. 

John XV1I1. was elected successor to Sylvester II. 
in 1003, and died four months afterwards. 

John XIX, elected pope in 1004. He sent Saint 
Bruno to preach Christianity to the Russians, and healed 
the schism between the Churches of Rome and Constan- 
tinople. Died in 1009, and was succeeded by Sergius IV. 

John XX., previously named ROMANUS, was the son 
of Count Gregory of Tuscany, and brother of Benedict 
VIII., whom he succeeded in 1024. In 1027 he crowned 
Conrad as emperor. He died in 1033 or 1034, and was 
succeeded by Benedict IX. 

John XXI., born in Lisbon, was elected successor to 
Adrian V. about 1276. He died after a pontificate of a 
few months. Nicholas III. succeeded him. 

John XXII., a native of Cahors, in France, and pre- 
viously known as JACQUES D'EusE, or JAMES OF OSSA, 
was chosen to succeed Clement V. in 1316. He was 
consecrated at Lyons, and made his residence at Avignon. 
At this period there was a competition for the throne of 
Germany between Louis of Bavaria and Frederick of 
Austria. John, who declared that he had the right to 
appoint the emperor, excommunicated Louis in 1324 or 
1 327, and advanced the claims of Robert, King of Naples. 
This led to a long war in Italy between the Guelphs, 
who were allies of Robert, and the Ghibelines, who were 
assisted by the troops of Louis. At first the Guelphs had 
the advantage ; but their opponents soon gained ground, 
and in 1327 Louis visited Italy and received the iron 
crown of Milan. At Rome the Bishops of Venice and 
Aleria crowned him emperor, after which he deposed 
John and appointed Peter de Corvara in his place, with 
the name of Nicholas V. After the return of Louis to 
Germany the Guelphs began to obtain the ascendency. 
John died at Avignon in 1334. He possessed extraor- 
dinary abilities, was devoted to study, and wrote some 
medical treatises. His avarice, however, was the most 
prominent trait in his character ; and to him is attributed 
the introduction of the Annates, or First-Fruits. He left, 
besides his jewels, eighteen millions of golden florins in 
his coffers. 

See ARTAUD DE MONTOR, "Histoire des souverains Pontifes;' 
PLATINA, " Historia de Vitis Pontificum Romaiiorum ;" " Nouvelle 
Biographic Gt^ne'rale." 

John XXLLL, (or XXTL, according to some authori- 
ties,) (Cardinal COSSA,) a Neapolitan, was elected as suc- 
cessor to Alexander V. in 1410, during a schism of the 
Church. His title was disputed by two rivals, Benedict 
XIII. and Gregory XII. He was a man of depraved 
morals and of insatiable cupidity. A quarrel between 
John and Ladislaus of Naples resulted in the expulsion 
of the former from Rome. John applied for support 
to the emperor Sigismund, who convoked at Constance 
in 1414 a general council. This council (at which John 
was present) required him to abdicate the popedom. 
He pretended to comply, but left Constance disguised, 
and fled towards Rome with the intention to resist the 
decree of the council. He was quickly arrested and 
brought back to Constance, where he was convicted of 
many heinous offences, and formally deposed, in 1415. 
He was confined in prison about three years. He died 
at Florence in 1419. 

eas/t; 9 ass; gAard; gasj; G,H,Vi, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasr; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 2V 




John, (Juan,) DON, OF AUSTRIA, one of the most cele- 
brated military and naval commanders of the sixteenth 
century, was the natural son of the emperor Charles V. 
and Barbara Blomberg, a native of Germany. He was 
born at Katisbon in 1546, and passed as the son of a 
Spanish nobleman named Quixada, by whom he was 
educated. Charles V. on his death-bed recommended 
him to the protection of Philip II., who soon after ac- 
knowledged John as his brother and made appropria- 
tions which enabled him to live in princely state. At 
the age of twenty-two he was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the forces sent against the Moriscoes of Granada, 
whom he vanquished in several battles and finally re- 
duced to complete subjection. In 1571, war having been 
declared between Philip II. and the Sultan, Don John 
was appointed generalissimo of the combined fleets of 
Spain and Italy. He sailed from Messina in the middle 
of September with two hundred and fifty ships of war 
and about fifty thousand men, and on the 7th of October 
encountered the Turkish fleet in the Gulf of Lepanto, 
where he gained one of the greatest naval victories of 
which history makes mention. Soon after the battle 
of Lepanto he received an embassy from thf Greeks of 
Albania and Macedonia, requesting him to assist them 
against the Turks and to receive the sovereignty of their 
countries. Don John was prevented from accepting the 
offer by Philip, who, jealous of his brother's reputation, 
refused the assistance necessary for the enterprise. Don 
John, in a subsequent expedition against Africa, took 
Tunis, Biserta, and several other important places. Ik 
was appointed in 1576 Governor of the Netherlands, 
which were then in a state of rebellion. He at first used 
conciliatory measures ; but the States, suspecting him 
of duplicity, declined his overtures and prepared for war 
Don John soon after took Namur by stratagem, and on 
the 1st of January, 1578, gained the decisive victory ol 
Gemblours. He afterwards reduced Louvain, Nivelle, 
and other towns belonging to the insurgents. \Vhilt 
thus actively engaged, in October, 1578, he was seized 
with an illness which carried him to the grave. Strong 
suspicions were entertained by many that he was poisoned. 

See L. VAN DER HAMMRN, " Vida de Don Juan," 1627: BRUSLI* 
DB MONTPLBINCHAMP, " Vie de Don Juan d'Autriche," i6qo ; ALEXI> 
DUMESNIL, " Vie de Don Juan d'Autriche," 1827 ; MOTLEY, " Rise 
of the Dutch Republic." vol. iii. part v. chaps, i.-v. ; PRESCOTT. 
" History of Philip 1 1., "vol. ii. ; I. P. LVSHR, " Enherzog Johann, 
der Freund des Volkes," iS4S; SCHNBIDEWIND, " Leben des Erz- 
herzogs Johann von Oesterreich," etc., 1849. 

John, yon, (EUGENIA,) a German novelist, best known 
by the pseudonym of E. MARLITT. She was born at 
Arnstadt, December 5, 1825. Adopted by the Princess 
of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, she was trained as a 
singer ; but, having lost the sense of hearing, she became 
a very successful and prolific writer of romances. "The 
Twelve Apostles," "Gold Else," and "The Second 
Wife" are among her works. Died in 1887. 

John or Johann, (NF.POMUK MARIA JOSEPH,) born in 
1801, succeeded his brother Frederick Augustus as King 
of Saxony in 1 854. He was distinguished for great virtues 
as a ruler, and for his literary attainments. He trans- 
lated Dante's " Divine Comedy." He was an ally of Aus- 
tria in the war against Prussia in 1866. Died Oct. 29, 1^73. 

John OF BAYEUX, [Fr. JEAN DE BAYEUX, zh&N deh 
bl'yuh',] a haughty and violent French prelate. He 
became Archbishop of Rouen in 1070. Died in 1079. 

bRe'en',) King of Jerusalem, and Regent of Constant! 
nople, was born in France. He assisted in the taking 
of Jerusalem in 1204, and in 1218, at the head of a Latin 
army, he took Damietta. In 1226 he was compelled to 
resign Jerusalem to the emperor Frederick II. Three 
years later he was elected, by the French barons in the 
East, Regent of Constantinople, which he bravely de- 
fended against the Greek emperor John Ducas. Died 
in 1237. 


John OF CAPPADOCIA, a theologian, became Patriarch 
of Constantinople about 518. He co-operated with the 
pope Hnrmisdas in the restoration of union between 
the Eastern and Western Churches. Died in 520. 

John II. OF CAPPADOCIA became Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople about 582 A.D. Died in 596. 

John, surnamed CLIMACUS or CLIMACHUS. See 

John OF GIS'CALA or GISCHALA, a Jewish captain, 
was an enemy of Josephus the historian. He was the 
chief of one of the factions of zealots and outlaws that 
fought against each other and against the Romans in Je- 
rusalem while that city was besieged by Titus, in JOA.U 
On the capture of the city he was imprisoned for life. 

John OF LUXEMBURG, surnamed THE BLIND, son of 
the emperor Henry VII., was born in 1295. In 1309 
he was elected King of Bohemia, and in 1322 he con- 
quered Silesia. In 1331 he formed a league with Louis 
of Bavaria, Emperor of Germany, against Pope John 
XXII., and entered Italy. The pope then offered to 
recognize him as King of Italy. The emperor, in order 
*o prevent this, invaded Bohemia. John left the com- 
mand of his army in Italy to his son, returned to Bo- 
hemia, and drove out Louis. He was soon after attacked 
with a disease in his eyes, which produced blindness, 
but did not in the least affect his spirit of enterprise, 
lie invaded Poland, reduced it to subjection, and formed 
an alliance with Philip of France against the English. 
He was mortally wounded at the battle of Crecy, in 1346, 
after having performed great feats of valour. 

See FROISSART, "Chronicles:" SISMONDJ, " Histoire des Fran- 

John OF RAGUSA, a learned Romish prelate, was i:i 
1426 sent by Martin V. to the Council of Bale, over which 
he presided in 1431. He distinguished himself by his 
controversies with the followers of Huss. 

John OF SALISBURY, a learned scholastic philosopher 
and writer, born at Salisbury about 1120. He entered 
the service of Thomas a Becket, and became his secre- 
tary. In 1176 he was appointed Bishop of Chartres. 
He wrote, besides other valuable works, " Polycraticus 
de Nugis Curialium et Vestigiis Philosophorum," which 
is a satire on the follies of courtiers, etc., and a " Life 
of Thomas a Becket." Died in 1180. His works were 
published by J. A. Giles, Oxford, (5 vols., 1848.) 

See " Gallia Christiana," tome viii. ; B. HAUKSAU, "De la Philo- 
ophie scholastique ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ue'rale." 

John OF SEVILLE or OK LUNA, a learned Jewish 
convert of the twelfth century. lie translated into Span- 
ish many valuable Arabic works. 

John OF SUABIA, surnamed THE PARRICIDE, born 
in 1289, was a nephew of the emperor Albert I. Ths 
latter, having withheld from him his hereditary domains 
was murdered by John and a band of conspirators. 

See BRANTCIME, " Viea des grands Capitaines." 


John (Johann) Baptist, (JOSEPH FABIAN SEBAS 
riAN,) Archduke of Austria, born in 1785, was a son of 
Leopold II. He succeeded Kray in 1800 as commander 
of the Austrian army, and was defeated by General 
Moreau at Hohenlinden, in December of that year. In 
the campaign of 1809 he directed the operations in the 
Tyrol, and gained a victory over the viceroy Eugene. In 
June, 1848, he was elected Vicar of the German empire 
by the Parliament at Frankfort. He resigned that office 
in December, 1849. Died in 1859. 

John Cast-mir, [Ger. JOHANN CASIMIR, yo'hin 
ka'ze-mtR,] Count Palatine, born in 1543, was the second 
son of the Elector-Palatine Frederick III. He was a 
zealous Calvinist, and in 1568 raised an army with which 
he invaded Lorraine to aid the French Huguenots. In 
'575 ne ag am entered France, as the ally of the Prince 
of Conde. His court at Neustadt became the centre 
of the Calvinist policy. After the death of his father, 
John Casimir was the political chief of the Reformers. 
Died in 1592. 

See DE THOU, " Histoire Universelle :" DANIEL PARRNS, " H 
loria P.-Uatina ;" F. JUNIUS, " Ecloga in Obitum Joannis Casimiri.' 
1592; "Nouvelle Biographic GeWrale." 

John Comneiuis. See CALO-JOANNES. 

John Damascenus. See DAMASCENUS. 

John de Matha, mi'tha, (SAINT,) a French priest, 
born in Faucon, in Provence, June 24, 1169. He studied 
at Aix and Paris, and became the associate of Saint 
Felix of Valois, with whom he founded the order of 
Trinitarian Brethren, for the purpose of aiding in the 

, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; 



work of ransoming Christian captives from among the 
Moors, lie several times visited the Moorish countries. 
Died December 21, 1213. 

John Frederick |Ger. JOHANN FRIEDRICH, yo'han 
freed'riK] 1 of Saxony, surnamed THE MAGNANIMOUS, 
was a son of the Elector John the Constant, whom he 
succeeded in 1532. Having joined the Protestant League 
of Schmalkalden, he was taken prisoner at the battle of 
Muhlberg, but was released through the intervention of 
his cousin, Maurice of Saxony. Died in 1554. 

See ERSCH und GRUBBR, "Allpemeine Encyklopaedie;" CASPAR 
SAGITTARIUS, " Historia Joannis Fnderici Electoris," etc., 1678; C. 
BUDER. " Nachricht von der Kurfurst Johann Friedrich's zu Sach- 
en," 1755. 

John Frederick II., Duke of Saxony, and a son of 
the preceding, was born in 1529. He began to reign 
in 1554. Died in 1595. 

John George [Ger. JOHANN GEORG, yo'han ga'oRG] 
L, Elector of Saxony, born in 1585, began to reign in 
1611. During the Thirty Years' war his course was 
vacillating, alternately favouring the cause of the emperor 
and of the Protestant allies. In 1635 he made a disad- 
vantageous peace with Ferdinand II. Died in 1656. 

See KARL AUGUST MtiLLHR, "Kurfurst Johann Georg I., seine 
Familie," etc.. 1838; SKBLIGMANN, " Dissertatio de Vita Joannit 
Georgii I.," 1676. 

John George IT, Elector of Saxony, born in 1613, 
began to reign in 1656, and distinguished himself as a 
legislator. Died in 1680. 

See STOCKMANN, " Programma : Elector Joannes Georgius II. 
Saxonix et Lusatiz Legislator," 1789. 

John of Antioch, or John the Scholastic, [Lat. 
cus; Fr. JEAN D'ANTIOCHE, zhON ddN'te-osh',] a Greek 
canonist, born at Antioch, became Patriarch of Constan- 
tinople in 565 A.D. He published a collection of canons. 
Died in 578. (See MALALA.) 

John of Bologna. See BOLOGNA. 

Johu of Damascus. See DAMASCENUS. 

John of Gauut or Ghent, Duke of Lancaster, a 
younger son of Edward HI. King of England, was born 
in 1340. His birthplace, Ghent, in Flanders, then called 
in English Gaunt, (after the French GanJ,) gave him the 
designation by which he is generally known. He served 
in ear y youth under his eldest brother Edward the Black 
Prince in the French wars, where he gained great dis- 
tinction for his skill and bravery. He married Constance, 
a natural daughter of Peter the Cruel, King of Castile 
and Leon, and, on the death of that monarch, laid claim 
to une sovereignty ot those kingdoms, but was defeated by 
Henry of Trastamara. He subsequently gave his daughter 
ir. marriage to the heir-apparent of the crowns of Castile 
aod Leon, upon which he resigned his own claims. His 
third wife was a sister-in-law of the poet Chaucer, to 
whom he proved a liberal patron. Died in 1399. His 
uon, surnamed Bolingbroke, afterwards ascended the 
throne of England, with the title of Henry IV. 

John of God, SAINT. See DIEU, DE, (JEAN.) 

John of Leyden, sometimes called Johann Bock- 
elson or Beccold, a notorious fanatic, born at Leyden 
in 1510. Having joined the Anabaptists, he associated 
himself with Matthys, and with his followers took pos- 
session of the city of Minister. After committing the 
greatest excesses and cruelties, he was taken prisoner 
by the Bishop of Miinster, and executed in 1536. 

See JOCHMUS, "Geschichte der Miinsterschen WiedertSufer :" 
ROBERTSON, " History of Charles V.," book v. ; C. A. VULPIUS, 
"Johann von Leyden," i 7 Q3 ; J. C. WALLMANN, "Johann von Ley 
c3en, 1844: ERSCH und GRUBER, "Aligemeine Encyklopaedie." 

John the Baptist, [Fr. JEAN BAPTISTE, zhftN bfp'- 
test'; It. GIOVANNI BATTISTA, jo-van'nee bat-tis'ta,] 
sion of Zacharias, a Jewish priest, and his wife Elisabeth. 
1 1 was foretold of him that he should come in the spirit 
a.nd power of Elias, to prepare the way of the Lord. 
(Luke i. 17.) Our Saviour also said that no prophet 
was greater than John the Baptist. (Luke vii. 28.) He 
bt?gan to' preach and to baptize in the desert country 
through which the Jordan flowed. It was here that 
Jesus received baptism and was proclaimed by him as 
the promised Messiah. He was subsequently cast into 
prijson, and beheaded by the order of Herod. 

15ee Mark vi. 16-30. 

Johnes, j6nz, ? (THOMAS,) an English scholar and 
bibliomaniac, born at Ludlow, in Shropshire, in 1748. 
He was twice elected a member of Parliament. He 
translated Froissart's "Chronicle," and other literary 
works, from the French. Died in 1816. 

Johns, (JOHN,) D.D., an American bishop, born in 
Newcastle, Delaware, July 10, 1796. He graduated at 
Princeton College in 1815, took orders in the Episcopal 
Church, was appointed Assistant Bishop of Virginia in 
1842, and in 1862 succeeded Bishop Meade as diocesan. 
He was for some time president of William and Mary 
College, and of the Theological Seminary of Virginia. 
Died April 5, 1876. 

John'spn, (ALEXANDER B.,) an author and banker, 
born in Gosport, England, in 1786. He settled in Utica, 
New York, in 1801, and engaged in banking opetations 
in that town. He devoted his leisure to the study of 
the nature of human knowledge, or ideas irrespective of 
the words by which they are expressed. The results of 
his investigation are his " Philosophy of Human Know- 
ledge, or a Treatise on Language," (1828,) a " Treatise on 
Language, or the Relation which Words bear to Things," 
(1836,) and other publications on the same subject. His 
"Physiology of the Senses" (1856) was highly com- 
mended by the " Westminster Review." He also pub 
lished a "Treatise on Banking." Died Sept. 9, 1867. 

John'son, (ANDREW,) the seventeenth President ot 
the United States, was born at Raleigh, North Carolina, 
in 1808. He learned the trade of a tailor, which he fol- 
lowed for many years at Greenville, Tennessee. He waa 
self-educated, and, it is said, never attended any school 
In 1828 he was elected alderman, and in 1830 mayor, of 
Greerville. After he had served several terms in the 
legislature of Tennessee, he was elected a member of 
Congress by the Democrats in 1843, and continued in 
that body for ten years. He was chosen Governor of 
Tennessee in 1853, and again in 1855. In 1857 he was 
elected a United States Senator for six years. Having 
taken a decided stand against the disunion movement in 
1860 and 1861, he was appointed Military Governor of 
Tennessee by President Lincoln in 1862. He was elected 
Vice-President of the United States by the Republicans 
in November, 1864, and, on the death of Mr. Lincoln, 
became President in April, 1865. On his accession to 
office he displayed at first a spirit of great severity 
against the rebels, but soon afterwards adopted a line of 
policy in relation to the reconstruction of the seceded 
Slates which was very favourable to them. His policy, 
which tended to restore the domination of the secession- 
ists and to reduce the freedmen again to many of the 
:vils of slavery, was rejected by a majority of Congress; 
ind a violent contest ensued between that body and the 
President, who vetoed numerous acts passed by Con- 
gress for the reconstruction of the Southern States, etc. 
His vetoes, however, were overruled by a majority of 
two-thirds in each House, and the policy of Congress 
prevailed. In the course of a tour from Washington to 
Chicago, in 1866, he made many undignified political 
speeches, which rendered him very unpopular, and in 
the next elections his opponents, the Radicals, obtained 
large and increased majorities. He opposed impartial 
suffrage, recommended repudiation, and co-operated with 
the Democratic party. He pardoned a large number 
of counterfeiters. In August, 1867, he suspended Mr. 
Stanton, secretary of war, and appointed General Grant 
secretary ad interim. The Senate of the United States 
reinstated Mr. Stanton in January, 1868, and President 
Johnson quarrelled with General Grant because he gave 
up the war office to Mr. Stanton. Great excitement was 
produced by the attempt of the President to remove Mr. 
Stanton in February, and he was impeached of high 
crimes and misdemeanours by a large majority of the 
House of Representatives. Among the crimes charged 
against him was the violation of the "Act regulating 
the Tenure of certain Civil Offices," by the removal of 
Mr. Stanton without the consent of the Senate. The 
trial before the Senate bogan about March 13, and ended, 
May 26, in his acquittal. Thirty-five Senators voted that 
he was guilty, and nineteen voted not guilty. Among 
the latter were seven Republicans. Died July 31, 1875. 

See " Life of Andrew Johnson," New York, 1866. 

casi; 9asj; gfard; gas;;G, H, Vi, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Johnson, (BEN.) See JONSON, (BEN.) 

Johnson, (CHAPMAN,) an eminent American lawyer, 
born in Virginia in 1779. He began the practice of law 
at Staunton, and rose to the first rank in his profession. 
He served as aide-de-camp to General James Brecken- 
ridge in the second war with Great Britain. Died in 1849. 

Johii'aon, (CHARLES,) an English dramatic writer, 
born in 1679, is mentioned in Pope's "Dunciad," particu- 
larly on account of his obesity. The comedy of the 
"Country Lasses" was the most popular of his plays. 
Died in 1748. 

Johnson, (CLIFTON,) an American author and 
illustrator, born at Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1865. 
He published "The New England Country," "A Book 
of Country Clouds and Sunshine," "The Farmer's 
Boy," etc., and has illustrated numerous works. 

Johnson, (CUTHBERT W.,) an English writer on agri- 
culture, born at Bromley, Kent, about 1800. He pub- 
lished "The Farmer's Encyclopaedia and Dictionary of 
Rural Affairs," (1842.) Died March 8, 1878. 

Johnson, (EASTMAN,) an American painter of por- 
traits and genre, born at Lovell, Maine, in 1824. Among 
his works are " The Old Kentucky Home," " Savoyard 
Be iv." "The Woodsman," "The Chimney-Corner," and 
other admirable delineations of common life, and 
numerous portraits of prominent statesmen and other 
leading personages. 

Johnson, (EDWARD.) one of the earliest historians of 
New England, born in Kent, England, about 1600. He 
emigrated to Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1630. Died 
in 1672. His valuable "History of New England from 
the English Planting in 1628 till 1652" was published in 
London in 1650, and afterwards in the Massachusetts 
Historical Collections. 

Johnson, (GABRIEL.) See JOHNSTON. 

Johnson, (GKUKGE,) an English physician, born ai 
Goudhurst, Kent, in November, 1818. He was educated 
at King's College, London, and graduated in 1842 at the 
London University. He was professor of materia medica 
in King's College, 1857-63, of the practice of medicine, 
1863-76, and in 1876 took a professorship of clinical 
medicine. He was made physician extraordinary to 
the queen in 1889, and knighted in 1892. Among his 
works are "On Diseases of the Kidney," (1852,) 
"The Laryngoscope," (1864,) " Lectures on Bright's 
Disease," (1873,) etc. Died in 1896. 

Johnson, (HELEN KENDRICK,) an American author, 
daughter of Rev. Dr. A. C. Kendrick, and wife of Ros- 
siter Johnson. She was born at Hamilton, New York, 
January 4, 1843, an ^ was married in 1869. She is the 
author of "The Roddy Books," (3 vols., 1874-76,) and 
" Our Familiar Songs, and those who made them," 
(1881,) and has edited several -.ompilations. 

Johnaon,(IsAAC,) one of the founders of Massachusetts 
colony, came from England with Governor Winthrop in 
1630. He and three others organized, July 30, the church 
of Boston at Charlestown ; but, for the want of good 
water, they removed to Shawmut, now Boston, which 
was settled under Johnson's supervision. Died in 1630. 

Johnson, (JOHN,) a learned nonjuring divine, born 
in Kent, England, in 1662. He was the author of" Holy 
David and his Old English Translation Cleared," written 
in answer to one of the works of Baxter, "The Clergy- 
man's Vade-Mecum," (1708,) and several other works 
Died in 1725. 

See THOMAS BRETT, " Life of John Johnson," 174$. 

Johnson, (Sir JOHN,) a general, son of Sir William, 
noticed below, was born in 1742. He was a royalist in 
the Revolution, instigated the Indians to fight foi the 
king, and conducted several raids from Canada against 
the State of New York. Near the close of last century 
he was appointed Governor of Upper Canada. Died in 
1830. See his " Life," by J. W. de Peyster. 

Johnson, (fosKi'M.) M.D., brother of Judge William 
Johnson, was born in Charleston in 1776. He practised 
as a physician in his native citv, and in 1807 was chosen 
president of the Medical Society of South Carolina, He 
took an active part in the literary and political move- 
ments of Charleston, was long mayor of the city, and a 

prominent leader of the party which opposed nullifica- 
tion in 1832-33. He wrote a valuable work entitled " Tra- 
ditions and Reminiscences of the Revolution," (1851.) 

Johnson, (MANUEL JOHN,) an English astronomer, 
born about 1805. He was astronomer of the Radcliffe 
Observatory of Oxford, and published "Astronomical 
Observations," (13 vols., 1845-55.) Died in 1859. 

Johnson, (MARTIN,) an English landscape-painter 
and seal-engraver of the time of Charles II. Died 
about 1685. 

Johnson, (MAURICE,) an English lawyer and antiqua- 
rian, born in Lincolnshire. He founded an antiquarian 
society at Spalding, and wrote several commentaries. 
Died in 1755. 

Johnson, (REVERDY,) an American lawyer, son of 
Judge Johnson, was born in Annapolis, Maryland, May 
21, 1796. He studied at Saint John's College, waa 
admitted to the bar in 1815, and followed his profession 
with great success in Baltimore. He was also extensively 
engaged in cases before the supreme court of the United 
States. In 1845 ne was elected by the Whigs to the 
United States Senate. This position he resigned in 1849 
to accept the attorney-generalship of the United States, 
tendered him by President Taylor. On the death of Gen- 
eral Taylor, in July, 1850, Mr. Johnson resumed his pro- 
fession in Baltimore. In connection with Thomas Harris, 
he published seven volumes of reports of the Maryland 
court of appeals, (from 1800 to 1826.) He was elected 
a Senator of the United States for six years, (1863-69,) 
and appointed minister to England in June, 1868. He 
negotiated in relation to the Alabama claims a conven- 
tion which the Senate of the United States rejected al- 
most unanimously. He was recalled early in 1869. Died 
February IO, 1876. 

Johnson, (RICHARD,) a commentator and gramma- 
rian, born in England. Among his works are "Noctes 
Nottinghamics," and "Grammatical Commentaries." 
Died in 1721. 

Johnson, (RICHARD MENTOR,) ninth Vice- President 
of the United States, was born near Louisville, Kentucky, 
in 1780. He studied at Transylvania University, and 
practised law with success. Elected a representative 
to Congress in 1807, he zealously supported the admin- 
istration of President Madison, and was regularly re- 
elected for a period of twelve years. On the breaking 
out of the war of 1812, he raised and commanded a 
regiment of mounted riflemen on the Indian frontier. In 
1813 le again took the field, and contributed greatly to 
Harrison's victory of the Thames, (October 5, 1813.) 
The Indian chief Tecumseh, who fell in this battle, is 
generally believed to have been killed by Colonel John- 
son, who was dangerously wounded. In 1819 he visa 
transferred to the Unitea States Senate, of which he 
! was a member for ten years. He was again returned to 
the House of Representatives in 1829, and was regularly 
re-elected till chosen Vice- President in 1837, Van Buren 
being the President. None of the candidates for Vice- 
President having on that occasion received a majority 
of votes in the electoral college, Colonel Johnson was 
elected by the United States Senate. He was again 
the candidate for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket with 
Van Buren in 1840, but was defeated. Died in 1850. 

Johnson, (RICHARD W.,) an American general, bora 
in Kentucky about 1827, graduated at West Point in 
1849. He commanded a division at the battle of Stone 
River, December 31, i862-January 2, 1863, and at Chick 
amauga, Sept. 19 and 20, 1863. He served under Sher- 
man in Georgia in 1864. He was professor of military 
science in the Missouri State University 1868-69 ano 
in the University of Minnesota 1869-71. Died in St. 
Paul, April 21, 1897. 

Johnson, (ROBERT,) an English composer of sacred 
music, who flourished in the middle of the sixteenth cet- 
tury. Little is known of his life beyond the fact that hr 
was an ecclesiastic. There was another Robert Johnson, 
who composed music for the London theatres from abeut 
1610 to 1621. 

Johnson, (RossiTF.R,) an American author, born at 
Rochester, New York, January 27, 1840, graduated at 
Rochester University in 1863. He is the author of 
"Phaeton Rogers," (1881,) "Idler and Poet," poens, 

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, l~mg; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; i, e. ' ", "., y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mSt; not; good; mon; 



(1882,) " History of the War of 1812," (1882,) " His- 
tory of the Old French War," (1883,) etc., editor of 
various books and series and of several cyclopaedias, 
and associate editor of the " Standard Dictionary." 

John'son, (SAMUEL,) an English divine, memorable 
for his undaunted support of the Protestant cause, was 
born in Staffordshire in 1649. Soon after he had taken 
orders he removed to London. He became an earnest 
advocate of the bill of exclusion against James, Duke 
of York, and published a tract entitled "Julian the 
Apostate," (1682,) in which he refuted the arguments in 
favour of passive obedience. For writing this article he 
was tried and imprisoned ; but during his confinement he 
issued several treatises against popery. In 1686 he wrote 
"An Humble and Hearty Address to all the English 
Protestants in the Present Army." For the production 
of this essay he was sentenced to stand three times in 
the pillory, to pay a fine of five hundred marks, and to 
be publicly whipped from Newgate to Tyburn. He bore 
all these sufferings with great firmness. He subsequently 
wrote in favour of the Revolution, and also of William 
of Orange, on whose accession he was rewarded with 
a present of ^1000 and an annuity of ^300. Died in 

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) an eccentric English dramatic 
writer, born in Cheshire about 1705. He wrote, besides 
other comedies, " Hurlothrumbo, or the Supernatural." 
Died in 1773. 

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) one of the most eminent Eng- 
lish writers of the eighteenth century, a son of Michael 
Johnson, a bookseller, was born at Lichfield, September 
18, 1709. He commenced his studies in his native town, 
and subsequently continued them at a school in Stour- 
bridge. In 1728 he entered Pembroke College, Oxford. 
From boyhood he had been afflicted with the scrofula, 
which greatly impaired his eyesight and weakened his 
constitution. To this may be attributed the natural in- 
dolence which he never fully succeeded in overcoming. 
Notwithstanding these obstacles, he acquired such stores 
of knowledge that, when he was examined at Oxford, 
one of the officers pronounced him to be the best pre- 
pared among all those who had entered since his re- 
membrance. Three years afterwards he was under the 
necessity of leaving college, on account of the narrowness 
of his resources. The same year, his father dying under 
pecuniary embarrassments, he obtained employment as 
usher to a school in Market-Bosworth. The duties of 
this office, however, soon became so irksome that he 
threw it up and removed to Birmingham, where he had 
made an engagement to contribute to a newspaper. It 
was there, also, that he produced his first book, an 
abridged translation from the French of " Father Lobos' 
Voyage into Abyssinia," for which he received the small 
compensation ot five guineas. In 1736 he married Mrs. 
Porter, the widow of a mercer. This lady is described 
as being nearly twice his age, and as having vulgar 
manners, a loud voice, and florid complexion. Johnson 
said, however, that it was a love-match on both sides. 

Not long after, he attempted to establish an academy at 
Edial Hall, where he obtained only three pupils, one of 
whom was David Garrick. In 1737 he went to London, 
accompanied by Garrick. In a short time he produced, 
in imitation of the third Satire of Juvenal, a poem on 
London, which attracted great attention. Pope remarked 
"that the author, whoever he was, would not be long 
concealed." It was in the metropolis that Johnson 
formed a friendship for the poet Savage, with whom he 
frequently walked the streets at night because they were 
too poor to procure lodgings. In 1740 he wrote the 
parliamentary speeches for the "Gentleman's Magazine,' 1 
nd in 1744 published the "Life of Richard Savage." 
Three years latei he commenced his English Dictionary. 
In March, 1749, the first number of the " Rambler" was 
issued. Johnson coi.titjued this periodical until his wife's 
death, in 1752, which affected his mind so deeply that he 
suspended many of his literary labours. In 1762 George 
III. granted him a pension of .300 per annum; and 
from that time he was enabled to live in ease and inde- 
pendence. He became a member of the famous literary- 
club to which Burke, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and many 
other celebrated men belonged. He received the degree 

of LL.D. in 1765 from the University of Dublin, but did 
not assume the title until several years later, when the 
same honour was conferred on him by the University of 
Oxford. He was also treated with marked attention by 
the king, to whom he was introduced at the library in 
Buckingham House. In 1773 he made an excursion to 
the Western Islands of Scotland, of which he wrote 
j an account, and two years later visited Paris. In 1781 
he finished the " Lives of the British Poets," the last of 
his literary works. He died in 1784, from the effects 
of dropsy and asthma. 

Johnson's intellect was incisive, comprehensive, and 
profound ; and, when free from the influence of prejudice 
or passion, his judgments are, generally speaking, re- 
markably just. He seemed to seize, instantaneously and 
without effort, the essential features of the subject undei 
discussion, and his decisions are often expressed with a 
clearness and force that make a vivid and indelible im- 
pression upon the minds of his readers. He was pre- 
eminently distinguished for his conversational powers ; 
in society he was original, pointed, logical, and fond of 
argument, in which no one but Burke could successfully 
encounter him. Much of the intolerance and ill temper 
which he too often betrayed on such occasions must be 
ascribed to distressing and deep-rooted bodily infirmi- 
ties, which powerfully reacted upon his mind. If his 
disposition was irritable, his heart was essentially kind 
and generous. Few persons, with means so limited as 
his, ever spent more for charitable or benevolent pur- 
poses. " He loved the poor," says Mrs. Thrale, " as I 
never yet saw any one else love them. . . . He nursed 
whole nests of people in his house, where the lame, the 
blind, the sick, and the sorrowful found a sure retreat." 
Francis Barber, the servant and friend of Dr. Johnson, 
was originally a Jamaica slave. It is related that John- 
son, on making his will, asked his physician what would 
be a sufficient annuity for a faithful servant. Being told 
that fifty pounds a year would be regarded as adequate 
in the case of a nobleman, "Then," he said, "I shall 
be nobilissimus; for I mean to leave Frank seventy pounds 
a year." "That, with all his coarseness and irrita- 
bility," says Macaulay, (who will scarcely be accused of 
any undue partiality to Johnson,) " he was a man of 
sterling benevolence, has long been acknowledged. But 
how gentle and endearing his deportment could be was 
not known till the 'Recollections of Madame D'Arblay' 
were published." Although certainly not wanting in a 
proper respect for dignities, he possessed a true Saxon 
independence of character, of which his well-known letter 
to Lord Chesterfield furnishes a fine illustration. He 
was a sincere and humble believer in the great truths 
of Christianity, which he ably upheld and defended. 

Johnson was great in all the branches of literature to 
which he devoted his attention. Few men have exerted 
so great an influence while living, an influence which 
will probably be felt far into the future. His poems, 
which are chiefly descriptive and satirical, have been 
greatly admired by some of the most eminent critics. 
" I have had," said Sir Walter Scott, " more pleasure 
in reading 'London' and the 'Vanity of Human Wishes' 
than any other poetical composition that I can mention." 
Of the latter Byron remarks, " 'Tis a grand poem, all 
the examples and mode of giving them sublime." His 
romances and plays attracted less attention. He was 
particularly unsuccessful with his female characters. 
Burke aptly remarked that among his dramatis personae 
"all the ladies introduced were Johnsons in petticoats." 
His excellence in literary criticism lies in his strength, 
perspicuity, and originality of thought. His critical 
observations are generally extremely just (as already 
intimated) when not biased by prejudice. He had not, 
however, that nice discrimination or sensibility requisite 
in order to appreciate poetical beauties of a delicate or 
subtle kind. His most important critical works are the 
" Preface and Notes to Shakspeare," and " The Lives 
of the British Poets." His English Dictionary, upon 
hich he bestowed vast labour for several years, is 
probably the most remarkable work of the kind ever 
produced by a single person. His style, precise and 
stately, was much admired and imitated during his 
lifetime ; but at present the prevailing taste in literature 

as k: c as s: g hard: g as;'; G, H, K.,gitttnrjt; N, nasal; R, triiled; s as z; %h as in this. 


Explanations, p. 23.) 



has pronounced it too artificial and elaborate to be ever 
used as a model. 

See BOSWELL, " Life of Johnson ;" review of CROKER'S edition 
of BOSWELL'S "Life of Johnson," in MACAULAY'S "Essays;" 
"Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson," by MADAME Plozzi, ^MRS. THRALE,) 
( y86; ANDERSON, "Life of Johnson," 1795; THOMAS CARLYLE, 
'Heroes and Hero- Worship;" SCOTT'S Miscellaneous Prose 
Works; GARY, "Lives of English Poets from Johnson to Kirke 
White ;'' "Quarterly Review" lor November, 1831, June, 1850, April, 
1858, and January, 1859; "Westminster Review" for October, 1531 ; 
see, also, the excellent and elaborate article in ALLI BONE'S " Dictionary 
of Authors." 

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) D.D., born in Guilford, Con- 
necticut, in 1696, graduated at Yale in 1714. Having 
become an Episcopalian, he took holy orders in England 
in 1722, and on his return settled at Stratford. He was 
chosen president of King's College in 1754. This posi- 
tion he resigned in 1763. Died in 1772. He wrote, 
besides other works, a " System of Morality." 

Johnson, (SAMUEL,) an American author, born at 
Salem, Massachusetts, October 10, 1822. He graduated 
at Harvard College in 1842, and at the Cambridge Di- 
vinity School in 1843. r ' e became a preacher of the 
Free Religious movement. He was one of the compilers 
of two collections of hymns for advanced Unitarian con- 
gregations, and was himself the author of some fine 
\ymns. He published "The Worship of Jesus," (1868,) 
and a laborious work on "Oriental Religions," (1872 
ft sty.) He was an able orator and writer, and a man of 
pure and noble, but somewhat eccentric, life. Died 
February 19, 1882. 

Johnson, (SAMUEL FROST,) an American painter, born 
in New York city, November 9, 1835. He studied art 
in New York, Dusseldorf, (1860,) and Antwerp, (1863.) 
After his return to New York he became a professor in 
the art-schools of the Metropolitan Museum. 

Johnson, (SAMUKL WILLIAM,) an American chemist, 
born at Kingsborough, New York, July 3, 1830, was 
educated in the scientific school at New Haven, and in 
the German universities. In 1856 he became professor 
of agricultural chemistry at Yale College. Among his 
oooks are "Essays on Manures," (1859,) "Peat and its 
Uses," (1866,) " How Crops Grow," (1868,) " How Crops 
Feed," etc. 

Johnson, (THOMAS,) a lieutenant-colonel in the roval 
army, distinguished as a botanist, was born at Selby, 
in Yorkshire. lie received from the University of Ox- 
ford the title of M.I), lie was mortally wounded at 
"he siege of Basinghouse, in 1644. He wrote several 
botanical works. 

Johnson, (THOMAS,) an English scholar, born in 
Oxfordshire, was educated at Cambridge, where in 1692 
he received the degree of M.A. He edited Sophocles, 
(1705,) and other classical works. Died about 1750. 

Johnson, (VIRC.INIA WALKS,) an American novelist, 
born in Brooklyn, New York, December 28, 1849. Her 
principal books are "Keltic Club Series," (1870,) " Joseph 
the Jew," (1873,) " A Sack of Gold," (1874,) "The Cal- 
derwood Secret," "Miss N .nicy's Pilgrimage," "The 
Catskill Fairies," "A Foreign Marriage," "The Nep- 
tune Vase," "The English Daisy Miller," etc. 

Johnson, (WALTER ROGERS,) an American chemist 
and geologist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts, about 
1794. He graduated at Harvard in 1819; and, while 
professor of mechanics, natural philosophy, etc. in the 
Philadelphia High School, he contributed largely by 
lectures and essays towards introducing an improved 
system of common-school education in Pennsylvania. 
He afterwards made important investigations in the 

teology of that State, particularly the coal formations, 
lied lor four years (1839-43) the chair of chemistry in 
the Medical University of Pennsylvania, and in 1844 
published, by order of Congress, his " Report on the 
Different Varieties of Coal." Died in 1852. 

Johnson, (WILLIAM,) judge of the supreme court of 
the United States, was born in Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, in 1771. He was a brother of Joseph, noticed above. 
He graduated at Princeton, with the highest honours of 
his class, in 1790, rose to distinction at the bar of his 
Dative State, and was appointed judge by Jefferson in 
1801. He died, while undergoing a surgical operation, 
in New York, in 1834. He published "The Life and 

Correspondence of Major-General Greene," (2 vols., 

Johnson, (Sir WILLIAM,) a British military officer, 
born about 1715, was employed in North America, and 
had great influence over the Indians. He commanded 
an expedition sent against Crown Point in 1755, and 
defeated the French and their Indian allies. He wrote 
a short work " On the Customs and Languages of the 
American Indians." Died in New York in 1774. 

See "Life and Times of Sir W.Johnson," by W. L. STONE, :86j. 

Johnson, (WILLIAM B.,) a Baptist minister, born near 
Charleston, South Carolina, in 1782. He presided over 
the Baptist Convention of South Caiolina for twenty-five 
years or more. He was the author of several religious 
works. Died in 1862. 

Johnson, (WILLIAM SAMUEL,) F.R.S., an eloquent 
American lawyer and scholar, born at Stratford, Con- 
necticut, in 1727, graduated at Yale in 1744. Having 
been sent as a colonial agent to England in 1766, he 
became an acquaintance of the celebrated Dr. Johnson, 
with whom he corresponded for many years. He was 
elected to Congress in 1785, was a member of the con- 
vention which formed the Federal Constitution in 1787, 
and was elected a United States Senator for Connecticut 
in 1789. He was president of Columbia College, New 
York, from 1791 until 1800. Died in 1819. 

Johns'ton, (ALBERT SYDNEY,) an eminent American 
general, born in Mason county, Kentucky, in 1803, 
graduated at West Point in 1826. Having resigned his 
commission in 1834, he enlisted as a private soldier in 
the army of Texas in 1836. He soon became commander- 
in-chief, in place of F. Houston, with whom he fought 
a duel about 1837. He was secretary of war of the 
republic of Texas, 1838-40, and served as colonel of 
the army of the United States in the Mexican war, 
(1846-47.) In 1849 he was appointed paymaster of the 
army of the United States. Having been raised to the 
rank of colonel, he commanded the expedition sent to 
Utah against the Mormons in 1857. In 1860 he took 
command of the department of the Pacific. He offered 
his services to the secessionists in 1861, and was ap- 
pointed commander of the department of Kentucky 
and Tennessee. He occupied a fortified position at 
Bowling Green in the autumn of 1861. The capture 
of Fort Donelson, February 16, 1862, having rendered 
this position untenable, he moved hastily southward 
into Tennessee, and formed a junction with the army 
of General Beauregard at Corinth. About six weeks 
were spent in this disastrous retreat. He collected a 
force of about 50,000 men at Corinth, and attacked the 
army of General Grant at Shiloh on the 6th of April, 
1862. He was killed about two P.M. on the first day 
of this battle, by a ball, which cut an artery of his leg. 
"A. S. Johnston," says Mr. Greeley, "was probably 
the ablest commander at any time engaged in the rebel 
service." ("American Conflict.") 

See Life of A. S. Johnston in "Southern Generals," (anony- 
mous.) 1865; TENNEY, "Military and Naval History of the Rebel- 
lion," 1865. 

Johns'ton, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish painter, born in 
Edinburgh in 1816. His works mostly represent scenes 
of Scottish life, or Scottish history. Died in 1891. 

Johnston, (ALEXANDER,) an American publicist, born 
at Brooklyn, New York, April 29, 1849. He graduated 
at Rutgers College in 1870, was admitted to the bar in 
1876, and in 1883 was appointed professor of juris- 
prudence and political economy in Princeton College. 
Among his works are a " History of American Politics," 
(1879,) "The Genesis of a New England State: Con- 
necticut," (1883,) and a small "History of the United 
Stales," (1884.) Died J'v 10. 


Johnston, (ALEXANDER KEITH,) an eminent geog- 
rapher, was born at Kirkhill, in Scotland, in 1804. In 
order to be thoroughly informed upon geography, he 
made himself acquainted with the French, Spanish, 
Italian, and German languages. His first important 
work, the "National Atlas," was issued in 1843. In 
1848 he published a valuable "Physical Atlas," which 
greatly extended the celebrity of its author. lie was 
elected a member of the Geographical Societies of Ber- 
lin and Paris, of the Geological Society of London, and 

, e. I, o, u, y, la'if: a. e, o. same, iess prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u,y,sA0rt;z,e, \,<),06scurs;{%.r, fill, fit; met; not; good; moor; 




the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Of the other worfe 
of Mr. Johnston may be mentioned "A Dictionary of 
Geography," (1850,) and an "Atlas of the Historical 
Geography of Europe." He died July 9, 1871. 
See " Blackwood's Magazine" for April, 1849. 

Johnston, (Dr. ARTHUR,) a Scottish physician and 
poet, eminent for his classical learning, was born in Aber- 
deenshire in 1587. He pursued his studies mostly on 
the continent, and in 1610 received the degree of M.D. 
at Padua. He afterwards resided at Pari= several years, 
and on his return to England, in 1632, was appointed 
physician-in-ordinary to Charles I. Died in 1641. He 
contributed to Sir John Scott's collection of Latin 
poems, and composed, in Latin, "Poetical Paraphrases 
of the Psalms of David," (1637.) "I am inclined to 
think," says Hallam, "that Johnston's Psalms do not 
fall far short of those of Buchanan, either in elegance 
of style or in correctness of Latinity." 

Johnston, (GEORGE,) a distinguished naturalist, was 
born at Simprin in 1789, and graduated as a physician at 
the University of Edinburgh in 1819. Among his inter- 
esting and valuable contributions to science may be men- 
tioned " History of British Zoophytes," (1838,) " History 
of British Sponges and Lithophytes," (1842,) papers on 
" British and Irish Annelides," a work on Conchology, 
(1850,) and "Botany of the Eastern Borders," (1854.) 
He practised medicine at Berwick-on-Tweed for many 
years. Died in 1855. 

Johnston, (Sir HENRY HAMILTON,) an English 
traveller, born near London in 1858. His travels be- 
gan in 1879, and embraced North Africa, Portuguese 
West Africa, the Congo region, Mount Kilimanjaro, 
Lakes Nyassa and Tanganyika. He held several 
consulships in Africa, and in 1891 was made consul- 
general for British Central Africa. He wrote several 
books descriptive of his travels. 

Johnston, (JAMES F. W.,) a noted agricultural chem- 
ist, was born at Paisley, in Scotland, about 1796. He 
studied in Sweden, under Berzelius. In 1833 he was 
appointed professor of chemistry in the University of 
Durham. He also visited America, where he became 
distinguished as an agricultural chemist. Among his 
works are the " Elements of Agricultural Chemistry and 
Geology," (1842,) " Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry 
and Geology," (1844,) a work which has been translated 
into nearly every European language, "Contributions 
to Scientific Agriculture," (1849,) "Notes on North 
America," (1851,) and " Chemistry of Common Life," 
(2 vols., 1854-55.) Died in 1855. 

Johnston, (JoHN,) an eminent physician and natural 
philosopher, born in Poland in 1603. He graduated at 
the Universities of Leyden and Cambridge. He wrote, 
besides other works, in Latin, the " Wonders of Nature, 
divided into Ten Classes," which was a natural history 
of beasts, birds, fishes, and insects. Died in 1675. 

Johnston, (JOHN,) LL.D., an American scientist, 
born at Bristol, Maine, August 23, 1806. He graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1832, and was professor of natural 
science in Wesleyan University, 1837-79. He wrote a 

tific papers. Died at Clifton, New York, December 2 

Johnston, (JOSEPH EGGLESTON,) an able American 
general, born in Prince Edward county, Va., February 3, 
1807. His mother, whose maiden name was Wood, was 
a niece of Patrick Henry. He graduated at West Point 
in 1829, gained the rank of captain in 1846, and served 
with distinction in the Mexican war, 1846-47. In June, 
1860, he was appointed quartermaster-general, with the 
rank of brigadier-general. He resigned his commission 
in April, 1861, and was immediately appointed a major- 
general, or gexieral, by Jefferson Davis. He took com- 
mand of a force at Harper's Ferry in May, 1861, and was 
opposed in that vicinity by General Patterson. Having 
eluded Patterson, he moved his army rapidly to Ma- 
nassas, and effected a junction with the army of Beau- 
regard on the 2oth or 2ist of July. General Johnston 
was superior in rank to Beauregard, but he waived his 

claim to precedence in the battle of Bull Run, July 21. 
He remained inactive at Manassas Junction during the 
autumn of 1861 and the ensuing winter. About the 8th 
of March, 1862, he changed his base and retired behind 
the Rapidan. He soon moved his army to the peninsula 
to oppose McClellan, and, having been repulsed at Wil- 
liamsburg, May 5, retreated towards Richmond. On 
the 3 1st of May he attacked a part of the Union army at 
Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines. In this battle he received 
a severe wound, which disabled him for several months. 
In November, 1862, he was assigned to the command of 
a department comprising Tennessee, Alabama, and Mis- 
sissippi. He reported in April, 1863, that he was still 
unfit for active service in the field. After General Grant 
approached Vicksburg from the south, General Johnston 
moved a small army to relieve that place, and reached 
Jackson on the I3th of May. He was defeated on the 
I4th, abandoned Jackson, and retreated to Canton. On 
the 2gth of May he wrote to General Pemberton, "I am 
too weak to save Vicksburg. Can do no more than 
attempt to save you and your garrison." In December 
1863, he took command in person of the army which had 
recently been defeated by General Grant near Chatta- 
nooga, and which was required to oppose the advance 
of General Sherman towards Atlanta. He began this 
campaign with about 55,000 men, occupying a strong 
ind fortified position at Dalton, Georgia. This position 
naving been turned by the Union army, Johnston fell 
back to Resaca, where he was attacked on the I5th of 
May. After a severe battle, he retreated in the ensuing 
night, closely pursued, and reached Cassville, near the 
Etowah River, on the igth. Having crossed the Etowah 
under cover of the night, General Johnston made another 
stand in the strong position of Allatoona Pass, to dis- 
lodge him from which General Sherman ordered a flank 
movement to Dallas. General Johnston attacked the 
Federals at Dallas on the 28th of May, was repulsed, 
and on the 4th of June retreated to Kenesaw Mountain. 
On the 27th of June, General Sherman made an unsuc- 
cessful assault on the works at Kenesaw, but he resorted 
again to a flank movement, which compelled General 
Johnston to abandon Kenesaw on the 2d or 3d of July, 
and to retreat across the Chattahoochee. He was re- 
moved from the command on the i8th of July, 1864. 
Before this date he had attained the rank of general, 
the highest in the service. He obtained command of 
an army in South Carolina about February, 1865, and 
on the i8th of March attacked the advance of General 
Sherman's army at Bentonville, North Carolina. He 
retreated to Smithfield on the 2ist of March, and 
surrendered his army to General Sherman on the 26th 
of April, 1865, on the same terms as were granted to 
General Lee. He was elected to Congress in 1877, 
and was made a commissioner of railroads. Died 
March 21, 1891. 

Johnston, (KEITH,) a Scottish geographer, a son of 
A. K. Johnston, was born in Edinburgh, November 24, 
1844. He travelled in Paraguay, published various maps 
and geographical papers, edited and rewrote a work on 
"Africa," (1878,) and one on general geography. In 
1879 he started on an expedition from the east coast of 
Africa into the interior, but died at Berobero, June 28, 

Johnston, (RICHARD MALCOLM,) an American 
author, born at Powelton, Georgia, in 1822. He was 
professor of literature in the University of Georgia 
1857-61, served in the Confederate army in the civil 
war, and afterwards engaged in literary work. He 
had much merit as a humourist and as a delineator of 
Southern life. Among his works are "Georgia 
Sketches," (1864,) "Two Gray Tourists," (1885,) 
" Studies: Literary and Social," (1891,) "Old Times 
in Middle Georgia," (1897,) " Pearse Amerson's 
Will," (1898.) Died September 23, 1898. 

Johnston, CROEERT,) a Scottish historical writer, 
was the author of a " History of his Own Times," 
(1642, in Latin.) Died about 1636. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scots- 

/ 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; ^trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Johnstone, (BRYCE,) an eminent Scottish divine, born 
in Dumfriesshire in 1747. He studied at the University 
of Edinburgh, which in 1786 unanimously conferred upon 
him the degree of D.D. Among his works may be men- 
tioned " Commentary on the Revelation of Saint John 
the Divine," (1794,) "Essay on the Influence of Religion 
on Civil Society and Civil Government," and a treatise 
on agriculture. Died in 1805. 

Johnstone, Johnson, or Johnston, (CHARLES,) an 
author, born in Ireland about 1720, was educated for the 
bar. The most important of his productions was a po- 
litical romance, entitled "Chrysal, or the Adventures of 
a Guinea," (1760,) which met with a great sale. Besides 
this, he wrote "The Reverie, or a Flight to the Paradise 
of Fools," (1 762,) "Arsaces, Prince of Betlis," and other 
works. Died in Calcutta in 1800. 

See SIR WALTER SCOTT'S Miscellaneous Prose Works. 

Johnstone, (CHRISTIAN ISOBEL,) a Scottish author- 
ess, born in Fifeshire in 1781. Her second husband was 
a Mr. Johnstone, whom she married in 1812. Her prin- 
cipal works are the novels "Clan Albyn" (1815) and 
" Elizabeth de Bruce," (1827.) She also wrote " Diver- 
sions of Holycott," "Nights of the Round Table," 
many tales. Died in 1857. 

Johiistone, (GEORGE,) a diplomatist and post-capta 
in the royal navy, the son of a Scottish baronet. In 17* 
he was made Governor of West Florida. During the 
American Revolution he was appointed (in 1778) one of 
the commissioners sent with Lord Carlisle to the United 
States to treat with Congress. Died in 1 787. 

Johnstone, (JAMES,) a distinguished Scottish physi- 
cian, born at Annan in 1730, was educated at Edinburgh 
and Paris. He was very successful in malignant fevers. 

several hundred armed men from among his tenants and 
accompanied Louis IX. in his first crusade to the Holy 
Land. He soon became a great favourite with this 
monarch. Joinville distinguished himself for bravery at 
the capture of Damietta in Egypt, and was subsequently 
with Louis, made prisoner at Mansoorah. He returned 
to France with the king in 1254. He wrote a very in- 
teresting work entitled "History of Saint Louis IX., 
King of France, by Jehan Sire de Joinville." "In this 
history," says Ambrose Firmin Didot, "which is one of 
the most precious monuments of ancient or modern 
times, the Christian, the man of the world, the friend of 
the king, and the naif historian, display themselves with 
such naturalness, simplicity, and candour that the readei 
can penetrate the inner heart of the author by the simple 
recital which he has given us. ... His natural and 
easy style has all the charm of conversation." ("Nou- 
velle Biographic Gene'rale.") He is supposed to have 
died about 1317. 

See F. FRRIEL, " Notice sur Jean de Joinville," 1853 : CHEZJBAN, 
Notice historique sur Sire de Joinville," 1853 : SAINT 
Causeries du Lundi." 


Notice historique sur Sire de Joinville," 1853: 
" Causeries du Lundi." 
Jokai, (MAURICE, or MAURUS,) (in Hungarian, J6KAI 

MOR, yo'koi moR,) a very eminent Hungarian novelist 
and dramatist, born at Comorn, February 19, 1825. He 
for many years was prominent in political journalism, and 
' is often been elected to public office. In the best of 
s numerous works the style is brilliant, and many have 
translated into other languages. Among his best 
are"The Hungarian Nabob,""The White Rose." 
and ' % The New Landlord." A jubilee edition in one 
hundred volumes was published in 1894. 
Joliet, zhole-A', (Louis,) a French traveller, was one 
the first white men that explored the Mississippi 

. w men 

on which he wrote a treatise. He. s also said to have been the > d Quebec before 

the first to recommend the use of mineral acids in those * 

.!. ..i,,^...-...- ALEXANDRINE,) 

See CHAMBERS," Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Si poetess, born at Bar-sur-Aube in 1756; died in 1830. 

Johnstone, (ToHN.) son of the preceding, was born g),e wro t c "New Fables in Verse," etc. 
m 1768, and educated at Oxford. He was equally j ou 'vet, de, deh zho'le'vj', (JEAN BAPTISTE MOYSE,) 
celebrated as a skilful physician and an accomplished c OUNTl a French advocate, born in 1754, was elected 
scholar. He wrote the "Life of Dr. Parr," (1828,) with m ,yg, to the Legislative Assembly, in which he boldly 

denounced the Jacobins. On the accession of Napoleon 
tie was created councillor of state. Died in 1818. He 
wrote various works on political economy. 

Jollivet, zho'le'vi', (ADOLPHE,) a French politician, 
oom in 1799, wrote many works against the abolition of 
slavery. He was killed in Paris during the revolution 
of February, 1848. 

Jollivet, (PIERRE JULES,) a French painter of history, 
born in Paris in 1803, gained a medal of the first class 
in 1835. Died September 7, 1871. 

Jollois, zhoHwa', (JEAN BAPTISTE PROSPER,) a French 
antiquary and engineer, born in Burgundy in 1776. He 
was chief engineer of the department of Seine, (Paris.) 
He published many works on French antiquities. Died 

whom he was very intimate ; also several medical works. 
He practised in Birmingham about forty years. Died 
in 1836. 

See a notice of J. Johnstone in the "Gentleman's Magazine" for 
May, 1837. 

Johnatone, (JOHN HENRY,) a celebrated comic actor 
and vocalist, born in Ireland in 1750; died in 1828. 

Johnstone, jons'tpn, de, CHEVALIER, a native of 
Edinburgh, entered in 1745 the army of the Pretender, to 
whom he soon became aide-de-camp. He served at the 
battle of Prestonpans and in subsequent engagements. 
After the battle of Culloden he escaped to Paris, and re- 
ceived an appointment in the French army. He wrote, 
in French, " Memoirs of the Rebellion in 1745 and 1746," 
which was translated and published in London in 1820. 
Died in France at an advanced age. 

Joinville, zhwin'vel', (EnMOND,) a French landscape- 
painter, born in Paris in 1801 ; died in 1849. 

Joinville, de, deh join'vi! or zlnvaN'vel', (FRANC.OIS 
PRINCE, the third son of King Louis Philippe, was born 
in 1818. He served in the navy, and obtained the rank 
of captain for his conduct at the attack on Vera Cruz in 
1838. In 1840 he was sent to Saint Helena to bring the 
remains of Napoleon to France. He commanded the 
naval division which bombarded Tangier in 1844, and gave 
an impulse to the construction of steam ships of war by 
his "Note sur les Forces navales de la France," (1844.) 
He served for a time on McClellan's staff during the 
civil war. In 1886 he was expelled from France, as a 
member of the former royal house. Died in 1900. 

Joinville, de, (JEAN or JEHAN,) SIRE, a French noble- 
man and chronicler of high reputation, born in Cham- 
pagne in 1224. He grew up at the court of Thibaut, King 
of Navarre and Count of Champagne, and in 1248 raised 

in 1842. 


1 Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvragea de J. 

P. Jollois," 1846; "Nouvelle Biographic Generate." 

Joly, zho'le', (BfeMGNE,) a French religious writer, 
born at Dijon in 1644, wrote a number of devotional 
works. Died in 1694. 

Joly, (CLAUDE,) a French writer and ecclesiastic, born 
in Paris in 1607, wrote "A Collection of True Maxims 
for the Education of a King, against the Pernicious 
Policy of Cardinal Mazarin," (1652.) a copy of which 
was burnt by the common executioner. lie became a 
canon of the Church of Paris in 1631. Died in 1700. 

See MORBRI, " Dictionnaire Historique." 

Joly, (CLAUDE,) a French preacher, born in Lorraine 
in 1610, became Bishop of Agen, and left several volumes 
of sermons, (1692-94.) Died in 1678. 

Joly or Jolly, zho'le', (FRANCOIS ANTOINE,) a French 
comic poet, born in Paris in 1662. He wrote several 
comedies, and published accurate editions of Moliere 
(6 vols., 1734) and Corneille, (5 vols.) Died in 1753. 

Joly, (GUI,) a French writer, a nephew of Claude Joly, 

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n6t; good; moon; 




noticed above, became confidential secretary to Cardina 
de Retz. He is known as the author of the historica. 
"Memoirs" from 164810 1665, (1718.) An English trans- 
lation of this work was published in 1755. r '' s " Memoirs" 
are designed to explain and complete those of De Retz. 

Joly, (JusEPH ROMAIN,) a French monk and writer, 
born in 1715 ; died in 1805. 

Joly, (MARC ANTOINE,) a French dramatist, born in 
1672, wrote "The School of Lovers," and "The Jealous 
Wife." Died in 1753. 

Joly or Jolly, (MARIE ELISABETH,) a noted French 
actress, born at Versailles in 1761. In 1793 she was 
imprisoned by the revolutionists, but regained her free- 
dom on condition that she should perform at the theatre 
of the Republic. Died in 1798. 

Joly, (PHILIPPE Louis,) a learned French ecclesiastic 
and philologist, born at Dijon about 1712. Among his 
works are " Critical Remarks on the Dictionary of Bayle," 
(1748,) and a " Treatise on French Versification," (1751.) 
Died in 1782. 

See QuiRARD, "La France LitteVaire. " 

Joly de B6vy, zho'le' deh bi've', (Louis PHILIPPE 
JOSEPH,) a French judge and religious writer, born at 
Dijon in 1736; died in 1822. 

Joly-Clerc, zho'le' klaiR, (NICOLAS,) a French natu- 
ralist, wrote a number of works on botany. Died in 1817. 

Joly de Fleury, zho'le' deh fluh're', (GUILLAUME 
FRANCOIS,) a learned and eloquent French advocate and 
magistrate, was born in Paris in 1675. For more than 
twenty years he was attorney-general in the Parliament of 
Paris. He wrote several treatises on law. Died in 1756. 

Joly de Fleury, (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a French financier, 
a son of the preceding, was born in 1718. He succeeded 
Necker as minister of finances in 1781, and resigned in 

French army, became aide-de-camp to Ney about 1804, 
and presented to Bonaparte on the field of Austerlitz 
his "Treatise on the Grand Operations of War." A 
few days after this event he was appointed chief of the 
staff of Ney. He received the title of baron for his 
conduct at Jena in 1806, and was employed in Spain in 
1808. In 1811 he became a general of brigade, and in 
1812 French governor of Wilna. He contributed greatly 


to the victory of Bautzen in 1813. His promotion having 
been obstructed by the enmity of Berliner, he quitted 
the French service in 1813, and entered that of Russia, 
with the rank of lieutenant-general, and became aide-de- 
camp to the emperor Alexander. Died about April i, 
1869. Among his chief works are "Traite des grandes 
Operations militaires, ou Histoire critique et militaire des 
Guerresde Frederic II compare'es a celles de la Revolu- 
tion," (5 vols., 1805,) a "Critical and Military History of 
the Campaigns of the Revolution from 1792 to iSoi," 
(15 vols., 1819-24,) and " Precis de 1'Art de la Guerre," 
(5th ed., 2 vols., 1838.) The works of Jomini are among 
the best that have ever been written on the art of war. 

See PASCAL, "Observations sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de Baron 
Jomini:" QU^RARD, "La France LiueVaire;" " Nouvelle Biogra- 
Dhie Gene>ale ;" "Monthly Review," vol. id., lS*>, (Appendix.) 

Jon Areson. See ARESON, (JoN.) 

Jon, du, (FRANCIS.) See JUNIUS. 

Jonae, yo'na, (PETER,) Bishop of Strengnas, in Swe- 
den, was professor of theology at Upsal when John III. 
attempted to re-establish the Catholic religion. Jonx 
boldly opposed this proceeding. Died in 1607. 

Jon3.ll " r -T/-v'T5a I I I . 1 , T1H*. (~* _ 'I , ....t 


subject of the book bearing his name, is supposed to 

have lived under the reign of Jeroboam II., about 800 

or Jo'nas, |Heb. HJV ; Gr. 'lovuf; Lat 
one of the minor Hebrew prophets, and the 

1783. Died in 1802. B.C. ; but some place him under that of Jehu. 

Joly de Fleury, (JEAN Omer o'maiR',) a French See II. Kings xiv. 15; Matthew xii. 39, 41 ; Luke xi. 29, 33. 
priest, nephew of Guillaume